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Full text of "Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory- University of Toronto"

department of^Astronomy 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 




Kepler 
1609 



HANDBOUND 
AT THE 



UNIVERSITY OF 
TORONTO PRESS 



Publications of 
THE DAVID DUN LAP OBSERVATORY 

University of Toronto 



VOLUME I 



RICHMOND HILL, ONTARIO, CANADA 



3^13 



Printed for 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

by 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 






FEB 1 7 19S5 fl 




9 6 228 6 






TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Xo. Pag 

1. Description of the Buildings and Equipmenl 

R. K. Young 1 

2. The Lighl Curves of Two Variable Stars in the Globular 

( lusters NG( ' 6218 and NG< ' 625 I Helen B. Sawyer 57 

3. The Radial Velocities of 500 Stars R. K. Young 69 

4. A Catalogue ol II Hi Variable Stars in Globular Star 

("lusters Helen B. Sawyer 12."> 

•"). Twelve New Variable Stars in the Globular Clusters 

NGC 6205, \( '.( 6366 and NG< " (i77<) Helen B. Sawyer 1 7«) 

6. The Orbil of the Spectroscopic Binary H.I). L826 

G. II. Tidy 189 

7. The Orbil of the Spectroscopic Binary II. D. 9312 

John F. Heart/ 1!)4 

8. The Orbit of the Spectroscopic Binary H.I). 22124 

Ruth J. Northcott 197 
!). The Spectrum and the Velocity Variation of ILL). 142920 

John F. Heard 1!>H 

10. The Spectra of Peculiar Strontium Stars .1. F. Hunker 209 

11. The Lighl Curves of Four Variable Stars in the Hercules 

Cluster Messier 13 Helen B. Sawyer 229 

12. Variable Stars m the Globular Cluster Messier 80 

Helen B. Sawyer 241 

13. The Radial Velocities of 374 Stars R. K. Young 2 1'.' 
I I. New Variable Stars in Four Globular Clusters in 

Ophiuchus Helen B. s . • 

1.1. Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster Messier 22 

Helen B. Sawyei 295 

16. Ili«' Radial Velocities oi 681 Mars R. K . Young 309 

17. Light ( !urves of the Variable Stars in the Globular ( 'luster 

NGC 5466 Helen B. Sawyer 341 

is. Periods ol Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster 

NG( 5053 Helen B. s 355 

19. The Orbits of the Spectroscopic Binaries III' 99967, 
III) 181 I I I. 114). 209813 and III > 213389 

Ruth ./. Northcott 367 
2n. \ Bibliography ol Individual Globular Clusters 

Helen B. Sawyei -">si 



w 



No. Page 

21. Spurious Periods in Spectroscopic Binaries, II 

R. W. Tanner 171 

22. The Orbits of Three Spectroscopic Binaries, H.D. 2019, 

H.D. L0588 and H.D. 1 I 

John F. Heard and Ruth J. Northcott IS.") 

23. The Orbits of Four Spectroscopic Binaries, H.D. 3264, 

H.D. 158013, H.D. 170829 and H.D. 201032 

D. K. Norris, W. T. Sharp and R. W. Tanner 197 

24. Periods of Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster Messier 9 

Helen B. Sawyer 7)09 
27). The Radial Velocities and Spectral Features of Twenty- 
one Be Stars with Large Rotational reri 

John F. Heard 7,21 
26. The Orbits of Three Spectroscopic Binaries. H.D. L64898, 
H.D. 208835 and H.D. 40372 
Ruth J. Northcott, T. A. Matthews and Paul-H. Nadeau 529 



DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDINGS AXD EQUIPMENT 

By R. K. Yoi ng 

Introductk >\ 

THE David Dunlap Observatory, the gift of Mrs. Jessie Donalda 
Dunlap to the University of Toronto as a memorial to her 
husband, was formally opened on May 31, 1935. ' 

The progress of astronomy as a department ol the I Diversity 
during the past twenty-five years has been due to the continued 
efforts of Dr. C. A. Chant to emphasize its importance as a cultural 
subject in education and as a training for the advanced student. 
It was a part of his plan, even from a very early date, that the 
University should have an observatory and contribute to the 
knowledge of the subject, but it was hardly expected that the 
money for its erection would be obtained from the provincial grant 
to the University. In an institution striving to meet the need> of 
the Province and expanding rapidly, chief emphasis in the field of 
science is placed on subjects more immediately utilitarian. Not 
until these had been taken care of would the claims of a pure science 
like asl ronomy be considered. 

The interest in the subject in recent years has been much 
increased by the spectacular discoveries, which have greatly 
extended our knowledge of the universe, and which have appealed 
to the imagination. Astronomy ewe- much to the greal bod) ol 
amateurs whose interesl has strengthened the desire that a large 
telescope mighl be situated within the Province. 1 >avid Alexander 
Dunlap was one of these, lie was a member ol the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society of Canada and attended the meetings of the 
Toronto centre. Dr. Chant in all his lectures before the Society 
and throughout the country emphasized the observational side of 
astronomy and the need of an observatory, h was his hope that 
aid in this projecl would be received from Mr. Dunlap, but the 
latter's death in 1924 prevented this. When, some time later. 
Professor Chant suggested to Mrs. Dunlap thai she should provide 



[ournal ol the Royal Astronomical Societj ol Canada, September, 1935. 

[3] 



4 Publications of the David Dutilap Observatory 

the observatory as a memorial to her husband, the suggestion met 
with a sympathetic response. Indeed, Mrs. Dunlap shared her 
husband's interest in astronomy. 

General Plans and Location 

In 1 < ) 2 7 Mrs. Dunlap expressed her willingness to provide the 
observatory but it was not until June of lil'JS that we were in a 
position to call for estimates. The choice of instruments was an 
important point to decide. From the first . it was felt that a large 
reflector would be the most useful and economical instrument to 
push research in stellar astronomy, partly because the reflector is. 
size for size, cheaper than a refractor, but largely also because the 
writer's experience had been mostly in astronomical spectroscopy 
and the great light-gathering power of the reflector makes it a very 
suitable instrument in this field of astronomy. Former experience 
al the observatory at ( )ttaw a as well as tests w ith -mailer telescopes 
made us aware that we could not expect the besl seeing conditions 
and it was necessary to plan programmes of work which did not 
require the finest definition. All these considerations led us to 
adopt the large reflector as a choice for the main instrument of 
research. Two buildings were planned: one, a steel structure to 
house the large telescope; the other, an administration building for 
office work and the reduction of observations. There was no haste 
about the construction of the latter building since it offered no 
particular difficulties, but the telescope was ordered as soon as 
possible because the time required for its construction was some- 
what uncertain, this being especially true of the large mirror which 
forms the main optical part of the large telescope. 

The location of the observatory was an important point to 
decide. It was almost essential from the standpoint of economy 
that it be located near Toronto. There can be no doubt that the 
output of the telescope would be much larger if it were placed 
nearer the equator. However, this would require a larger staff to 
carry on the courses of instruction at the University, and the 
research work at the observatory as well. Dr. Chant and the 
writer spent many afternoons inspecting maps of the neighbourhood 
of Toronto and visiting possible sites. It was not thought advisable 
to go more than twenty-five miles away from the city, and locations 
north or north-west were much preferable to those east of the city. 



Description of the Buildings and Equipment 5 

Most of our clear weather comes with west or north-west winds, 
and at these times the smoke of the city is blown east, or south -■ 
A considerable amount of experimenting was carried on to 
determine the transparency of the air and the sky-illumination 
from the city lights, at thirty, fifteen, and four miles from the city. 
In this regard the stations thirty and fifteen miles away proved 
far superior to that near the city, especially in the amount of sky- 
illumination. The main between thirty and fifteen miles did not 
seem to warrant placing the observatory at the more distant 
station. The site finally chosen is about twelve miles north of the 
city limits and is situated on a rise of ground about one hundred 
feet above the surrounding' country which slopes gently away on 
all side- giving a good view. (Plate I). The elevation is eight 
hundred feet above sea-level. At present the land around the 
observatory is quite open, with a few trees and shrubs scattered 
here and there. From an astronomical point of view, it would be 
better if the land were more heavily wooded. It is hoped to be 
able to plant trees and shrubs on the one hundred and seventy-nine 
acres in the middle of which the observatory is situated. The 
approximate position of the observatory as taken from large scale 
maps, one mile to the inch. is. longitude 5 h 17' : 41 .3 W., latitude 
13 51' 46' X. 

Aw ARDING THE ( '« >\ I RA< I - 

Comparatively lew firms possess machinery large enough to 
handle the massive castings of a greal tel< -cope, and there are still 
fewer with experience in telescope building. The tentative speci- 
fications were senl to four linns: Carl Zeiss in Germany; Sir 
Howard Grubb, Parsons & Company in England; Warner & 
Swasey Company of Cleveland; and J. \Y. Fecker ol Pittsburgh. 
The Warner & Swasey Company did not submit a tender, and the 
design of the Carl Zeiss firm was considered less satisfactory than 
the one selected. There was nol much difference in the design or 
price of the other two, but after due consideration it was decided to 
accepl the tender of the English company. This was a very 
fortunate choice because the decrease in the pound sterling and 
advance in the American dollar made the cosl much less than it 
would have been had the contracl been lei in the I nited States. 
It was very satisfactory to be able to lei the contracl to a firm 
thai could contract for the complete structure, dome, telescope 



Plate II 




Dome from the south-west 



Description of the Buildings and Equipment 7 

and optical parts, for this ensured the finished equipment would 
assemble without difficulty and it also saved a tremendous amount 
of time in correspondence and travel. In the description of the 
telescope and building which follow, the aim has been to describe 
the various points of construction, so that prospective observatories 
may obtain some ideas that maybe of service in their own problems. 

The Circular Steel Bin. dim. and Domi 

The building to house the telescope (Plate II) was ordered in 
November, 1931, and it was received in Toronto on July 31, L933. 
The foundation for the building and the cement piers had pre- 
viously been constructed and were in readiness to receive the 
building. 

The foundation ol the walls of the building is of cement and is 
extended below frost level. Preliminary borings were made before 
the location was selected to determine the nature of the -round 
under the piers. It is hard clay. The piers (Plate III (a go 
down to a depth of twenty-five feet and are hollow, with walls 
eighteen inches thick, heavily reinforced with steel. The hollow 
pier is more satisfactory than a solid one. They are amply strong 
and much lighter, with a correspondingly less tendency t<> subside. 
The space inside is very convenient tor use. Below -round there 
are four rooms, six feet by eighl feet, two in each pier, and above 
ground there are three more rooms, one in the south pier and two 
in the north. One of these, the upper room in the north pier, is 
very convenient as a dark room for loading and unloading plate 
holder-. Another i- utilized .i- a bat tery room for the low-voll 
system about the telescope. So far the other rooms have not I 
used. They will be very useful, especially the underground rooms 
for mounting instruments that require stability. We have experi- 
enced no difficulty from moisture in these rooms. 

The circular building is sixty feel in outside diameter, sheathed 
inside and oul with steel sheeting carried 1 »> twenty-four stanchions 
which bear upon their tops a strong annular girder. The entrance 
is on the ground level on the south side through a small porch with 
two pairs ol steel dooi>. This gives access to the lower floor. 
The lower story is thirteen feel high and on this floor is placed a 
motor generator sel for supplying direi I current to all the motors 
ol the telescope, the dome turning geai and the electric control 



Plate III— (a. 1) ) 






(a) The cement piers and base for 61 -ft. dome 

(b) Mirror on edge, ready for testing 



Description of the Buildings and Equipment 9 

panels and fuse boards, and a part is enclosed as a silvering room. 
A steel stairway leads to the upper floor which is of reinforced 
concrete, supported in steel I-beams. It has stood three winters 
without showing any tendency to develop cracks due to extremes 
of temperature. A doorway on this floor leads outside to the top 
of the porch over the entrance and thence a short stairway gives 
access to a gallery running around the outside of the building at a 
height of twenty-three feet above the -round level. 

The hemispherical dome is sixty-one feet in outside and fifty- 
seven feet in inside diameter, the walls being double. The inside 
and outside covering are of "agasote", a hard paper product. The 
outside cover is one-half inch thick and the inside covering one- 
quarter inch. In addition, the outside has a sheeting of copper. 
The opening in the dome is fifteen feet wide and extends from the 
horizontal to seven feet beyond the zenith. It is covered by two 
parallel-moving shutters running on rails at the top and bottom i t 
the dome. These shutters are operated by steel cables which are 
wound on a drum operated by a motor. The motor is ot nine- 
tenths horse-power and the shutters can be opened in one minute. 
Some difficulty was experienced at first in getting the shutters to 
open and close parallel. This was due, for the most part, to a 
differential stretch in the cables between the bottom of the shutters 
and the top. As this stretch has gradually worked itself out and 
also because the guiding rollers were iwi'd to some extent, the 
difficulty has disappeared. It is quite possible that a chain or 
gear system might be better. Two wind screens made of -ail-cloth 
are mounted in the opening. One rises from the bottom and the 
other descends from the top. They .ire motor-operated and can 
be made to approach each other, so as to allow just enough room 
for the beam of lighl to reach the main mirror. 

The dome is supported on twenty-four steel rollers, twenty- 
seven inches in diameter, mounted in self-aligning ball bearings 
and the rollers inn on a flat annular rail. Sixteen pairs ot lateral 

rollers keep the dome centred. The dome is rotated 1>\ a seven 

and one half horse power motor which actuate- a driving -hea\e. 

An endless steel cable passes around the dome and down to the 
driving sheave. There are two grooves in the driving sheave and 

the cable passes twire aiolind the turning >hea\e and tension 

pulley. Fifteen hundred pounds tension is used. The cable has 

never slipped on the sheave. It is inclined to slip on the dome in a 



> 



- 
< 
- 
- 




Description of the Buildings and Equipment 11 

high" wind. To prevent this. V-brackets were placed on t he- 
channel which carries the cable around the dome. A more efficient 
arrangement will probably consist in lining this channel with wood, 
to give the cable something to "bite into". The dome makes one 
revolution in eight minutes. 

Probably no feature of the dome for a large reflector is more 
difficull to design than the means for observing conveniently at the 
Newtonian focus. One has only to examine the various methods 
that have been tried to realize thai each new architect has been 
dissatisfied with former models. When the designs for the seventy- 
four-inch telescope and dome were being drawn. I suggested that a 
bridge might be supported on platforms and the engineers of the 
Messrs. Grubb- Parsons worked out the design which we have 
adopted (Plate IV). The illustration shows the bridge in tin- 
workshop in England. < )wing to the confined quarters in the dome, 
il is difficult to obtain a satisfactory picture there. It can however 
be seen in Plates Y, VI. Two segmental platforms, one at the 
base of the opening and one at the back and sixteen feet higher, 
carry a bridge which spans the two. The size of these platforms 
is such that their inside chords are 35 and 45 feet. The bridge i- 
supported on rails along the inner edges of the platforms and can 
be moved laterally from one side of the dome to the other. The 
horizontal distance between the platforms is thirty feet and the 
bridge, which is in the form of an arc, is five feet. -i\ inches wide. 
On the right-hand side of the bridge is a stairway for the observer 
and on the left-hand side a truck carrying a movable platform can 
run from the top to the bottom of the bridge. The observer on 
the platform can raise or lower the platform, move the bridge from 
left to right or vice versa or rotate the dome. In addition the 
special platform for the observer can be turned about a vertical 
pivol by mean- of ,i hand w heel. In practically all positions of the 
telescope the observer can obtain a very convenient position. W< 
have been using the telescope al the Newtonian focus for the 
observation ol clusters. These are mostly in the southern >ky and 
the biid-e and the platform an- verj satisfactory. If one had a 
varied programme involving re\ ersals ol tin- telescope and pointings 
in widely differenl parts of the sky, there would be considerable 
time losl in obtaining the besl positions for w<>ik. However, tin- 
trouble i- almost inevitable .it the Newtonian focus and we have 
been well satisfied with the way the bridge and platform has worked 



12 



Plate V 




Telescope from the west, tube on west side of piers 



Plate VI 



13 




felescope from the east, tube on west -i< h- of pur- 



14 Publications of the David Ditnlap Observatory 

out. As stated before, the dome and circular building arrived in 
Toronto on July 31, 1933, and it was erected on the site by the 
Dominion Bridge Company of Toronto, the work being supervised 
by the foremen of the maker's shop. The erection of the building 
and the telescope took about four months, though there were a 
great many details for the astronomers to put into final shape 
before observation could be begun. 

The Telescope Mounting 

The order for the telescope was placed in May, 1930, and the 
finished mounting was received in October, 1933. A very excellent 
description of the instrument has appeared in "Engineering" for 
March 9, 30 and April 20, 1934, to whom we are indebted for 
permission to reproduce a number of illustrations. It consequently 
seems unnecessary to enter into all the details of construction. 
Those who desire to see these may consult the article mentioned 
above. Only those features will be mentioned which may be novel 
or may serve in future designs. 

The telescope has now been used for about eighteen months in 
the most rigorous climate in which it has ever been attempted to 
operate a large reflector. This has presented a number of problems 
and difficulties which had to be overcome and a record of these 
may also be useful. The general plan of the mounting may be 
seen in Plates V and VI. The design is based to a considerable 
extent on that of the Victoria telescope which has performed so 
well for many years. Only in certain details have alternative 
designs been used in an endeavour to improve results. 

The main mirror cell is shown in half section in figure 1. The 
back supports consist of nine circular pads in groups of three each. 
This is a simple support compared to that in the seventy-two inch 
telescope at Victoria or in the sixty inch at Mount Wilson. We 
have no reason to believe that it is not adequate. The back 
supports are also shown in Plate III (b). This picture was taken 
in the optical shop in England. The back supports which may be 
seen through the glass are the same as used in the telescope. The 
lateral support consists of eighteen weighted levers which operate 
on a flexible band. This kind of support has been used in other 
large telescopes and some such arrangement is essential. 

The surface of the mirror is covered by a large iris diaphragm, 



Description of the Buildings ami Equipment 



15 



shown in Plate VII. It closes down to a circle twelve inches in 
diameter at which time the leaves close around a central core. In 
practice all the sides of the mirror are loosely packed with absorbent 
coi ton so that the chamber of which the silvered surface forms the 
bottom has a very small volume and is nearly air tight. This is 
an important feature with us, because the very changeable climate, 
cold and then warm, leads to conditions which cause the telescope 
to sweat. A hothouse heater cable, drawing five amperes at one 
hundred and ten volts, has been clipped to the inside of the cell 
and this small amount of heat i> sufficienl under ordinary con- 
ditions to keep the chamber dry and preserve the silver coat. If 
the heat is left on for a dav or more, a noticeable distortion of the 




Figun 1 
Half section of mirror and cell 



surface is observed, though nothing very bad, and by taking the 
heal <>n ,1- soon as the humidity outside shows signs ol dropping, 
the figure of the mirror at nighl is quite satisfactory. We have 
found the iris diaphragm a verj convenienl method for covering 
the mirror. Sonic care has to be taken in the design ol the central 
plug, which is lefl permanently in position. In order thai it ma) 
resisl the acids and solutions used in silvering the minor, it is 
built ol pressed paper impregnated with shellac. < are has to be 
taken thai the holes in the plug through which the silvei 
solution drains oul through the centre do nol impede the Mow ol 
the spenl solutions or prevent the surface becoming free from one 
solution before another is added in the process ol cleaning the 
-in l.i< e for sih ering. 



16 



Plate VII 




Iris diapragm at half aperture 



Description of the Buildings and Equipment 



17 



Another feature in connection with the telescope tube is the 
method of focusing the Cassegrain mirror. This is shown in cross- 
section in figure 2 (b). It will be noted that a -mall motor has 
been used to push the Cassegrain focus forward or backward by a 
screw feed. The observer at the Cassegrain focus watches the 




Figure -' i a, l> > 

(a) Newtonian mirror mounting 

(b) Casegrain mirror mounting 

images and presses a button to operate this motor. It functions 
very well. Some apprehension was felt, in adopting this design, 
thai the motor would vibrate the telescope unduly. Howe 
while the effeel can be seen on the image it is nol sufficienl to 
prevent the observer ascertaining the correel focus and the 
vibration subsides in a second when the motor is stopped. 



18 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

The telescope tube is built in three parts. The lower part 
consists of the mirror cell which is fastened to the central casting 
by 24 bolts around a flange on its edge. The central section is a 
steel casting 7 feet in diameter and weighs 6 tons. It is formed 
with a heavy boss on one side to which the declination axis is 
bolted. The upper part of the tube is of skeleton construction 
being built of duralumin I-beams with steel gusset plates and 
braced with duralumin cross-braces. These latter are threaded 
right-and-left-hand and tightened so that they are under tension 
in all positions of the tube. Tests made in the laboratory show- 
that the differential flexure in the tube at the upper end between a 
vertical and a horizontal position amounts to 1 '16 inch only. 

The declination axis is a steel forging 13 feel in length and 
weighs 3 1 2 tons. It is formed with a flange 3 feet 5 inches in 
diameter on its inner end where it is bolted to the telescope tube. 
In order to reduce the flow of heat between the massive declination 
and polar axis to the central piece of the tube, this flange was cut 
away so as to leave a ring contact only. The writer's experience 
with the telescope at Victoria indicated that this flow of heat 
might be a source of astigmatism in the mirror. If the temperature 
is changing rapidly, the tube takes up the temperature of the 
surroundings more quickly than the declination and polar axis so 
that there is a temperature gradient between the two. The mirror 
at Victoria occasionally showed astigmatism in the meridian plane. 

The polar axis is shown in Plate IX as assembled in the work- 
shop of the makers with all the circles fitted to the lower end. 
'The axis is 22 feet long and weighs 9 tons. It is built in three 
sections, a central cubical steel box and two tubular tapered steel 
sleeves bolted to the central box and having steel pivots shrunk 
into the ends. It turns on self-aligning ball-bearings and a thrust 
bearing at the lower end. On one side of the central cubical box 
is bolted a tapered steel sleeve which has a cylindrical hollow drum 
at its outer end. This sleeve serves to support the declination 
axis and the drum houses the motors for turning the telescope in 
declination. It also carried all the necessary counterweights to 
balance the telescope and the declination circle. The latter is 
fitted with two small geared drums which enable the telescope to 
be set in declination to the nearest minute of arc. 

The method by which the telescope is driven to counteract the 
rotation of the earth is an important item in a telescope design. 



Description of the Buildings and Equipment 19 

The system used on the seventy-four inch is shown in Plate VIII. 
The first element in the system is a synchronous motor with 
appropriate gearing to give the sidereal rate from the mean lime. 
When the telescope first arrived it had a gravity-driven conical 
pendulum but at our request Messrs. Grubb-Parsons furnished us 
with the synchronous motor which we have found very superior. 
The shaft from this gearing turns eighty revolutions per sidereal 
minute and connects with a worm gear which drives the lower shaft. 
The upper shaft is the driving worm for the telescope. If the 
synchronous motor is running at the correel speed the rate is 
transmitted to the driving worm and the telescope moves al the 
right speed. If the synchronous motor changes its rate, due to a 
change in the cycle, correcting gears are fitted on the lower shaft to 
adjust the rate before being transmitted to the worm. The manner 
in which the lower shaft functions is described as follows in 
"Engineering": "The lower shaft is made in five parts, oi which 
the first part reading from lefl to righl in Plate VIII carries the 
pinion driving the upper shaft, and this and the next two sections 
are connected through epicyclic-differential gearing. The third. 
fourth and fifth sections are also connected through epicyclic- 
differential gearing. On the centre section of the -haft is mounted, 
friction tight, a disk having twenty-four notches on the periphery, 
and opposite tin- disk is an electromagnet connected to the observ- 
atory seconds pendulum. This magnet, which i- thus energized 
once per second, is provided with an armature ol special shape, and 
this enters each of the notches in the disk, which is intended to 
make one revolution in twenty-four seconds. When tin- -peed i- 
correct, tin- entry of the armature into the notches ha- no effect, 
bul if ii should be fasl or -low the disc is turned our way or the 
other relatively to the lower -haft. Tin- relative motion operates a 
trigger connected to a spindle which passes longitudinally through 
the -halt and lilt- a two way mercury switch al the righl end ot 
the lower -halt; the eiieci of tilting this -witch i- to energize one 
of the two electromagnets, the armatures of which are arranged to 
hold one of the disks carrying the plane! wheel- of the epicyclic 
differential gear, and in this \\a\ the lower shafl is -lowed down 01 
speeded up. a- required." The second epicyclic-differential 
vi/., thai on the left, is controlled 1>\ hand and 1- used foi setting 
or shifting the image slightly in the held of view . The -\ nchronous 
motor runs so well that wedonol ordinarily need to use the seconds 



20 



Plate VIII 




hronous motor drive and differential control 



X 




22 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

pendulum corrector. At times, however, the image will not move 
sufficiently on the slit and by weighting the pendulum, we introduce 
an arbitrary error to allow the image to drift more rapidly. The 
differential gearing is capable of taking care of rather wide varia- 
tions in the driving speed but the Hydro-Electric Commission rate 
is so constant that for any telescope, except the very largest, it 
would seem sufficient to rely on the motor only. Plates X to 
XII show the instrument in various stages of construction in the 
manufacturer's shops at Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The Pyrex Mirror 

When the telescope was ordered in 1930, we knew that tin- 
portion which would probably take the longest to complete was 
the big mirror. At that time, the Grubb-Parsons Company 
controlled the Parsons Optical Class Works at Derby; and Sir 
Charles Parsons, the head of C. A. Parsons & Company, of which 
these other companies were subsidiaries, was confident that they 
could manufacture a suitable disk of glass for the telescope mirror. 
(Incidentally, Sir Charles Parsons was the youngest son of the 
Karl of Rosse, who completed a six-foot reflector in 1845.) But 
Sir Charles was in his seventy-sixth year when the order for our 
telescope was placed, and unfortunately he did not live to see the 
disk made. Had he lived, I have no doubt that his active interest 
and ingenuity would have solved the difficulties and pushed the 
task to completion. But in 1932, after his death, the disk had 
not yet been cast, and it seemed that the project for our observ- 
atory might be unduly delayed. 

However, in 1932 unexpected help arrived in connection with 
the manufacture of telescope mirrors, which was not available in 
1930. In the latter year the only firms which would undertake 
the manufacture of large disks were Carl Zeiss in Germany, and the 
Glass Works at Derby in England. On the American continent 
the Corning Glass Works, of Corning, N.Y.. had made some small 
"Pyrex" disks of glass which were superior to any that had been 
previously made, but this firm was extensively engaged in the 
commercial manufacture of pyrex articles and was not prepared to 
undertake the expensive experimenting necessary to manufacture 
so large a disk as we required. Between 1930 and 1932, conditions 
changed. Plans had been put forward for the manufacture of a 



Plate X— (a. b i 



23 





! 



1L * «f I 



(a) I )eclination clamp and slow motion 

(b) Newtonian double slide plate holder 



X 
w 

H 

< 




Plate XII 



25 




fell copi in the wi irksh< ip al New 



26 Publications of the David Dioilap Observatory 

disk for a two-hundred inch telescope and time and money spent 
in finding out the most suitable material. In the end it was 
decided that pyrex glass offered the best hope of success for this 
disk. The Corning Glass Works was prevailed upon to install the 
necessary furnaces and annealing ovens for the task. We were 
informed late in 1932 that they were prepared within six months 
to cast our disk. From the first we should have chosen this 
material for the large mirror had it been available at that time. 
The Grubb-Parsons Company gave the contract for the manu- 
facture of the raw disk of .^lass. which was to be shipped to England 
to be ground and polished into the final mirror. 

The mirror was cast on June 21. 1933, and came out of the 
annealing oxen in September. It arrived in England in November. 
Plates XIII and XIV. I The disk at that time was fourteen inches 
thick and about two inches had to be taken off before it could In- 
accommodated in the cell which had already been made. In spite 
of this delay the grinding and figuring was pushed forward with 
such dispatch that the makers reported the mirror as completed in 
February, 1935. Thus from the time the disk was cast till the 
mirror was completed, less than twenty months elapsed. 

We think this constitutes a record in the grinding of large 
mirrors and great credit is due to the makers of the disk and to 
Messrs. Grubb-Parsons for the expedition with which they com- 
pleted the task. It also speaks very highly of their facilities for 
handling such difficult problems and we are certain that any 
prospective purchaser may have every confidence in the ability of 
these firms to construct the mirror in as short a time as it is possible 
to have it done. 

On March 9, 1935, the writer left for a trip to England to check 
the tests that had been made on the figure and to make further 
tests. These tests were carried out photographically in the labor- 
atory of the Grubb-Parsons Company by the method suggested by 
Hartmann. 

In this investigation the mirror was turned on edge and an 
artificial star placed near the centre of curvature. The surface of 
the mirror was then covered with a diaphragm having holes two 
inches in diameter cut at various distances from the centre along 
six diameters, the holes in each diameter, so arranged that on each 
two-inch zone of the mirror from eight inches from the centre to 
thirty-six inches from the centre there were four holes on two 



Plate XIII 



27 




(above): The desk on its arrival in England 
(below): Grinding the central hole 



28 



Plate XIV 




Two views of the mirror being rough and fine ground 



Description of the Buildings and Equipment 



29 



diameters at right angles. (Plate XV.) The light from the 
artificial star reflected from the uncovered spots in the surface of 
the mirror was photographed on a plate, first a few inches inside 
the focus and then outside. Figure 3 shows a reproduction of a 
pair of such photographs. If the distance between two dots on 
one zone for a plate taken inside the focus is d { and the distance 
between the corresponding dots on the plate taken outside the 
tocus is r/j, and a is the total separation between the plate taken 
inside the focus from that taken outside, then the focus of that 
zone is given by 

(id i 
X = 

di+<k 

where x is the distance of the focal plane from the position of the 




Figure .i 
A pair of Hartmann photographs, both taken inside tin- focus 



plate taken inside the focus. Both pi. He- may also be taken on 

the same side ol the focus in which case d i- negative in the above 
formula. 

A greal many plates wen- taken only ,i -mall fraction of which 
were suitable lor measurement. The difficulty of getting good 
plates .irises from vibrations and air currents within the testing 

tunnel and Opportunity had to be seized when conditions led to 

steady images. In all, nine pairs of plates were measured. The 

reMills ol these nie.iMlies ,ue shown in Table I. 



30 



Plate XV 





Diaphragm over the mirror for the Hartmann test 



Description of the Buildings and Equipment 

Tabu: I 



31 



Zone 
inches 


Jan. 21 

(1) 


Jan. 21 

(2) 


F. b. 1 

.1) 


F< b. 1 
(2) 


Mar. is 

U) 


Mar. 1- 

(2) 


Mar. is 

13) 


Mar. 22 
1 


Mar. 22 

2 


8 


-0027 


+0130 


- 1)219 


-0250 


- 0229 


+ 0262 


+ 0328 


+0135 


+ 0194 


10 


-0375 


-0376 


-0196 


-021b 


-0195 


( , i 21 1 


-0140 


-0198 


-0255 


12 


-0380 


-0188 


-0142 


-0111 


-0181 


-007S 


-0098 


-0160 


-0154 


14 


-Oltil 


-0395 


-0060 


+ 0020 


-0076 


-0031 


+ 0009 


-004S -0024 


16 


-0082 


-0098 


+ 0042 


+ 0025 


-0030 


+ 0035 


+ 0002 


-0005 


0000 


18 


-0093 


-0030 


-0053 


-0055 


-0198 


-0160 


-0053 


-0093 


-0106 


20 


+ 0024 


-0040 


-0054 


-0144 


-0188 


-0170 


-0136 


0096 -0090 


22 


+ 0002 


+ 0021; 


-0056 


-0014 


-0094 


-005S 


-0139 


0055 -0076 


24 


+ 0010 


+ 0029 


+ 0068 


- 0(11)'. 


-0016 


0000 


+0069 


• 0018 +0015 


26 


+ 0049 


• 007s 


+ 0041 


+ 0078 


+ 0072 


+ 0112 


+ 012.5 


0071 


- 0030 


28 


+ 0106 


+ 0035 


+ 0025 


• 00.7. 


1)07- 


-0067 


-0058 


0029 +0006 


30 


+ 0039 


+ 0055 


+ 0052 


-0003 


+ 0073 


0000 


+ 0071 


+ 0021 +0014 


32 


+ 0052 


+ 0022 


-0011 


• OOI'O 


+ 0055 


■ ooi;.- 


+ 0101 


-0001 -0004 


34 


+ 0001 


-0024 


-0141 


-0066 


-0166 


-0160 


oo'. in 


-0042 -0041 


36 -0021 


-0043 


+ 0086 


00 It • 


+ 0204 


0207 


+0033 


+0114 +0119 


1 Ml-, in of Fo 


ur . . . . 


0.24 


0.45 


0.40 


0.32 


21 0.20 



( olumn one gives the distance of the /one from the centre in inches 
and the following columns are the aberrations as measured and 
reduced to the Newtonian focus as shown by the various plates. 
I he first tour pairs were taken before the writer's arrival in England 
■ iihI were measured in duplicate; once by Mr. Manville of the 
Grubb-Parsons Company, and also by Professor Know Shaw al 
the Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford. The remaining five were 
taken and measured by the writer. The aberrations are expressed 
in inches. It is customary, in order to be able to quote a number 
as representing the degree of perfection of a finished surface, to 
compute the mean circle of confusion in the image expressed in 
hundred-thousandths of the local length which llartman calls /. 

T = >()<)()<)() x IV- {ab erration) 
F* X 2r 



32 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

The focal plane having been chosen to make 2r 2 X (aberration) a 
minimum. The value of T is shown at the bottom of the Table. 
An inspection of the aberrations of the various zones shows 
that they are gratifyingly small and that they shift from plate to 
plate, this shift being for the most part as large as the aberrations 
themselves. 

The original measures showed some signs of astigmatism in a 
horizontal and a vertical plane which if real would have been 
objectionable. In order to test if this really was the case, the 
mirror was rotated through various angles and always the measures 
showed the same planes of astigmatism. It is difficult to say 
whether it arose from stratification in the air tunnel or deformation 
of the mirror when set on edge. However, the stationary plane of 
this effect under rotation of the mirror was satisfactory evidence 
that the trouble lay in the method of testing and not in the mirror. 

The tests in the laboratory are always made under better 
temperature conditions than obtained at the telescope. Never- 
theless it was decided to make some tests after the mirror was in 
position. I was particularly anxious to do this, after the telescope 
had been in use some months because a visual inspection of the 
image convinced me that the pyrex disk was holding its figure 
remarkably well under very trying temperature variations. Ac- 
cordingly a mask was made for the mirrors from cardboard and 
exposures made inside and outside the Newtonian focus, using 
a Cygni as a source on the evening of July 31, L935. The tem- 
perature had risen from 68.5 F. at 6.00 a.m. to a maximum of 
82.0 F. at 6.00 p.m. and by midnight had dropped to 72 F. The 
exposures were made at 11 p.m. and the test of the mirror was made 
consequently under rather extreme conditions. The openings in 
the diaphragm were arranged so that the aberrations could be 
measured in two directions at right angles to each other as in the 
laboratory tests. The plates were measured by Miss R. J. North- 
cott and the results shown in Table II. The results are given for 
each quadrant separately. Column one gives the distance of the 
zone from the centre. Columns two and three give the aberrations 
as deduced from the I. Ill quadrants and II. IV respectively and 
the last column the mean. The aberrations are expressed in inches. 



Description of the Buildings and Equipment 



33 







Table II 




Distance 


Aberrations 


Aberrations 


Mean 


inches 


I & 1 1 1 


II & [V 




ID 5 


+0087 


+0228 


+0158 


12 5 


+0008 


+0114 


+0061 


1 1 5 


+0102 


+0228 


+0165 


16 5 


+0024 


+02 is 


+0136 


is :, 


+00.".:. 


-0028 


+0014 


20.5 


-0122 


+0012 


-0055 


12 5 


-0028 


+0110 


-0041 


24.5 


+0020 


+0004 


+0012 


26 5 


+0043 


+004:-! 


+0043 


28.5 


-0091 


+0035 


-0028 


30.5 


-007] 


-0165 


-0118 


32 5 


-0169 


-0087 


-0128 


34 5 


-0169 


-0098 


-0134 


36.5 


-0260 


-0189 


-0225 



It will be seen that the figure was very good. The outside 
curled forward making the outside zones have too short a focus. 
This effect is not marked, considering the great temperature 
variation. The regularity of the residuals shows that the surface 
was very smooth. The mean aberrations in the last column make 
T = 0.37. Quadrants I Ov III give on the average a focus 0.0033 
inches shorter than the mean and quadrants II & IY a focus longer 
by the same amount. Apart from the results of this test our 
experience during the eighteen months in which we have used the 
telescope has been that the mirror suffers very little from distortion 
and that whenever the seeing is good the image is satisfactory. 



The Method of Silvering 

The extreme changes in the temperature, especially during the 

winter, makes it difficult to preserve the silvered surf. ice. Then, 
too, the process of silvering is more difficult in cold weather. It is 
essential that the mirror be removed from the telescope into a 
room which can be heated. The removal of the mirror involves a 
considerable amounl of labour and always a little ri>k. and it i> 
necessary to have things so arranged thai both these are kept to a 
minimum. 

\\ hen the telescope is turned to the zenith t li<- base of the mirror 
cell is nine feel above the upper floor and twenty-two feel above 



34 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

the basement floor. The silvering room is on the lower floor and 
the mirror in its cell has to be brought down into it. We accom- 
plish this by a very inexpensive but efficient method. An elevator 
built of angle iron runs on vertical I-beams and is counterbalanced 
by heavy cast-iron weights which are carried on steel ropes. These 
ropes pass over sheaves just below the level of the observing floor; 
and a worm and worm-wheel, hand-operated, can move the elevator 
up and down without any particular effort. After the telescope 
has been placed upright and lashed in position a trap door in the 
floor permits the elevator to be raised to support the mirror. As 
the elevator is raised the counterweights go to the bottom of the 
elevator pit. Those weights necessary to balance the elevator are 
strung on long eye-bolts. The ends of these eye-bolts pass through 
holes in extra counterweights when the elevator is in its highest 
position and by simply screwing on retaining nuts the necessary 
additional counterweights are attached to balance the extra weight 
of the mirror and cell. There is no difficulty experienced in turning 
the hand wheel to lower the extra four tons on the carriage. 
Plate XVI shows the manner in which this hoist functions. It is 
much less expensive than a hydraulic elevator and we think more 
safe and easier to operate than any drum-operated hoisting gear 
would be. When the mirror has been lowered into the silvering 
room the trap door is closed and, as an added precaution, a heavy 
canvas is stretched about three feet above the mirror to protect 
the surface from accident. The room can be warmed by electric 
heaters. The silvering process we use functions best at a tem- 
perature of from 40° to 50°F. 

The number of formulae for silvering mirrors is very numerous. 
We have used a method that has many merits over anything I have 
previously employed. A description of it may be worth while. 
During my visit to England I had the privilege of watching the 
mirror being silvered in the laboratory there. The Grubb-Parsons 
Company are extensive manufacturers of search-light mirrors and 
have had a great deal of experience in silvering. I was particularly 
impressed with the small amount of silver they found it necessary 
to use. Their method was carefully explained to me and I saw it 
applied. We have never been able to make it work correctly. 
We have, however, adopted certain features of it and the method 
we use requires only about one quarter as much silver nitrate as is 
customary in the Brashear process. Our thanks are due to Messrs. 



Plate XV] 



: 




he hoisl for removing the mirror for silvering 



36 Publications of the David Ihnilap Observatory 

Grubb-Parsons for permission to publish this method, which we 
think may be of some service. 

Before any band is placed on the mirror, the old coat is lightly 
rubbed with a flannelette cloth, soaked in water, to remove dust. 
The coat is then taken off with concentrated nitric acid. We use 
swabs made of soft flannelette, fastened to a pine base with a handle, 
and much prefer these to absorbent cotton, as the latter is liable 
to leave lint on the surface. This operation is best done before 
the band is put on, because there always is the small ledge where 
the bevel of the mirror meets the wall that can serve as a pocket 
for the acid, which is very difficult to remove from this recess later. 
When the surface has been thoroughly rubbed, the acid is rinsed 
off with ordinary tap water. It is then cleaned with tepid water 
and soap. We use swabs similar to those used for the acid and 
work the surface into a lather. The bulk of this soap is rinsed off 
and the band placed around the edge. We have found that a 
retaining band of oilcloth is better than waxed paper. There is 
always a danger of bits of paraffin coming off the waxed paper and 
paraffin will smear over the surface and prevent a bright coat near 
the edge. In order to make the band perfectly solution-tight, we 
cut large elastics from the inner tube of an automobile tire, cutting 
the tire in the plane of rotation of the wheel. These are about 
one and one-half inches wide and tour people can stretch them 
over the oilcloth band. They produce a remarkably tight seal. 
Two bands are usually put on, one near the top edge of the mirror 
and one near the bottom overlapping the oilcloth so that the 
bottom half of the elastic band rests on the edge of the mirror-disc. 
When this has been done a hose is used to rinse the mirror very 
completely and get rid of all traces of soap. It is then rinsed in 
distilled water and enough distilled water left on the mirror to rill 
the concavity. The centre hole of the mirror is closed by inserting a 
wooden plug covered with rubber inside the centre hub. No 
provision is made on the silvering hoist for rocking the mirror but 
instead we have a stirring device to agitate the silvering solutions. 
This can be seen in Plate XYII. It consists of a spoked wheel, 
which turns on the central hub and the periphery runs on rollers 
around the edge of the mirror cell. Wooden vanes are attached to 
three of the spokes and adjusted to within three sixteenths of an 
inch from the surface of the mirror. This device is put on after 
the distilled water is on the mirror. 



Plate XVII 



,s, 




(above): The stirring devio on the mirror 

(below): The freshlj silvered mirror being returned t<> thi 



38 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

It usually takes about one-half an hour to mix the silvering 
solutions, and this operation is commenced about this interval by 
estimation before the completion of the cleaning of the surface. 
The solution for silvering the seventy-four inch mirror is as follows. 

Silvering Solutions: 

(A) Water 320 oz. 

Silver Nitrate 226 grams 

(B) Water 40 oz. 

Caustic Potash 135 grams 

Reducing Solution : 

Water 16 oz. 

1 )extrose 37 grams 

The process is carried out as in the Brashear method. Ammonia 
is added to (A) till the precipitate formed is re-dissolved, and then 
(B) is added. More ammonia is tnen added until the precipitate 
is again dissolved. It usually happens that there are some particles 
of matter left at this stage which have to be filtered out. When 
this has been done, a reserve silver nitrate solution is added until, 
on looking through a depth of three inches of the liquid, an opal- 
escent straw colour is obtained. Twelve hundred ounces of distilled 
water are on the mirror and the reducing solution is added to the 
silvering solution immediately before being poured on the mirror. 
As mentioned before, the process works best at fairly low tem- 
peratures, 40° to 50°F., and at these temperatures will take from 
ten to fifteen minutes to deposit. 

The Spectrograph 

The initial gift to the observatory provided for a single spectro- 
graph. A one-prism instrument was chosen for use at the Casse- 
grain focus as being the most useful. Spectrographic work requires 
a wide variety of dispersions and of range of wave-lengths, but it is 
impossible to include in one instrument complete flexibility in this 
regard without sacrificing rigidity. Most early designs of spectro- 
graphs which were used on telescopes were of the so-called universal 
type and could be adapted for various dispersions and regions of 
the spectrum. These instruments suffered from the defect of 






Description of the Buildings and Equipment 39 

flexure and recently observatories engaged in extensive radial 
velocity measures, have generally adopted the design worked out 
by Campbell and Wright at the Lick Observatory in 1905 and 
incorporated in the Mills spectrograph. The main feature of this 
design is that the spectrograph proper is of the box pattern cradled 
on a two-point support in a frame which is attached to the tele- 
scope. A return to the universal character was attempted in the 
spectrograph attached to the 72-inch telescope at Victoria, with 
very successful results. Nevertheless, the writer's experience with 
this instrument showed that more flexure was present than 
desirable. The extra loading necessary to make provision for 
one. two or three prisms and difficulties in introducing internal 
webbing in the box for the same reason prevent the spectrograph 
box being built as rigidly as it can be for a simpler instrument. 
While the idea of having the various dispersions incorporated in 
one instrument is very attractive, I decided against it, on account 
of the impossibility of getting rid of flexure and also because it was 
not anticipated that we should have much occasion for large dis- 
persion. It is eminently desirable that spectrograms of the brighter 
stars be so observed, but if this is done the dispersion should be 
greater than is possible with prisms, unless used with very long 
cameras such as are possible with the C'oude form of mounting. 
No such arrangement was contemplated for the 74-inch telescope 
and consequently it seemed best to design a low-dispersion spectro- 
graph for use on the faint stars and of greal rigidity to render it 
suitable for radial velocity measures. The general form <>t the 
instrument can be seen in Plates V and XVIII. It was buill by 
the Adam Hilger firm of London. England. 

The Optica] Parts 

The optical parts of the spectrograph consisl of the collimating 
leu- of two and three-quarters inches clear aperture, a single sixt) - 
three degree prism made from a lighl flinl glass with high trans- 
mission in the violet region of the spectrum and alternately two 
i. unci, i lenses of approximately twenty five inches and twelve 
inches focal length. The latter are cemented triplets, the glasses 
being chosen to be as transparent as possible in the region ol sh< 
u ,i\ e lengl hs. 



40 



Plate XYIII 




The Hilger spectrograph 



Description of the Buildings and Equipment 



41 



The glass of the prism approximates Parsons' glass DF3, as 
given'in their catalogue, and has the following refractive indices: 



X 


Refraction 


X 


Refraction 


6563 


L. 61347 


1861 


1 63 " 


5893 


1.61830 


1340 


1.64063 



The makers have furnished us with the absorption curve oi 
specimens of the glass as shown in figure 4. From these I have 
derived the following transmission- in per cent, through a thick] i ss 
of one centimetre and through the prism. 



' *> 

u 

.J 



4-6 


fc> mm. tk 


*k 47j 


5pccun«a 
mm. th 


IcL 








































ABSDRPTK 

not correttu 


)N CUIVE 

L for kui by r«, 


OF PR] 

Ration 


SM 




















































































l 









_ t V 1 H 



J6 



Figure 4 



44 



A* 



4« 



X 
3700 
3900 
HOG 

1300 

i: 



'ransn 

i in. 
'11 ', 
SI 
94 

H 
"7 



1 1\ Prism 

7' 
^7 



All the surfaces have been figured bj the interferometer method of 
compensating for internal strains and, as will I"- seen later from a 
discussion ol the tests, the instrumenl gives excellenl definition. 



42 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



The Mounting 

The general construction of the mounting and the relation of 
the various parts will be understood from figure 5. The spectro- 
graph proper is of the box form heavily ribbed. It is made from a 
silicon aluminum casting. There is no collimator nor camera tube 
in the usual sense, the box itself serving this purpose. This form 
has the advantage that the internal bracing may be made stronger. 
The box is cradled in a frame so designed that in whatever position 




Figure 5 
Longitudinal sections of the Hilger spectrograph 



the telescope is pointing, the strains in the frame will not be trans- 
mitted to the box. A spherical bearing supports the upper end 
and permits freedom of motion in any direction. When the 
telescope is on the meridian the weight of the lower part of the 
box is taken by a pair of floating pins shown at A A in figure 5. 
Motion in a direction at right angles to the meridian is prevented 



Description of the Buildings ami Equipment 43 

by two other pairs of floating pins B,B and C,C. As the telescop 
is moved away from the meridian the pins B, B and C,C assume 
part of the load but it will be observed that deformation in the 
frame is not transmitted to the box proper. All the floating pins 
are provided with adjusting screws to allow the spectrograph box 
to be set so that it is collimated with respect to the axis of the 
telescope tube. 

The frame which supports the spectrograph is made in two 
parts. The upper part is a long box-like casting of silicon alu- 
minum. A flange at its upper end attaches it to a ring at the back 
of the mirror cell. This ring is in the form of a worm-wheel and 
can be rotated to any desired position angle. A flange at the lower 
end of the box permits the lower half of the frame to be attached, 
which serves to support the lower end of the spectrograph and 
forms the heating case as well. Doors in the lower half of the 
frame, shown in Plate XIX, permit access l<> the spectrograph box. 
The inside of the frame is lined with felt about one-half an inch 
thick and the heating wires are distributed on the inside of this 
lining. The temperature is controlled by a mercury thermometer 
relax'. The thermometer bulb is such that a rise of one degree 
centigrade produces an elevation of the mercury one-twelfth inch. 
It is placed close to the prism. This ensures that if stratification 
or inequalities in the temperature exist throughout the case, the 
index of refraction, air to .ulass, will remain unchanged. 

The design of the camera holder and the manner in which the 
spectrograph can be adjusted to take a range of camera lenses is 
very neat. The camera holder consists ol a cylindrical mounting 
shown in figure 6. It is attached by four knurled cap screws, 
and may be placed in any one ol three positions. Adjustment for 
tilt is provided by the simple rotation of the cylinder. The plate 
holder is carried in a slide and can be shifted laterally, so as to 
permit a number ol exposures on the same plate. The objective 

mount, shown iii Plate XIX. i- attached by knurled cap screws 
and rallies also the gear tor focusing, which is done by moving the 

objective. We have found that it is quite possible to change from 

one camera length to .mother and re-f0CUS in fifteen minutes 

A drawing ol the slit mechanism is shown in figure 7. This is 
very similar to that used on the spectrograph of the Dominion 
Ast iophvsir.il Observatory at Victoria. The slit jaws are of 

polished nickel, closed by spring pressure Up to an adjustable stop, 



_ 
- 







Description of the Buildings and Equipment 



45 



which prevents the jaws coming in contact. Micrometer screv 
threads, fifty to the inch, with a drum divided into one hundred 
parts, permits the opening to be read to the ten-thousandth part 
of .m inch. Light from the comparison arc is reflected into the 
slit by two small right angled prisms which are covered on their 
lower side by masks. Holes in these masks limit the length and 
position of the comparison lines. The prisms may be separated 
by means of a right-and-left-hand thread and the inner edges oi 
the prisms are bevelled, so as to permit the passage ol the light 
from the star. The length of the opening in the slit, which the 
light fr< m the star may reach, increases near the apex of the prisms 
and these are mounted on a slide and by moving them backward 
or forward, the width of the spectrum may be varied. A spring 
catch with three notches locates three definite widths. The 




Figui 



opening in the mask below the prism, shown at P in figure 7. 
permits the comparison to be substituted for the star spectrum, 
when the prisms are slid bat k, so thai this opening is over the slit. 
This is very convenient \<>i use in conjunction with the Hartmann 
method of focusing. To facilitate further the use of the method, 
the spectrograph is provided with shutters, shown al / ) in Plate 
XVIII, which can be adjusted on push rods to limit the beam ol 
light to the apex hall ol the prism or to the base hall at will. 
Guiding is done by a telescope which views the star image in the 

slit. 

Constants ind Tests oi the Spectrograph 

The internal adjustments ol the position ol the prism i<> 
minimum deviation at \4150 and correct location with respecl to 



46 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



the collimating and camera lenses had already been carried out 
before the instrument arrived and it was only necessary to check 
these. The collimation of the instrument to the axis of the tele- 
scope was effected by placing a small electric light bulb in the 
axis of the tube near the upper end and adjusting the spectrograph 
box until the light could be seen through a peep hole in the centre 
of the collimating lens, the rays having passed through the slit. 
Determination of the focal properties of the lenses was carried 




M\ 



o 



: 



~V 




Figure 7 
The slit mechanism 



out by the Hartmann method. Plate XX(a) is a reproduction 
of a Hartmann focus test of the 25-inch camera, made at settings 
23.0, 24.0, 23.5. The measurement of this plate is shown in figure 
8 and the same figure also shows the focal curve for the short 
camera. For both cameras a wide range of spectrum is in focus to 
within Vio mm. Plate XX(b) is a reproduction of HD 198726. The 
pair of lines XX4199 are resolved in both the comparison and star. 
The instrument gives a computed resolving power at X4200 of 
40,000 and with ordinary plates and the normal slit width of 0.002 



SblO 



4929 



X 

X 




< 4#* 



48 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



inch, a purity of about 10,000. Spectra of seventh magnitude 
stars may be obtained with the twenty-five inch camera under 
average seeing conditions and state of the silver coat on the main 
mirror in aboul seventy minutes. Good spectra have been ob- 
tained of an 8.0 magnitude star in one hour under good conditions. 
The dispersion with the twenty-five inch camera is 33A at H7 and 
aboul half this with the shorter camera. 

An investigation of the curvature correction has been carried 
out by Dr. Heard for the twenty-five inch camera. Spectrograms 
were taken of the iron arc and the -ky. using the longest slit 



15 CAMERA 



3900 4200 ASOO *eoo 5IOO S*O0 

\ IN Ancsthoms 

Figui 
The focal curves of the 25-inch and 12 T ..-inch cameras 



possible. On the plates the equation of the lines is well represented 
by the parabola, 

x = 0.00097y 

where x is the distance along the dispersion and y the distance 
along the line, both expressed in half-millimetre. The exact 
magnitude of the correction to radial velocity which must be 
introduced depends on the point where the measurer bisects the 
comparison line. Assuming that this bisection is made at a 
distance from the tip of the line of about one-seventh its length. 



Description of the Buildings and Equipment 49 

tin- curvature correction runs from about -1.5 km. at \3950, to 
-2.9 km. at \4900. 

Since the opening of the observatory in L935, the instrument 

has been in continuous use in radial velocity work, and about 
Minn spectra have been secured. Most of these spectra are of 
stars in and near the Kapteyn areas in the northern hemisphere 
and brighter than magnitude 7.5. These spectra are ot stars for 
which no results have been published. In order to cheek the 
consistency of the instrument, spectra have been -ecured of tin- 
standard velocity stars and bright -tars observed al ether observ- 
atories. The results of a comparison show a very satisfactory 
agn ement and the probable error of a single plate with the twenty- 
five inch camera for a good-line -tar is about 1.5 km. per second. 

Tut: Administration Hi elding 

A general view of the location and -round immediately sur- 
rounding the 61-fool dome and Administration Building i> shown 
in Plate I. The front view of the Administration Buildii . 
shown in Plate XXI. Tin- plans for this building were prep 
by the architect-, Mather- and Haldenby. It is ninety-one 
long and forty-nine feci wide. The wall- are constructed <»t ( !redil 
Valley lime-tone with trimmings of Queenston -tone. The square 
entrance hall and stairway .ire finished in travertine. 

The chief function- of the Administration Building an- to 
provide a suitable place for studying the pi. tie- taken with the 
telescope, office -pace for the staff, and other room- for laboratory 
work. In designing the building, however, we had to bear in mind 
not only the presenl contemplated programmes ot work of the 
observatory Ian also the possible future needs. 

Prior to the project of the 74-inch telescope, the writer had 
m nstructed a L9-inch tele-rope but, for lack of a suitable building 
or space for mounting, it had re-ted in storage, h seemed that 
this instrument would be a useful adjunct to the equipment. The 
disposition of numerous small dome- aboul the grounds to house 
special pieces of apparatus is difficult to arrange and is costly. 
Consequently, we made provision on the rool for three domes 
These l< ok quite small in the photographs, bul the i entre dome is 
twentj iwo feel clear inside and the other two, eighteen feet. 
The 19 inch reflei ting telescope is housed in the south dome. 1 he 



50 



Plate XXI 




Front view of Administration Building from the west 



Description of the Buildings ami Equipment 51 

other domes are vacant. We contemplate a refractor in the middle 
dome of in to 12-inch aperture and a battery of photographic 
lenses in the remaining dome. The piers inside these domes are 
carried on separate stringers entirely free from the floor and are 
carried by the main supporting walls of the building. We have 
not had sufficient observing time to draw any conclusions as to the 
suitability of this method of support. So far as can be judged 
from the visual image, the support is steady in ordinary weather. 
though not perfectly steady in a high wind. It has the advanl 
over the piers in this case of leaving the rooms below tree fn in 
obstruction. 

A fairly well-equipped workshop seemed a necessary part ol 
the equipment. Modern astrophysics i> continually requiring 
pieces of apparatus. Principal instruments ait- usually advantage 
ously purchased from those who make a specialty <>t this type ol 
apparatus. The smaller pieces, which have to be designed to meel 
the special requirements are best made under the eye < t the user, 
because a- the work proceeds ideas present themselves in the way 
of improvements, which can In- embodied in the design, withoul 
additional cost, which i- nol the case when drawings are sent to a 
machine -Ik p for d mpleticn. 

The basemenl of the building is comprised of the machine shop, 
31 \ 16 feet, in which are located a milling machine, a lathe, drill 
press, shaper and grinder; the heating plant and the water tank; 
the library Hack room, 26 \ L9 feci; the clock ro< m. 17 \ lt> feet 
with piers for the sidereal and mean time clock-; the wo< dw< rking 
-hop. 22 \ L9 feet, and wash room-. 1 he main floor i- given > \< i 
to the oti ce space, the main ro< m of the library and a lecture hall. 
'I he library comprises about odd monographs on Astroncmy, 
Physics and Mathematics and 2500 volumes ol Observatorj 
Publications and Journals. A large fraction of the latter i- on 
loan fn m the Royal Astronomical Society ol Canada. 

The second floor provides two additional < ffices, two laboratories, 

Ml \ Hi feci and 20 \ p.i feet, which acc< mnn dale the measuring 
engines, computing machines and photcmeters. 1 lie dark rocm 
and photographii room are also located on this floor. A special 
ii om i- -ei aside fi i the donoi ol the observat< rj as a reception 
ro< m. 



H 




Description of the Buildings ami Equipment 53 

The Staff and Work of mik Observatory 

The staff of the observatory is also the teaching staff at the 
University. The lecture session is carried on from the end of 
September till May and summer sessions are offered also. The 
courses of instruction include general courses and laboratory work 
for those taking Astronomy as a pari of a liberal education, and 
more advanced courses in Astrophysics, Theoretical Astronomy, 
and Celestial Mechanics for those more deeply interested in the 
subject or who may desire to pursue Astronomy as a vocation. 

The personnel of the observatory staff is as follows: 

( . A. Chant, M.A.. Ph.D.. LL.D., F.R.S.C., Professor Emeritus of 

physics and Director Emeritus of the David Dunlnp Obsen 
R. K. YOUNG, B.A., Ph.D., F.R.S.C, Professor and Director of the 
David Dunlap Observatory. 

F. S. Hogg, M.A., Ph.D., Assistant Professor 
P. M. Mil i.man. M.A.. Ph.D., Lecturer. 

J. F. Heard, M.A., Ph.D., Lecturer. 

Mrs. II. S. Hogg, M.A., Ph.D., Research Associate. 

Mi^s R.J. Northcott, M.A., Computer. 

MlSS F. S. I'm i! RSON, M.A .1 istant Computer. 

Mis-, E. M. Fi i i i R, B.A., Lt >ran n \nd Secretary. 

G. F. Longworth, Night Assistant '.inist. 

During the year and a half since the opening of the observatory 
work has been continued on a general programme of radial velocity 
determination for Stars in and near the Kaptevn area-. L600 
spectrograms have been secured, of which about two-third- have 
been measured and the results tabulated for publication. < Observa- 
tion of a number of eclipsing and spectroscopic binaries has been 
started. A lisl of these stars appears in the annual report oi the 
. ouncil of the Royal Astronomical Society. I M.N. Vol. '.'7. No. I. 
Observations have been made at the Newtonian focus for the 
variables in globular star clusters and 17s photographs secured. 
The 19-inch telescope has been adapted for photograph} and will 
be used in photometric programmes. 

In closing this brief description of the observatory, its equipment 
and work, thank- .m- due to the many firms and individuals who 
have contributed to its completion : to Sir I low aid Grubb, Parsons 
and < ompan) for the perfection of the mechanical details; to the 
Corning Glass Works for the construction of the "pyrex" di>k; 
in Mr. Armstrong foi the ac< urai j ol the optical surfaces; to Adam 



54 



Plate XXIII 




Main entrance Hall of the Administration Building 



Plate XXIV 



:: 




19-inch telescope 



56 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Hilger and Company for the excellent definition of the spectro- 
graph; to the Superintendent of the University, Col. A. D. LePan 
and his assistants for their continual supervision of the installation; 
to the Dominion Bridge Company for the erection of the dome and 
telescope; to Mathers and Haldenby, architects, for the beautiful 
design of the Administration Building; lastly, to the enthusiasm 
and energy of the staff who have laboured to get the observatory 
under way. 

David Dunlap Observatory, 
March. 1937. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

Volume I Number 2 



THE 

LIGHT CURVES OF TWO VARIABLE STARS 

IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS 

NGC 6218 AND NGC 6254 



HELEN B. SAWYER 



1938 

I in UNIVERS1 I V OF rORON I" PR] SS 

rORON l". ( w \l' \ 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory, Volume I, Number 2. 

THE LIGHT CURVES OF TWO VARIABLE STARS IN THE 
GLOBULAR CLUSTERS NGC 6218 AND NGC 6254 

by Helen B. Sawyer 

Introduction. The two clusters NGC 6218 and NGC 6254, 
known also as Messier 12 and Messier 10 respectively, form a 
rather unusual pair in the sky. They are quite similar in appear- 
ance, with an arrangement of the brighter stars which is relatively 
loose for a globular cluster. Situated in the constellation of 
Ophiuchus near the celestial equator, they are only about three 
degrees apart in the sky. These clusters belong to a group which 
has a relative scarcity of bright stars. The luminosity curve of 
\< ".C 6218, as plotted from the data of Kustner's catalogue, is 
shown in Figure 1. There are fewer than two hundred stars of 
absolute magnitude brighter than zero. 

The writer began photographing these clusters with the 72-inch 
reflector during her first season at the Dominion Astrophysical 
Observatory in 1931. The clusters were observed al that observ- 
atory each season through VX\A, and since then observation has 
been continued with the 74-inch telescope of the David Dunlap 
Observatory. A number of Mount Wilson plates are available 
taken by F. G. Pease, H. Shapley and P. Th. Oosterhoff, to whom 
the writer is much indebted. Something of an astronomical record 
has been att. lined in that plates from the three largesl existing tele- 
scopes have been available to study these cluster-. 

The writer has hunted both clusters intensively for variables 
.i- reported in a paper "One Hundred and Thirty-Two New 
Variable Stars in Globular Clusters", now in press. 1 The clusters 
are exceedingly poor in variable stars as in Messier 12 only one 
variable was found, and in Messier 10, only two. Plates giving 
the identification of the variables and comparison stars appear in 
the paper just mentioned. The variables, though scarce, an 
interesting objects however, as in each cluster the outstanding 
variable i> pracl ically the brightesl star in the cluster. It is curious 
that the variability of these brighl object- should have escaped 
detection for so long, but it m.iv be recalled that a similar thing 
happened in the case ol the brightesl variable, which is also the 

[59] 



60 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



brightest star, in the globular cluster Messier 2. 2 There Prof. 
Bailey found eleven fainter variables from an inspection of photo- 
graphs, but failed to notice the variability of the brightest star in 
the cluster. 



280 

< 

y- 
n60 



2 40 

Z 



















>* 






LUK 


/1INOSITY CU^VE 
OF NGC <ol\t> 
























































t 




( 


1 — 1--» 




> — • m- 






I\A*0 





12 5 U O 13 5 14-0 14 5 IS 

APPARENT PHOTOGRAPHIC MAGNITUDE 



15 3 



Figure 1 

The luminosity curve of NGC 6218 as plotted from Kiistner's Catalogue, 
Bonn Veroff. 26. 1933. The stars are grouped in intervals of 0.2 magnitude. 
There are 482 stars represented in the diagram ; a few brighter stars (doubtless 
field stars) are omitted. The variable is the brightest star definitely attri- 
butable to the cluster, as at maximum it reaches 12.0. To give an idea of the 
absolute magnitudes, the line for absolute magnitude zero, based on the distance 
determined in this paper, is indicated. 



1. NGC 6218 = Messier 12 

This cluster is at R.A. 16 h 42'".0, Dec. -1° 46' (1900), galactic 
longitude 344°, latitude +25°. The writer has photographed it for 
six seasons, and obtained observations on 33 nights. In addition, 
14 Mount Wilson plates taken by Dr. Pease and Dr. Shapley in the 
years 1912-1919, and 7 by Dr. Oosterhoff in 1935 bring the total 
number of nights up to 50 and of observations to 59. 

A sequence has been determined from two plates of ten and 
fifteen minutes exposure respectively on Kapteyn Area 108. As 
the variable is the brightest star in the region of the cluster a 



The Light Curves oj Two I '(triable Stars 



61 



satisfactory sequence cannot be selected on reflector plaies. But 
the sequence has been sufficient to estimate the variable and 
determine the period. Dr. Oosterhoff has communicated to the 
writer that he finds star e of the sequence to be variable. This 
star is a double star, and is resolved on his plates, though not on the 
writer's. The blending of the images apparently masks the vari- 
ation on the writer's plates. The magnitudes used for the sequence 
stars are: a, 11.6; b, 11.9; c, 12.2; d, 13.2; e, 13.7. 



ii 5 



.15 



•3 s 



NGC 62. & 



• •000 

• •• 



•• • 

• •• % • 



o • 



11.5 



I a-; 



'35 



■t 



-4 o 4 O II <0 

Figure 2 
The Light Curve of Variable No. 1 in NGC 6218. Abscissae arc days: 
ordinates, apparent photographic magnitudes. The open circles represent 
Mount Wilson plates, on which the two components of the variable are usually 
better resolved. 

Variable No. 1 is a double star. Apparently the brighter com- 
ponent of the double varies, while tin- fainter is constant in light 
at approximately magnitude 14.0. This makes the estimation vi 
magnitude exceedingly difficult. On the Canadian plates the 
variables are never separated at maximum, and only rarely toward 
minimum; while on the Mount Wilson plates they are usually 
separated toward minimum, and are occasionally resolved near 
maximum. The variable appears to be a long period Cepheid. 
The adopted elements are 

Maximum- J. 1). 2427306.708+15 d .5081 
A period of 15.475 days represents slightly better the observations 
from some years, but throws others badly <>ut ol phase. It is 






62 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE I 



Observations of Variable No. 1 in N.G.C. 6218 

Julian Day Plate 

2,400,000.+ Mag. Phase No. Obs. 

19535.872 12.5 14.68 100 W 

20952.878 12.1 4.86 2981 W 

952.946 12.0 4.93 2985 W 

953.006 12.1 4.99 2989 W 

980.924 12.7 1.89 3058 W 

980.989 12.1 1.95 3062 W 

981.829 12.1 2.79 3068 VV 

981.899 12.1 2.86 3071 VV 

981.982 12.1 2.95 3075 VV 

982.955 12.1 3.92 3077 VV 

21435.781 13.1 6.98 3850 VV 

454.774 13.7 10.47 3872 VV 

22105.883 13.6 10.20 4945 VV 

134.70 1 13.6 8.00 4958 \Y 

26607.689 12.8 14.39 19969 V 

607.732 12. s 14.44 19971 V 
915.756 12.9 12.28 20541 V 
915.77.-. 12.7 12.30 20542 V 
921.725 12.4 2.74 20555 V 
921.804 12.1 2.82 20558 V 
923.758 12.5 1 77 20570 V 
924.771 L2.6 5.79 20585 V 

925.733 12.7 6.75 20595 V 
944.715 13.2 10.22 20642 V 
944.723 13.2 10.23 20643 V 
946.693 13.2 12.20 20671 V 
946.701 13.3 12.21 20672 V 

27273.761 12.8 13.58 21385 V 

274.739 12.3 14.56 21397 V 

275.740 12.2 0.05 21410 V 
306.708 12.0 0.00 21510 V 
307.722 12.1 1.01 21533 V 
308.701 12.1 1.99 21551 V 
309.718 12.2 3.01 21570 V 
639.765 12.9 7.39 23177 V 
658.790 12.8 10.88 23239 V 
659.714 12.8 11.80 23250 V 
664.705 12.2 1.29 23303 V 
872.98 13.6 7.95 VV 

888.95 13.5 8.41 VV 

889.90 13.6 9.36 VV 

930. 96 12.7 3.89 VV 



The Light Curves oj Two Variable Stars 63 

Julian Day Plate 

2,400,000.+ Mag Phase No. Obs. 

931.93 12.6 4.86 W 

955.88 13.3 13.30 W 

956.90 13.2 14.32 W 

28688.653 12.4 1.64 1977 T 

689.653 12 6 2.64 1991 T 

692.642 12.7 5.63 '2006 T 

693.706 13.1 6.70 2010 T 

695.726 13.1 8.72 2019 T 

696.644 13.0 9.64 2031 T 

715.642 L2 5 13. 12 2109 T 
29071.668 12 7 12.44 3247 T 

072.643 12.8 13.42 3257 T 
073.612 12.7 14.39 3270 T 
076.632 12.3 1.90 3287 T 
077.641 12.3 2.91 3300 T 
078.640 12.4 3.91 3314 T 
079.449 12.8 4.71 332S T 

XoTii to Table I. On plate 3058, the components of the variable were re- 
solved, but they were not on the subsequent plate. 

possible that in the future a period may be obtained to represent 
better all the observations, or it may be that the star is slightly 
irregular around a mean period. 

Table I gives the observations on this star, indicating in suc- 
cessive columns the Julian Day, magnitude, phase, plate number, 
and the initial of the observatory where the plate was taken, \Y 
standing for Mount Wilson, V for the Dominion Astrophysical, and 
T for the David Dunlap Observatory. Figure 2 shows the light 
curve as obtained from the adopted elements. The open circles 
represent the Mount Wilson observations which fall systematically 
below those of Victoria and Toronto, due to the better resolution 
of the double star. 

2. NGC 6254 =Messii r LO 

This cluster is at R.A. L6 h 51 m .9, Dec. -3 57 L900), galactic 
longitude .343°, latitude +22°. It has been observed tor eight 
consecutive seasons, first al the nonunion Astrophysical and later 
at the David Dunlap Observatory, on .i total of 12 nights. In 
addition, 11 Mount \\'il-on plates from the collection of Dr. Pease 
and Dr. Shapley have given observations on '.» additional nights 
between the years 1912 and 1919 



64 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Two variables were found in this cluster by the writer. In a 
paper by E. C. Pickering 3 in 1897 there is one previous reference 
to a variable in this cluster, when he mentions that Professor 
Bailey has found a variable in it. However, the cluster and 
variable were not included in Bailey's comprehensive work on 
variables in globular clusters published in 1902. 4 An attempt has 
been made to see whether any unpublished records at the Harvard 
Observatory would identify the variable announced in 1897 and 



' ; 5 



•3-5 



• • • 
oas* • • • 
•• • •* o • •• • 
• •• • 



NGC 0254 
Vac 2 



• — 



o • < 



"5 



2-5 



.30 



'5-5 



-1 o 4 8 12 id 

Figure 3 

The Light Curve of Variable No. 2 in NGC 6254. Abscissae are days; 

ordinates, apparent photographic magnitudes. The open circles represent 

observations from Mount Wilson plates, which for this star show no systematic 

difference from the Canadian plates. 



indicate if it were dropped from the lists because it was not a 
genuine variable. Miss Walker has located Prof. Bailey's records 
of a variable star search in this cluster, in which four suspected 
variables are identified. This search, however, judging from in- 
ternal evidence, was made about 1917, and there is no mention in 
these papers of the variable announced earlier. On the plates 
available to the writer, none of Bailey's suspected variables appears 
to be a genuine variable. 

A magnitude sequence has been obtained from three plates, one 
of fifteen minutes exposure and two of ten, on Kapteyn Area 108. 
The magnitude sequence is very unsatisfactory as there is a gap 



The Light Curves oj Two Variable Stars 65 

of 1.15 magnitudes between sequence stars in the very interval in 
which the variable is most frequently found. The magnitudes of 
the sequence stars are: a, 12.35; b, 13.5; c, 13.85; d, 14.1; e, 14.3; 
/, 14.65; g, 15.3; //, 15.6. 

The writer has not yet made a serious attempt to find a period 
for Variable No. 1 in this cluster. It is a bright object in a con- 
gested region, with a range of only half a magnitude. 

A satisfactory period has been obtained for Variable No. 2, 
however. It is found that this star, which is the brightest object 
in the cluster, strongly resembles in period the bright variable in 
NGC 6218 and also the brightest variable in NGC 6402.' The 
adopted elements are 

Maximum = J. D. 2426607. 712 + 18 d .754E 

Table II contains the observations of this variable in the same 
form used in Table I. Figure 3 gives the light curve of the star 
from the adopted elements. The gaps in the light curve are 
probably accounted for by the magnitude sequence, which is poor 
because of the scarcity of bright stars in the vicinity of the cluster. 
The magnitude estimates appear sufficient however to define the 
period well. The Mount Wilson observations are indicated by 
open circles. 

3. The Distances of NGC 6218 and NGC 6254 

Since no variables were known in either of these clusters when 
their distances were last determined, it is interesting to make a new 
determination of their distances from the period-luminosity rela- 
tion, although for each cluster it depends on only one star. For 
NGC 6218, the median apparent magnitude of the variable is 12. S 
(subtracting the brightness of the companion star); the absolute 
magnitude from the period luminosity curve is —2.2. giving a 
modulus of 15.0, and a distance of 10.0 kiloparsecs. For NGC 
6254, the median apparent magnitude of the variable is 12.7. the 
absolute magnitude —2.3, giving the same modulus as for NGC 
6218. We find that the determination of distance from the new 
data is essentially the same as that found earlier. Table 1 1 1 gi\ es a 
summary of the recent distance determinations. The adopted, 

uncorrected, distance is taken as the mean of the distance de- 
termined from the Cepheid variable and van de Kamp's distance. 

Table [lib shows that the true distance <>l the cluster is affected 



66 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE II 



Observations of Variables in XGC 6254 





Var. 


Var. 


Var. 






Julian Day 


No. 1 


No. 2 


No. 2 


Plate 




2,400,000."+ 


Mag. 


Mag. 


Phase 


No. 


Ob: 


19564.753 


13.8 


13.3 


s 55 


113 


W 


564.861 


13.7 


13.4 


8.66 


114 


W 


565.772 


13.5 


13.6 


9 . 56 


117 


w 


5115.869 


13.4 


13.6 


9.66 


119 


w 


566.819 


13.6 


13.7 


10.61 


123 


w 


566.835 


13.5 


13.7 


10.63 


124 


w 


20952.891 


13.6 


13.3 


8.89 


2982 


w 


980.936 


13.7 


12.0 


18.18 


3059 


w 


981.839 


13.6 


12.0 


0.33 


3069 


w 


981.908 


13.8 


12.1 


0.40 


3072 


w 


981.992 


13.6 


12.1 


0.48 


3076 


w 


21451.717 


13.4 


12.1 


4.38 


3869 


w 


22105.874 


13.3 


12.0 


17.88 


1944 


w 


22131.714 


13.6 


1 3 5 


9.21 


4960 


w 


26607.712 


13.7 


12.0 


0.00 


19970 


V 


915.796 


13.7 


12.1 


8.02 


20543 


V 


921.742 


13.5 


13.5 


13.97 


20556 


V 


921 . 75S 


13.6 


13.6 


13.98 


20557 


V 


923.804 


13.6 


13.2 


16.03 


20572 


V 


924.739 


13.4 


13.0 


16.97 


20583 


V 


925.716 


13.5 


12.1 


17.97 


20596 


V 


'.lit 735 


L3.5 


12 1 


18.20 


20644 


Y 


944.744 


13.5 


12.1 


18.21 


20645 


V 


946.713 


13.6 


12.1 


1.43 


20673 


Y 


946.722 


13.7 


12.0 


1.44 


20674 


V 


27274.752 


13 4 


13.7 


10.65 


21398 


V 


275.751 


13.5 


13 7 


11.65 


21411 


V 


306.756 


13.3 


12.0 


5 . 1 5 


21514 


V 


307 . 754 


13.3 


12.1 


6.64 


21536 


V 


308.712 


13.4 


12.1 


7.10 


21552 


V 


309.695 


13.4 


12.2 


8.08 


21569 


V 


309 . 746 


13.4 


12.3 


S 1 | 


21571 


V 


639.738 


13.5 


12.0 


0.56 


23176 


V 


658.724 


13.5 


12.1 


0.69 


23236 


V 


659.776 


13.5 


12.1 


1.84 


23253 


V 


664.783 


13.5 


12.2 


6.85 


23307 


V 


28016.589 


13.7 


12.0 


2.33 


99 


T 


038.508 


13.8 


12.2 


5 . 49 


184 


T 


043.555 


13.7 


13.6 


10.54 


216 


T 


308.796 


13.6 


13.6 


13.22 


822 


T 


309.741 


13.4 


13.6 


14.17 


835 


T 



The Light Curves of Two Variable Stars 





Var. 


Var. 


Var. 






Julian Day 


No. 1 


No. 2 


No. 2 


Plate 




2,400,000.+ 


Mag. 


M ig. 


Phase 


Xo. 


Ob 


365.617 


13 5 


13.3 


13.78 


1108 


T 


366.671 


13.4 


13 1 


14.84 


1125 


T 


391.569 


13.3 


11.9 


2.23 


1 225 


T 


392.635 


13.3 


11 9 


3.29 


12 12 


T 


398.622 


13.4 


13.2 


9.28 


1269 


T 


399.606 


13.2 


13.4 


10.26 


1286 


T 


688.672 


13.8 


11.9 


18.02 


1978 


T 


689.689 


13.8 


12.0 


0.28 


1993 


T 


692 . 654 


13.3 


11.9 


3.25 


2007 


T 


693 715 


13. 1 


12.0 


4.31 


2011 


T 


695.736 


13.3 


L2 2 


6.33 


2020 


T 


696 . 655 


13.3 


12.3 


7 25 


2032 


T 


715.652 


13.7 


1 2 . 5 


7. 19 


2110 


T 


29071.687 


13.8 


12.5 


7.20 


3248 


T 


072.670 


13 5 


13.1 


8.18 


3258 


T 


073.621 


13.5 


13.4 


9. I 1 


327 1 


T 


076 . 695 


13.3 


13.6 


12.21 


3288 


T 


077.648 


13.6 


13 .4 


13.16 


3301 


T 


078.647 


13.4 


13.2 


1 1 L6 


3315 


T 



far more by the value of the absorption coefficient one adopts than 
by the different ways of determining an uncorrected distance ot tin- 
cluster. If the mean of the three corrected distances is taken, it is 
very close to the distances given by van de Kamp for these clusters 
in 1933, 6.9 kiloparsecs for NGC 6218, and 6.7 for N< '.< 6254. It 
should be noted that Stebbins and Whit ford" find the field of 
NGC 6254 (measured colour excess £+0.19) considerably more 
reddened than that of NGC 621S (£+0.13); this is further con- 
firmed by the counts of nebulae in these fields by Baade. 11 The 
number of nebulae is normal in the field of NGC 6218, bul there 
are no nebulae in the field of NGC 6254 and i he -tar field is partially 
obscured. At the mean corrected distance the linear separation ol 
the two clusters is about 500 pars< 

Now that these two cluster-- are known to possess such brighl 
variables, photographs may be obtained with smaller, larger-field 
telescopes which would permit of mure sequence stars and lead to 
better magnitude estimates and a well-defined lighl curve. There 
is nn reason for assuming thai these variables are nol physically 
connected with the cluster in which they appear, and because ol 
the high galactic latitude, we maj assume thai the variables an- 



68 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE III 
Distances of NGC 6218 and NGC 6254 

(a) Uncorrected for Absorption 

Source NGC 6218 NGC 6254. Basis 

Shapley and Sawyer, 7 1929 11.0 kpc 11.2 kpc Int. mag., diam., bright stars 

van de Kamp, 8 1932 10.6 10.9 Int. mag., bright stars 

Sawyer, 1938 10.0 10.0 One long period Cepheid 

Uncorrected Mean 10.3 10.4 Mean of 1932 and 1938 

(b) Mean Distances Corrected for Absorption 
Absorption coefficient of NGC 6218 NGC 62s 4 

van de Kamp 9 6.7 kpc 6.5kpc log/= — 0.08 |cosec b\ 

Hubble 10 7.8 7.6 log/ = -0.05 |cosec b\ 

Stebbins and Whit ford 11 5.7 4.3 logf=-2.0£ 

Mean 6.7 6.1 

actual members. Because of their apparent brightness, which is 
greater than that of the variable in Messier 3 already studied 
spectroscopically by Joy, 12 these variables are especially commended 
to observers with fast spectrographs. 

References 

•Sawyer, D.A.O.Pub., v. VII, no. 5, 1938. 

2 Sawver, D.A.O.Pub., v. VI, no. 14, 1935. 

•Dickering, E. C, H.C., no. 18; A.N., v. 144, p. 191 ; Ap.J.. v. 6. p. 258, 1897. 

4 Bailey, H.A., v. 38, 1902. 

5 Sawyer, J.R.A.S.C, v. 31, p. 57, 1937. 

"Shapley, Star Clusters, p. 135, 1930. 

t Shapley and Sawyer, H.B., no. 869, 1929. 

8 van de Kamp, A. J., v. 42, p. 101, 1932. 

9 van de Kamp, A. J., v. 42, p. 160, 1933. 

10 Hubble, Ap.J., v. 79, p. 8, 1934. 

u Stebbins and Whitford, Ap.J., v. 84, p. 132, 1936. 

12 Joy, A.A.S.Pub., v. 9, p. 45, 1937. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario, 
October 25, 1938. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 
THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

Vol ume I Number 3 



THE RADIAL VELOCITIES 
OF 500 STARS 



R. K. YOUNG 

I llRECTOR 



L939 
THE UNIVERS1 I V OF rORON l«> PRESS 

TORON I" CANADA 

i 



THE RADIAL VELOCITIES OF 500 STARS 

THE radial velocities of the 500 stars contained in this publi- 
cation include all the stars in the Kapteyn areas from the 
north pole down to declination +15 degrees and to the 
photographic magnitude limit 7.5'.) as well as those stars in the 
immediate neighbourhood for an area 1 x 1 degrees square with 
the exception of a few stars whose velocities had already been 
determined. The programme as originally made out included an 
area 6x6 degrees square and some of the stars in this larger area 
have been included. Observation of the remainder of the stars in 
the larger areas is being continued. The observations have been 
made with the one-prism spectrograph attached to the 74-inch 
telescope. Observations were begun in June 1935 and completed 
in March 1939. Two cameras of 25 inch and 12^ inch focal length 
were available. The dispersion of the former is 33 A per mm. at 1 1-, 
and of the latter about half this. In the earlier months of the work, 
the 25-inch camera was used almost entirely. With this dispersion 
the spectra can be measured more accurately than with the lower 
dispersion. Owing to the number of nights when seeing conditions 
were poor and broken by clouds, it was soon realized that more 
rapid progress could be made with the shorter camera, and we 
have obtained nearly all the spectra with this camera. The results 
are adequately accurate for statistical studies or for the determina- 
tion of binary orbits with medium range. The detection of the 
binary character of those stars with small range, less than 20 km., 
is uncertain and doubtless some of these have been included as of 
constant velocity. 

The iron arc was used tin- comparison spectra using the wave- 
lengths recommended in the Transactions of tin- I.A.U., v. III. 
1928. For the stellar wave-lengths of the O-B types and the A 
types, we have used the values given in the Transactions of the 

I.A.U., v. IV, 1932. For the later types t\\" systems have been 
oi ommended based on the work of Adam- and Harper respectively. 
The difficulty of compiling satisfactory wave-lengths for the late 
type stars increases .is the dispersion decreases. The system given 
by the I.A.U. is quoted as being suitable for dispersions approxi- 
mating 10 A per mm. Although our dispersion is only about two 
thirds of this it seemed besl to use the published values. We 
have adhered fairly closely to the system given by Adams. The 
wave-lengths we have used are given in Table I 

171 I 



72 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE I 



X 


Auth. 


Type 


X 


Auth. 


Type 


3933.684 


x A * 


F-M 


4325 . 652 


x II 


G-K 


61 537 


o A * 


KM 


37.057 


o A * 


M 


68.494 


\ A * 


F-M 


10 477 


x A * 


F-M 


70.078 


x A * 


F 


51.848 


o A *B 


G-K 


1005 256 


\ A * 


F-M 


79.240 


o A * 


K-M 


24.670 


*B 


F-M 


83.550 


x A * 


F-G 


35.683 


o H 


G-K 


1104.763 


x A * 


F-M 


45.827 


x A * 


F-M 


07.694 


*B 


F-M 


(13 . 635 


X II 


F-M 


08.368 


x A 


M 


71.751 


x A * 


F-M 


15 153 


x II 


F-M 


77.726 


x A * 


F 


27.258 


x A • B 


G-M 


92 47s 


o H 


G-K 


35 226 


o A 


K-M 


lioi .750 


n A • 


F-G 


43. si l 


* 


F-M 


18.681 


o H 


G-K 


61.809 


o A 


G-M 


27. MO 


o H 


G-K 


66.564 


* 


F-M 


32.069 


x A * 


F-G 


68.502 


* 


F-M 


43.740 


\ A 


F-M 


82.21 1 


o A *B 


M 


91.555 


o II 


G-K 


94 . 575 


o A * 


F-M 


4202.042 


x A • 


G-K 


96.862 


o A * 


M 


15 638 


x AH 


F 


1501.280 


* 


F-M 


26.829 


Y 


F-G 


08.293 


o A * 


F-M 


35.951 


x A * 


F-G 


15.345 


* 


F-M 


46 838 


* 


F-M 


22.707 


o A 


G 


:.(). 165 


x A *B 


F-M 


22.809 


o A * 


K-M 


54 . 34S 


x A * 


G-M 


28.629 


* 


F-M 


60.415 


X 11 


F-M 


31.040 


o A 


G 


71.54.-) 


x A 


G 


31.084 


o A 


K-M 


71.586 


x II 


K-M 


33.974 


* 


F-M 


74.761 


o A 


K-M 


19 507 


*B 


F-M 


82.622 


o A 


K-M 


5 1 038 


* 


F-M 


89.632 


x A-H 


G-M 


58 . 652 


* 


F-M 


4307.914 


x A 


G-K 


03.768 


* 


F-M 


14.635 


x A 


M 


71.982 


o A * 


M 


14.668 


x A 


G-K 


83.841 


* 


F-M 


18.660 


o A * 


K-M 


4629.311 


* 


F-M 


20.816 


x A 


G-K 


4861.344 


o A * 


F-M 


1320.884 


x A 


M 









* Wave length in Sun 

B blend 

x I.A.U. Primary Standard 

o I.A.U. Secondary Standard 



Adams 
Harper 

Youne 



The Radial Velocities of 500 Stars 73 

The observation and measurement have been carried out by the 
various members of the staff as a joint programme. The following 
numbers of stars were assigned to the permanent members of the 
staff who were responsible for seeing that sufficient spectra were 
secured to obtain satisfactory velocities and for collating the results: 
F.S. Hogg, 151; P. M.Millman, 136; J. F.Heard, 127 ; R. K. Young, 
86. The observing at the telescope was done by the astronomers 
mentioned above with the assistance of Mr. Longworth, night assist- 
ant and machinist. Mr. Tidy and Mr. MacRae, the last three 
observers taking nearly all the latter part of the nights. The 
measuring has been shared by various members also. In all 33S7 
measures were made. Of these Miss Patterson made 1218; Miss 
Northcott, 829; Mr. Tidy, 470; Mr. MacRae. 445; Dr. Heard. 
190; Mr. Bunker, 119; Dr. Millman, 102. 

For 61 of the stars, velocities published at other observatories 
are available for a study of systematic differences. Two of these 
seem to be variable and yield large differences. These have been 
omitted. The 59 remaining stars were divided into groups according 
to the types, B, A, F, G, K, M. and the average residual and its 
probable error computed as shown in Table II. Before taking 
these residuals the published velocities were reduced to the system 
of Moore's catalogue by applying the correction given by Moore. 

TABLE II 



Type 


\ 


. Stars 


Alg 


. Residual 


p.e. 


B 




~> 




-2 '.i 


±0.8 


A 




'.i 




-0.4 


±1.3 


F 




n 




- -0 3 


±o.:> 


G 




in 




- 


±0.7 


K 




17 




1-0.2 


±0.3 


M 




4 




- 


±0.2 



For the whole 59 stars the average algebraic residual i> +0.40=1=0.03. 
For the individual types the numbers are probably too small to 
give very reliable results Ian there seems t<> be an indication th.it 
the systematic error i- more negative in tin- B and A type than in 
the later types. Some measures of standard velocity stars nol 
included in tin- presenl table and nol published tend to confirm 
this result. It is noteworthy thai the systematic corrections given 
by Moore for the Mount Wilson velocities tun from (U) in the A 



74 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

type to —0.8 in the M type. This is in the same direction as we 
find for the correction to our velocities. 

The results for all the stars are included in Table III in which 
the headings of the various columns have the following meanings. 

1. The serial number in the Henry Draper Catalogue. 

2-3. The right ascension and declination for the epoch 1900.0. 

4. The visual magnitude from Henry Draper Catalogue. 

5. The Harvard type. 

6. The type as estimated from our spectra. The criteria for 
estimating the type have been made as simple as possible and 
agree in general with the Harvard system and more particu- 
larly with the system adopted at Victoria. 

For the A-type— Ao, K 0.1 times Ho; A2, K 0.4 times H5; 
A5, K 1.2 times Ho; A9, K 2.0 times Ho. In the F-type 
attention was centered on the line 4227; F3. 4227, 0.1 times 
H 7 ; F7, 4227. 0.8 times H T ; F8, 4227 =H 7 ; Go, 4227, 3 times 
H7. For the later types the absolute intensity of 4227 was 
compared with typical spectra from CO — Ks and for the 
M-type the strength of the titatium oxide bands was used as 
a criterion. 

7. The velocity of the star, i.e., the weighted mean velocity from 
all the plates if the velocity seemed constant or variation not 
reasonably certain. Those stars which showed definite variation 
are indicated by "Var" or, if the variation was probable only, 
by "Var?" 

8. The probable error of the mean velocity computed by the 
formula 

P. E. = 0.845 lv \^ 



9. The number of plates. 

10. The minimum and maximum number of lines measured on the 
plates. 

11. The average probable error of a plate as judged from the 
agreement of the lines. 

12. The observer responsible for the collation of the results and the 
progress of observing. H, Hogg; M, Millman; Hd, Heard; 
Y, Young. 

13. Yelocities published at other observatories. In this column, 
M refers to Moore's general catalogue; W, the Mount Wilson 



The Radial Velocities of 500 Stars 75 

list of stars in Ap. J., v. 88, p. 34; Y, the Victoria list. D.A.O. 
Pub., v. VI, no. 10. 
14. References — R refers to notes to Table III; IV indicates 
that the individual velocities are found in Table IV. In this 
column also reference is made to a number of stars which 
showed a somewhat larger range than the agreement of the 
lines would lead one to suspect. Such stars are indicated by 
an * followed by a number showing the extreme range which 
the velocities indicated. 

The individual velocities for all those stars in which a velocity 
variation has been definitely established or for which a velocity 
variation is probable are shown in Table IV. There are 85 of 
these stars — that is a proportion of 1:4 which show variable 
velocity. This ratio is somewhat lower than ordinarily accepted 
since the low dispersion has prevented the detection of the binaries 
with small range. For most of these stars we have attempted to 
estimate a velocity which could be used in statistical work. Those 
who use these results can be guided in this regard by the probable 
error attached which has been computed in the usual way on the 
assumption that the variations in the velocities shown were of a 
purely accidental nature. Column 1, gives the H.D. number and 
the Julian day of the observation and tin- fractional part of the 
day; 2, the measured velocity; 3, the number of lines measured; 
4, the probable error computed .i> in column 11 of Table II; 5, the 
weighl assigned to the plate; <>. tin- camera used; 7, measurer — N, 
Miss R. J. Northcott; .MR, I). A. MacRae; I'. Miss F. S. Patterson; 
I. (".. H. Tidy; B, A. F. Bunker; M, P. M. Millman; Hd, J. F. 
Heard; S, Helen B. Sawyer. 



76 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



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The Radial Velocities of 500 Stars 



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The Radial Velocities of ■'>'> , i v 



99 





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100 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



o> 






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The Radial Velocities of 500 Stars 



101 



H.D. 
886 

3291 
4335 

5394 



7157 

11336 
15992 
16245 
16545 

16580 
17007 

21242 



22136 
23477 

26398 

35035 

35533 
13496 

13583 
14738 
16016 
57728 

63312 
91181 
L12501 
1 1 1723 
I L9213 
126269 
L31764 

L32445 

133330 



-70 



Notes to Table III 

3933 is weak and diffuse, though all other lines are sharp; it is 

considered to be of stellar origin. 

3933 very sharp, other lines fair only, Si II present. 

3933 very narrow as if interstellar. 

y Cassiopeiae; the spectrum is peculiar, emission lines being the 

prominent feature; the measures are from the absorption lines; the 

velocity is variable; numerous other plates have been studied. 

All lines sharp save H. 

Si II present. 

Si II visible on most plates. 

Si II very faint; suspect He on some plates. 

3933 very faint; Si II very strong; Mg II present; other faint lines 

variable in appearance. 

Suspect double lines in some cases; 4077 strong on last plate. 

Double star, mag. 7.9 — 8.1, sep. 3". 2; attempts made to guide on 
the brighter star but only satisfactory when the seeing was good. 

H and K strongly reversed; velocity of H and K apparently variable; 
a number of stellar lines are double on three plates; none of the 

12-inch camera plates show doubling; maximum separation of the 

double lines, 120 km. 

Si II unusually strong; 3933, 4481 particularly sharp. 

Presence of He doubtful: 3933 very sharp. 

H/3 shows emission core; strong emission at Ha; agreement of plates 

poor but measures probably unreliable because of the emission. 

Many metallic lines visible; Cr, Ti II, Fe strong; relative intensity 

of metallic lines seems somewhat variable. 

Si II particularly strong. 

Spectrum may be composite; Fe II appears on some plates, 

other faint metallic lines. 

3933 sharp. 

Si II strong; Mg II weak; main diffuse metallic lines. 

Si 1 1 present. 

The velocity may be variable but one plate only :-;ives discordant 

velocity. 

Ionized lines prominent . 
m! Fe 1 1 prominent . 

Si 1 1 present . 

Double star, mag. 6.9 7.1. sep. l".8, observed as one. 
Ionized Sr unusual! 

Composite Bpectrum; K line = H6; 4227 =().."> 1 1 - ; . 

Numerous fuzzy lines, a range "i '-ii km. is indicated but variation 

is doubtful. 

Eighl plates give fairly accordanl results with a range of '_'() km; one 
weak plan- increases the range t" 60 km.; variation is suspected. 
Fe and Fe II show faintly : Si II on one plate; H6 looks double in 
one case. 



102 

134305 
152107 



161695 
162936 
163219 
163966 
164429 
168431 
168481 

169820 
176003 
1792 IS 
179280 
181099 
L 88170 
is; i.is; i 



190603 



191671 
198820 
198915 
201194 

201912 

202109 
202644 
206280 
210405 
210646 
218097 



218395 

21S42S 

224166 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Sr II, Fe II strong. 

52 Herculis; ionized Sr very strong; metallic lines abundant and 
sharp; B has measured about 200 lines on one plate in a study of 
Ap stars. 

3933 exceedingly sharp, Si II present. 
Poor lines; ionized strontium variable? 
Lines fuzzy; Fe II strong. 
Si II present. 

Ionized strontium and silicon strong; He absent. 
Good lines; neutral helium spectrum very completely represented. 
Sr II, Ti II, Fe II and Cr strong; lines around 4634, 40, 48, 73, 
strong on some plates. 
Suspect double lines on two plates. 
Double star, mag. 6.9 — 8.5, sep. 0".5. 
H/3 probably emission. 
Fuzzy line star; velocity may be variable. 
Fe and Ti II strong. 
Si II appears on some plates. 

H/3 and I I-y show central emission; the velocities from hydrogen lines 
are often not in accord with those from weaker lines, possibly due 
to emission. 

Listed as an emission line star in Ap. J., v. 78, p. 87; the early B-type 
lines are sharp; H/3 is weak — probably filled in by emission. The 
velocities from hydrogen lines are markedly difterent from other 
lines and have not been included. The mean hydrogen velocity is 
—09.1 ±3.3. Calcium II and K are interstellar with a mean 
velocity -08.4 ± 1.5. 

3933 sharp, possibly interstellar; all other lines diffuse; Si III present. 
He spectrum very sharp and strong. 
Si II present; 3933 practically invisible. 

3933 seen on two plates only; from its appearance it may be inter- 
stellar. 

3933 sharp, but probably stellar; two measures give its velocity 
08.9 km. 

sharp lines; the velocity is known to vary over a small range. 
Si II present on some plates. 
Ionized silicon and calcium strong. 
Star has a faint companion, 8.7 mag. 27" dist. 
Many faint sharp lines; Fe strong. 

North and brighter component of close double; practically nothing 
but Ca II and H measurable. One plate of south component indicates 
it as an early A-type spectrum with many diffuse metallic lines. 
Double star, mag. 6.S-S.0, sep. S".4. 

Xo Ca II in this spectrum; faint metallic lines, Fe II and Sr II 
Si II strong; He very faint and diffuse. 



The Radial Velocities of 500 Stars 103 

TABLE IV 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. sec. 














H.D. 1826 
















8036. 800 


+22. S 


20 




1 


12 


N 


A5. Mean velocity — 1.] 




+27.4 


19 


3.3 






MR 


km sec; range 100 km; 


1 805 


-07.4 


15 


3.0 


1 


" 


P 


a preliminary orbit gives 


8412.768 


-32.0 


19 


2.4 


1 


" 


P 


P= 3.2832 days, velocity 




-25.9 


20 






•■ 


MR 


of system +2 km sec. 


8776 806 


+32 . 5 


15 




1 


•• 


P 


Many line lines. Y. 


9188.654 


-26.6 


29 


1.9 


1 




T 




H.D. 2019 
















80 19 817 


+11.5 


3 


2.9 


1 


r_> 


P 


B9. Mean velocity —16.6 


8455 686 


-52 2 


4 


9 3 


1 


•• 


P 


±7.1 km sec. : rai 






4 


6 s 






P 


km. Si II visible; some 


8770 805 


-18.5 


2 


10.8 


1 


•• 


P 


faint unidentified lines 


8811 .662 


+04.4 


6 


6.1 


1 


" 


MR 


suspected on some 


8881 .538 


+05.6 


7 


3 7 


1 


•■ 


M 


plates; lines possibly 


9133 860 


-10.1 


5 


'_• 6 


1 


•• 


P 


double on one plate. 


9168.761 


-57.0 


3 


LO n 


1 


" 


T 


M. 


H.D. 2453 
















8029.850 


-28.8 


13 


2.3 


2 


25 


N 


An sp. Velocity probabl) 




-24.3 


13 


3.1 




•• 


MR 


variable; mean \ e 


8382 851 


-09.7 


1 1 


2 1 


1 


12 


P 


-19.2 km sec. The 




-13 . 4 


17 


2.8 




■■ 


MR 


h\ drogen lines have nar- 


8449 683 


-05 7 


20 




1 


■■ 


P 


row cores; many sharp 




-07.8 


20 


2 7 




•• 


MR 


metallic lines; U28, 


8799 717 


-21.7 


]:: 


1 (t 


1 


•• 


P 


II. lid. 


8820 649 


-20.8 


21 


1 5 


2 


25 


P 




H.D. 2767 
















8034 868 


+07.9 


15 


1 1 


1 


25 


N 


K0. Veloi 




+0 11 


L5 


1 s 




■• 


MR 




8416 791 




22 




1 


12 


N 


+ 11.6 t 1.3 ki 




+ 11.4 


23 


1.7 




•• 


MR 


range 1 6 km. 1 1. 


8526 543 


+ 21 1 


26 


1 1 


1 


" 


\ 






+20.3 


25 


i g 




•• 


MR 




8744 872 


+09.4 


17 




1 


•• 


N 




8751 849 


+09.5 


18 


1 2 


1 




\ 




8761 846 




L9 


1 5 


1 




N 




9255 159 


1-18.2 


5 


s 2 







\ 





104 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE IX— Continued 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. /sec. 














H.D. 3369 
















8021 1 884 


+32.2 


9 


1.1 


2 


25 


X 


B4. 7T Andromedae. These 




+27.6 


11 


1.6 




" 


Hd 


observations are in sat- 


8799 760 


-08.6 


4 


6.9 




12 


Hd 


isfactory agreement with 


8821.712 


-11.2 


7 


7 :. 




" 


Hd 


Pearce's orbit (P.A.S.P. 




-12.8 


5 


5.7 




" 


Hd 


48, 215, L936). Hd. 


8835.667 


-26.7 


6 


:; 1 




11 


Hd 




H.D. 6475 
















8381) s7n 


-01.0 


2 


7 2 




12 


P 


AOn. Mr.m velocity 




+05.0 


3 


3.8 






MR 


-00.5 ±4. S km/sec; 


S 125.838 


-26.3 


1 


1 6 






P 


range 53 km. Poor 




-33.8 


5 


2.9 






MR 


lines; only hydrogen and 


8503.617 


-05.7 


:; 


9.8 






P 


3933 measurable. H. 




+00.3 


1 


6 7 






P 




8751.878 


+().-. 1 


4 


3.8 






1' 




8926.506 


+21 .9 


3 


9.8 






P 






+23.7 


3 


12.0 






P 




H.D. 9312 
















8063 788 


+08.1 


'-'1 


1.2 




12 


N 


G5. From 19 plates, mean 




+10.3 


22 


1.5 






Hd 


velocity +00.9 km/sec; 


8771.828 


+ 18.4 


18 


2.2 






Hd 


range 62 km. An orbit 




+19.4 


23 


2.1 






MR 


will be determined. 


8786.804 


-28.2 


19 


1.8 






Hd 


Hd. 




-29.0 


30 


1.8 






MR 




8806.782 


+23.4 


22 


1.5 






Hd 






+21.0 


24 


1.7 






MR 




H.D. 9709 
















8102.642 


-23.2 


3 


1 2 


y 


12 


Hd 


B8 n e. Velocity probably 


8131 .629 


-06.6 


3 


1.4 




25 


Hd 


variable; mean velocity 


8164.522 


-05.8 


3 


3.9 




" 


Hd 


-10.8 km /sec. H/3 


8370.862 


-35.8 


3 


4.0 


y 


12 


Hd 


shows double emission 


SCO. 801 


-23.4 


3 


3.4 




25 


Hd 


superposed on very 


8437.712 


+ 17.3 


3 


4.1 


y 


12 


Hd 


broad absorption; the 


8479 632 


-16.5 


2 


3.0 


y 


" 


Hd 


other hydrogen lines 


8491.620 


+07.1 


4 


3.7 




25 


Hd 


show evidence of similar 


9184 689 


-25.0 


4 


6.5 


y 


12 


Hd 


structure; 4481 and heli- 
um lines too weak and 
diffuse for measurement ; 
3933 barely visible. Hd. 



The Radial Velocities of 500 Stars 



105 



TABLE IV— Continued 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Ren 


J.D- 


Km. /sec. 














H.D. 10588 
















8412.820 


-21.9 


27 


J : 


1 


12 


P 


< .3. Me in velocity 


8763.842 


4-16 7 


27 


2.4 


1 


•■ 


P 


kin - . c 41 km. 


8794 788 


-15.6 


20 


1.8 


1 


•• 


I' 


V. 


BS - 674 


4-19.1 


23 


1.8 


1 


■• 


P 




8894 190 


-11.9 


22 


1.8 


1 


" 


P 




9188.716 


-19.8 


25 


1 3 


1 


" 


B 




H.D. 11188 
















8455 7!."i 


-33 8 


8 




1 


12 


P 


Mean velocity -10.1 




-21.1 





4.0 




•• 


MR 


- 


8518.550 


+01.4 


5 


1.9 


1 


" 


P 


km. Poor lines. 


8804.776 


+09.7 


5 


3 s 


'-• 


" 


P 


M. 


8881.582 


-43.6 


8 


5 1 




" 


M 




9144 903 


+29.4 


5 


s 6 


(i 


■■ 


T 




9182 761 


+02 . 5 


4 




1 


" 


T 




H.D. 14688 
















5.871 


+69.4 


11 


1 6 


1 


12 


N 


Ms. velocity 




+71.5 


10 


1 




•• 


MR 


+18.1±15.1 km 


8417 - -' 


+42.8 


23 


2 2 


1 


" 


N 


ran^e 95 km. Many 




+35.0 


8 






•■ 


MR 


strong metallic lines, 


8479 675 


-12 


20 


1 -3 


1 


•• 


N 


particularly Fe 1. Sr II. 




-12. 3 


10 






•• 


MR 


Mg 11 : 1226 Mtms vari- 


- 


-24.9 


20 


2 1 


1 




MR 


able in intensity. M. 


H.D.18473N 
















8441 783 


+ 17.9 


7 


7 1 


1 


12 


MR 


A0. Mean \ eli citj - 1.6 


8801 777 


-25.8 


4 


7.5 


1 


•• 


M 


±7.0 ki 


8815 750 


+03 7 


5 




1 


•• 


MR 


63 km. Si 1 1 \ . 


890 | 




s 


7 3 


1 


•• 


MR 


3 3 . 




-27 


6 


HI 




■• 


1' 


M. 


Mltis 800 


+ 29 7 


3 


3 1 




■■ 


1 




9200 736 


+13.4 


6 


3 (1 


1 




1 




H.D. 19536 














s] | l 769 


+11.9 


I.-, 


1 3 


2 


1' 


Als. 


8425 902 


+ 01 7 


.". 


3 7 


1 


12 


1' 


vai 




-11.9 


5 


t 'i 




■• 


MR 


! 


8457 


+ :;:; l 


- 




1 


•• 


P 


range 1«> km. All 






7 


3 II 




■■ 


MR 


llsl 


8503 659 


+15 o 


5 


3 7 


1 


■' 


P 


am II- 


i 599 


.in :, 


3 


.; 1 


1 


P 


8879 


+ 10 3 


• i 


:; I 


1 


• • 


1' 





106 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE IV — Continued 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. /sec. 














H.D. 22124 
















8082.822 


+51 1 


17 


1.2 


1 


25 


N 


F2. Mean velocity +31.6 




+52.8 


27 


1.2 




•• 


MR 


km sec. ; a preliminary 


M: .2.830 


+21.1 


2.3 


3.0 


1 


12 


N 


orbit gives P = 1.32638 


8784.879 


-00.7 


11 


3.0 


1 




X 


days, range 120 km., 




+07.7 


19 


2.2 






MR 


velocity of system 0.0 


8838.765 


+15.2 


10 


1.3 


1 




N 


km sec. V. 


91 16.892 


+38.5 


22 


2 1 


1 




T 




9167 


+59 :: 


12 


3.6 


1 




N 




H.D. 23838 
















8160 644 


+ 13.3 


29 


0.7 


1 


25 


N 


GO. From 12 plates, mean 




+12.5 


17 


1.1 




" 


MR 


velocity + 11.7 ± 2.2 


8562 535 


+27.2 


22 


2.2 


1 


12 


N 


km/sec; range 41 km. 




+31.4 


1 1 


1.6 




" 


MR 


H. 


^::s.899 




20 


1.9 


X 


12 


N 




8847. 7s il 


-02.5 


12 


1.7 


1 


" 


X 




890- 


+04.9 


15 


2.1 


1 


" 


X 




8926 612 


-00.1 


1 t 


1.5 


1 


•• 


X 




9151 924 


+04.9 


16 


2.5 


y* 


" 


X 




H.D. 26015 
















8404 . 905 


+39 3 


21 


2.0 


i 


12 


p 


F2. ; Velocity probably 


8510 673 


+ 12 9 


27 


1.6 


i 




p 


variable; mean velocity 


8816 764 


+32 . 7 


18 


2.0 


i 




p 


+37.8 ± 1.7 km/sec; 


8847.782 


+40.8 


24 


2.1 


i 




p 


range 14 km. Companion 


9143 913 


+24 . 6 


19 


1.9 


k 




T 


mag 8, sep. 4". H. 




+32 6 


17 


2.6 






X 




H.D. 27483 
















8082 . 876 


-16.81 
+80.6/ 


10 
9 




i 


25 


p 


F4. Double line binary; 
approximate velocity of 


8412.904 


-12 6 
+ 122.5/ 


12 

6 




i 


12 


p 


thesystem. +33 km /sec. ; 
it is not certain that the 


8430. S7S 


-25. 5 J 

+97.9/ 


21 
19 




i 


25 


p 


first recorded velocities 
refer always to the same 


8484 . 700 


-37.6 

+ 106.7/ 


11 
15 




i 




p 


component. Y. 



The Radial Velocities of 600 Stars 
TABLE IV— Continued 



107 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. /sec. 














H.D. 28271 
















80S3.847 


-35.6 


20 


0.9 


2 


25 


P 


F5. Velocity probably 


8184.622 


-26.6 


16 


2.1 


1 


" 


P 


variable; mean velocity 


8510.700 


-33.3 


18 


2.0 


1 


12 


P 


— 35.4 ± 1.6 km - 


8587 . 503 


-24.9 


15 


2.6 


1 




P 


range IS km. H. 




-30.4 


12 


2.8 






N 




8789.901 


-42.8 


13 


2.6 


1 




P 




896i.i 572 


—45.5 


14 


2.9 


1 




P 






-44.9 


9 


2.6 






MR 




8973.517 


-36.6 


10 


:; l 


1 




P 




H.D. 35076 
















8083.926 


-09.1 


9 


3.9 


1 


25 


P 


B9k. Velocity probably 




-07.3 


9 


4.0 






MR 


variable; mean velocity 


8510.729 


+ 14.1 


4 


4.2 


1 


12 


P 


+07.7±4.3 km sec. 




+ 18.1 


3 


2.4 






MR 


H. 


8515.743 


+ 17.7 


7 


1 :, 


y 2 


" 


P 






+36.9 


3 


6.2 






MR 




8864.808 


+21.0 


5 


1 .5 


i 


•■ 


P 




8868.762 


-10.3 


5 


7 2 


i 


" 


P 




8879 762 


+ 10.1 


5 


2.6 


i 


" 


P 




H.D. 35189 
















8064.910 


+29.9 


6 


6 9 


X 


12 


P 


Als. Mean velocity +19.9 


8161.670 


-35 1 


15 


2.8 


i 


25 


P 


±1.7 km sec. ; raj i 




+70.6 


9 


1.7 








single-line plates IS kin. 


8484.819 


+ 17.1 


29 


1.1 


i 


•■ 


P 


Many metallic lines vis- 


8570 547 


+25.2 


13 


3.1 


i 


12 


M 


ible; close double lines 


9189.870 


+ 11 .6 


10 


3.2 


i 


" 


T 


show clearly on one 


9325 502 


+22.7 


5 


2 9 


i 


" 


T 


plate. M. 


H.D. 35238 
















8108.819 


+52.6 


18 


2 2 


i 


L2 


N 


K0. \ <•!•., m j probably 




+56 1 


27 


17 




" 


MR 


variable; mean velocity 


8127 743 


+ 10 :; 


26 


1 7 


2 


25 


\ 


+41.5 km 


8563 585 


+45 7 


33 


1 6 


1 


12 


N 


H.l. 


8835 840 


+34 7 


16 




1 


■■ 


N 




8967 606 


+36.4 


20 


2 I 


1 


•• 


N 




9172 922 


+37. 1 


12 




1 




\ 





108 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE IV — Continued 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. /sec. 














H.D. 35522 
















8450.842 


+22.4 


5 


4.2 


1 


12 


P 


B8. Velocity probably- 


8909.688 


+00.9 


4 


5.4 


1 


" 


MR 


variable; mean velocity 




+02 . 5 


5 


9 I 






P 


+ 17.1 ± 4.9 km/sec; 


1)178.935 


+35 . 1 


5 


2.0 


1 


" 


T 


range 35 km. Presence 


9263 694 


+26.0 


8 


1 1 


1 


" 


T 


of Si II suspected. 


9317.508 


+00.5 


8 


6.1 


1 


' ' 


T 


M. 


H.D.43044p 
















8849 . 792 


+27.1 


4 


5.9 


1 


12 


P 


B9. Velocity probably 


8858.796 


+ 10.9 


2 


3.2 


Y* 




M 


variable; mean velocity 




+27.0 


4 


4.1 






T 


+ 10.8 ± 6.0 km/sec; 


8955.608 


+27.0 


5 


9.1 


1 




P 


range 63 km. 




+4S.2 


5 


•J 6 






T 


Suspect double lines on 


9200.850 


+01.1 


3 


1 1 


1 




T 


one plate. M. 




+27.5 


7 


7.1 






B 




9339.549 


-00.1 


4 


10.8 


1 




T 






-OS. 8 


5 


1 1 






M 




9347.549 


-25.2 


2 


6.0 


X 




T 




9357.540 


-24.3 


3 


10.7 


l A 




M 




H.D. 44250 
















S101 .872 


+29.6 


5 


3.2 




12 


P 


A0. Velocity probably- 




+06 . 1 


6 


! :, 






T 


variable; mean velocity 


8823.901 


-06.9 


:> 


1 5 






P 


+ 7.0 ± 4.7 km/sec; 




-05.8 


5 








N 


range 32 km. 


8860.901 


-14.9 


5 


8.2 






M 


Suspect Si II present; a 


8996.582 


+24.5 


:; 


6.5 


V* 




P 


few faint metallic lines 


9263.769 


+ 15.2 


6 








T 


on some plates. M. 


H.D. 44867 
















8108.859 


+80.6 


17 


2.2 




12 


N 


G7. Velocity probably 


8449.914 


f84 1 


27 


1.6 




" 


N 


variable; mean velocity 


8491.792 


+72.5 


39 


0.8 


2 


25 


N 


+71.2 km/sec. 


8919.677 


+69.1 


18 


2.2 




12 


N 


Hd. 


9272.684 


+66.2 


16 


2.5 






B 





The Radial Velocities of 500 Stars 109 

TABLE IV— Continued 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


IKm./sec. 














H.D. 45194 
















8472 904 


+71.7 


10 


2.4 


1 


12 


P 


- Mean velocity —06.0 


9208.890 


-29.8 


14 


2.2 


1 


" 


P 


km/sec. 


9200 867 


-22.6 


3 


6.0 





" 


B 


Hd. 


9212.788 


-23.5 


10 


1.9 


1 


" 


B 




9272.726 


— 17.7 


11 


1 \ 


1 


" 


B 




'.'278.597 


+08.8 


13 


2.4 


1 


" 


T 




9283 664 


+03.6 


15 


1.5 


1 


" 


T 




9289. 6G1 


-54.5 


8 


4.0 


1 


" 


T 




H.D. 45412 
















8082.913 


+03.0 


25 


1.1 


1 


25 


P 


F8. RT Aurigae. The 


8544.681 


+04.3 


23 


1.4 


1 


12 


P 


observations fit the curve 
of Kukarkin,\Yelno Bull. 
jj, 1930, and are close 
to the curve of Duncan, 
L.O.B. They do not lit 
the curve of Kiess.Mich. 
3, 131, so well. V. 


H.D. 47270 
















812S 831 


-34.4 


26 


0.8 


1 


25 


P 


K0. Mean velocity 


8167.728 


-36.0 


32 


0.8 


1 


" 


P 


±1.6 km/sec; range 17 


8510 7s.". 


-17.2 


22 


2.7 


V2 


12 


P 


km. 




-20.2 


12 


2.5 




" 


X 


n. 


8587.593 


-21.4 


25 


1.7 


1 


•■ 


1' 




8837 'tin 


-32.6 


22 


2.2 


1 


" 


P 




8847 868 


28 :: 


25 


1.5 


1 


" 


1' 




8966.657 


-25.7 


24 


•_• 1 


1 


" 


P 




H.D. 47395 
















si I'M 938 




5 


6 1 


1 


12 


1' 


B7. Mean velocity +1 '.».:: 


ss|.-, <.l|| 


+31 .0 


6 


1 1 


1 


•• 


P 


±4.2 km see. : r.u\ 


8867 847 


j U) 1 


5 


5 9 


1 


" 


M 


km. Strengl h of helium 


8907 7'-' I 


+24 5 


6 


5.0 


1 


•• 


M 


Miinrwli.il variable. 


9290 687 


+03.1 


7 


2 8 


1 


•• 


T 


M. 


it:;:,] 524 


-i H7 1 


7 


3 I 


1 




M 





110 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE IV — Continued 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. /sec. 














H.D.55283N 
















8870.877 


+06.2 


5 


8.6 


1 


12 


M 


A0. Mean velocity —16.5 




+04.7 


7 


4.0 






T 


±5.6 km/sec; range 40 


8937.704 


-31.3 


6 


7.3 


1 




MR 


km. Poor lines. 


8951 .655 


-01.4 


4 


2.4 


1 




N 


M. 




-00.2 


5 


6.4 






P 




8972 638 


-33.7 


4 


4.1 


1 




MR 




9336.636 


-34.9 


4 


7.4 


K 




T 




9341.632 


-08.9 


5 


1.1 


y 




T 




H.D. 63630 
















8160 793 


+51.7 


22 


2.2 




25 


N 


A". From 17 plates, mean 




+51.4 


1 1 


3.2 




" 


MR 


velocity +22.5 km/sec; 


8219.670 


+35.0 


22 


2.8 




" 


X 


range 96 km/sec. 




+43.6 


1 1 


4.3 




•• 


MR 


Definition of lines varies 


8491.933 


+24.9 


16 


2.5 




" 


\ 


from plate to plate. 




+38.8 


1 1 


4.1 




•■ 


MR 


H. 


8515 855 


+29.0 


9 


3.0 




12 


\ 




8590 "Hi 


-19.4 


6 


3.1 




•• 


N 






-18.1 


7 








P 




H.D. 68461 
















8121 958 


-26.2 


50 


0.7 


2 


2.-, 


P 


' ,'■ Mean velocity -19.0 


8229 639 


-26.5 


51 


0.8 


2 


" 


P 


km/sec; range 36 km. 


8544 751 


-12.1 


28 


1.4 


1 


12 


P 


Y. 


8593 578 


+02.8 


29 


1.6 


1 




P 






+05 . 6 


28 


2.8 






MR 




8635.562 


-14.5 


:;i 


2.0 


1 




P 




8880.888 


-22.3 


27 


2.4 


1 




P 




8985.612 


-30.5 


25 


1.8 


1 




MR 




9279 . 747 


-09.7 


22 


1.2 


1 




T 




H.D. 68776 
















8568 728 


+28.9 


25 


1.5 


1 


12 


P 


K0. Mean velocity +26.1 


8575.650 


+24.0 


26 


2.2 


1 


" 


P 


km/sec; range 29 km. 


8925 . 742 


+33 . 5 


15 


3.5 


1 


" 


P 


Hd. 


8940 686 


+11.2 


17 


4.3 


y 


25 


MR 






+02.1 


14 


2.3 




" 


P 




9023 532 


+ 17.9 


20 


3.0 


i 


" 


P 






+ 14.9 


18 


3.3 




" 


T 




9278.780 


+27.7 


16 


1.3 


i 


" 


T 




9289.783 


+35.9 


23 


1.6 


i 




T 





The Radial Velocities of 500 Stars 
TABLE IV— Continued 



111 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. /sec. 














H.D. 76216 
















8128 946 


-29.7 


19 


1.8 


2 


2.5 


P 


A2s. Velocity probably 


8557. 772 


-17.7 


16 


3.0 


1 


12 


P 


variable; mean velocity 


8657.562 


-37.2 


8 


:; 9 


1 




P 


-27.H ± 2.1 km sec: 




-32.7 


13 


2.8 






MR 


range 18 km. 


8966 721 


-17.5 


14 


2.7 


1 




P 


11. 


S! 173. 682 


-30.9 


10 


2.6 


1 




MR 




8984.638 


-33.0 


11 


3.5 


1 




MR 




H.D. 93075 
















9032 579 


-.55.1 


19 


3.2 


1 


12 


P 


A9. Mean velocity -29.8 


9035 576 


-18.7 


16 


1 7 


1 




P 


km sec; range 52 km. 


9306.819 


-58.4 


16 


2 6 


1 




T 


H. 


9358 653 


-06.6 


16 


1.8 


1 




T 




■■• 658 


-20.0 


I'.i 


1.1 


1 




T 




9379.604 


-10.1 


9 


:; 9 


y 




T 




H.D. 94118 
















8165.875 


-22.7 


20 


1 9 


y 


25 


P 


Al. Mean velocity +5.4 


8255 754 


-017 


7 


1.9 


y 


" 


P 


±3. 1 km sec. : range 1 1 


828(1 61 5 


+14.7 


11 


2.8 


i 


■■ 


P 


km. Most plates of this 


85 19 925 


4-21.8 


13 


1 2 


i 


12 


P 


star poor. 




4-20.9 


13 


5.0 




" 


MR 


M. 


8999.627 


-06 :; 


5 


2.3 


y 


" 


P 




7 645 


+04 . 2 


11 


:; 2 


i 


•• 


T 




9340 685 


+07 . 5 


6 


6.7 


y 




1 




H.D. 99267 
















8950 799 


+ 12.7 


10 


1 8 


i 


12 


P 


\8. \ elcx il probably 


8964 753 


+07 . 5 


19 


5 1 


i 


•• 


I" 


iable; mean \ el< 


9027 .".7(i 


-10.8 


10 


3 


i 


•• 


P 


- t.8±4.2 km 


'..(Hi 587 


-16.3 


10 


1 1 


i 


" 


P 


Man) lines \\ hit 


mo is. 588 


-17 


17 


7 7 


i 




P 


rather difficult <>n 12- 
inch camera plates. Y. 


H.D. 106677 
















8622 7.; 1 


-35.0 


27 


2 3 


i 


12 


P 


Ko. M.-.in veloi il ' 17. 1 




37 1 


29 


1 7 




" 


MR 


b 2. 6 k h • 


8636 641 


54 i 


1 1 


•_- .; 


i 


•• 


P 


km. l-'.i irl \ strong 


8643 648 


50 1 


24 


1 


i 


•• 


P 


emi 


5 673 


-51 8 


27 


I 8 


i 




P .,: 


8984 701 




is 




i 




MR 


11. 




32 I 


17 






" 


1 




9021 636 




21 


.; 2 


i 




P 




9026 647 


19 5 


20 




i 




P 



112 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE IV — Continued 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.I). 


Km. sec. 














H.D. 106926 
















8575 841 


-31.5 


26 


1 8 


1 


12 


P 


K0. Mean velocity —40.9 


624 


-43.0 


23 


2.1 


1 


" 


P 


km/sec; range 23 km. 


887 


-29.2 


lit 


3 . 9 


1 


" 


P 


Hd. 




-32.8 


19 


1.8 




" 


T 




8968 753 


-52.0 


17 


:, s 


1 


" 


V 






-54.8 


15 


2.1 




" 


T 




8987 . 708 


-42.9 


10 


2.4 


1 


" 


P 




9009.710 


-34 1 


8 


6.0 


K 


" 


P 




902 


-42.3 


17 


1.9 


l 




P 




H.D. 112570 
















8272 749 


4-04 9 


47. 


0.7 


2 


25 


P 


G8. Velocity probably 


8282 698 


4-01.5 


44 


0.7 


2 


" 


P 


variable; mean velocity 


- 1 717 


+ 17 7 


31 


1 7 


1 


12 


P 


+08.5 ± l.S; km/sec; 




+20 . 1 


28 


2.0 




•■ 


MR 


range 17 km. 


859 


+15.2 


32 


2.1 


1 


" 


P 


H. 


8685.603 


+ 11 .6 


21 


1.6 


1 


" 


P 




8984.800 


+09.2 


24 


2.0 


1 




MR 




H.D. 112734 
















8626 776 


4-13 7- 


1 


10.0 


V* 


12 


P 


A5. Mean velocity —6.1 


' 


1 


12 


2.9 


1 




P 


±3.4 km sec. ; ran. 


905! 


-07.1 


12 


4 1 


1 




P 


km. ' H. 


9064 


-13.6 


6 


6.0 


1 




P 




: 706 


-05.3 


15 


3.8 


1 




T 




" 


-21.0 


13 


1.1 


1 




T 




H.D. 116594 
















52 2.749 


-02.3 


13 


0.7 


2 


25 


N 


G7. Mean velocity —04.9 


- 24 756 


+05 4 


24 


1.2 


1 


12 


N 


km /sec, range 33 km. 


- ' 


-02.3 


12 


3.4 


1 


" 


N 


Hd. 


- 82 (ill 


+04.0 


18 


1 4 


2 


25 


N 




: 752 


-20.0 


14 


3.8 


1 


12 


N 






-16.8 


22 


3.0 




" 


MR 




901- - 


-25.8 


13 


2.4 


1 


" 


X 






-29.3 


27 


2.0 






MR 





The Radial Velocities of 500 Stars 
I ABLE IV— Continued 



113 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Rem. irks 


J.D. 


Km. /sec. 














H.D. 141930 
















8324 . 632 


-12.1 


8 


3.3 


1 


12 


N 


Al. Velocity probably 




-10.6 


9 


5.0 




" 


P 


variable; mean velocity 


8610.908 


-33.4 


12 


6.3 


1 


ii 


N 


-20.2 km sec. The 


8624.865 


27 - 


11 


5.5 


1 


ii 


N 


hydrocen lines and 


8683.668 


+20.9 


8 


:, 1 


l 


" 


N 


and 4481 are broad: all 




-00.9 


6 


- 




" 


P 


other lines very poor. 


9023 71 s 


-37.2 


7 


8.4 


1 


" 


N 


This star is double; 




-15.2 


7 


5 \ 




" 


P 


magnitu : ^sep- 


9094 655 


-50.8 


1 


13.0 


X 


" 


P 


aration 0".57; the com- 




: " 


5 


7.3 






P 


ponents were not re- 
solved on the slit. Hd. 


H.D. 142926 
















8206 . 977 


-20.8 


3 


1 1 




25 


Hd 


B9e. Announced as 


8220 952 


-15.4 


3 


1.4 




" 


Hd 


spectroscopic binary by 


8221.940 


-09 :; 


3 


1.1 




•• 


11.1 


Plaskett (Pub. I>..\ 0., 


8228 949 


-21.9 


3 


2.3 




" 


11,1 


/. 2S7. 1921 . From 26 


8262.854 


+ 05 7 


3 


2 






11.' 


D.I >.' 5, a prelim- 
inary orbit gives P = 
0.9763 da; s; ran . e 25 
km sec. ; velocity of sys- 
tem — 16 km sec. Hy- 

_en lines hive sharp 
cores with broad • 
suggesting the existence 
of indistinct doubleemis- 
sion. Several panchro- 
matic plates show strong 
Ha.confirmingthisview. 
the only other 
line 

ible. Hd. 


H.D. 150203 
















8657 807 


-25 


5 


5 7 


1 


12 


I" 


A2n. Vel ibably 


5 642 




t 


i .; 


1 


■■ 


1' 


•i velocity 




20 2 


1 


i l 




•• 


1' 


-17 


8720 594 


2 1 


3 


Hi 7 


1 


■• 


P 


km. 


8727.594 


+05.0 


2 


13 it 


" 


I' 


( )].: 




+09.4 




5 ii 






MR 




, 594 




1 


7 6 


l 




1' 


11. 


i 939 


+30 1 


3 


in 8 






I' 






+ 25 


3 


Ml :, 




" 


\ 




9015 802 


-10 3 


5 


7 1 


1 


" 




9] 13 563 


12 6 


3 


g ii 


l 


• • 


1 





114 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE IV — Continued 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. sec. 














H.D. 151746 
















8643.872 


-17.5 


21 


1.8 


1 


12 


P 


A2. Mean velocity -10.8 




-14.5 


16 


1.5 






MR 


±2.t> km sec; range 30 


8664.821 


-03.2 


18 


3.4 


1 




P 


km. 


8678.792 


-03 2 


15 


3.9 


1 




P 


H. 


8709.633 


-35.9 


13 


3.3 


1 




P 






-27.8 


14 


2.8 






X 




8728 


— 11.0 


11 


4.6 


K 




P 




'.Mi:, 760 


-06.0 


23 


2.7 


y 




MR 




9050 745 


-02.1 


26 


3.1 


i 




MR 




H.D. 152951 
















8265.894 


+13.7 


4 


5.1 


i 


25 


P 


A2. Velocity probably 




+01 .7 


4 


9.3 






MR 


variable; mean velocity 


8371.617 


+20.6 


6 


1.0 


i 


12 


P 


-02.5 ± 2.7 km/sec; 






1 


1.9 






MR 


range 41 km. 


8685 756 


-08.1 


7 


:; i 


i 




P 


Lines poor on most 




+00.5 


7 


5.1 






MR 


plates. 


8707 695 


-05 


7 


2.9 


i 




P 


H. 


8720 625 


-14.0 


8 


1 5 


i 




P 




8727 6 n 


-14 :; 


4 


12.3 


y 




P 






-01.5 


6 


9.1 






X 




87 5 636 


+08.6 


5 


: 2 


y 




P 






+30.6 


5 


9.5 






MR 




8979 962 


-01.3 


5 


10.0 




- 


MR 




9045 725 


-21.0 


6 


4.3 




12 


MR 




9050 693 


-11.3 


5 


11.3 




" 


MR 




H.D. 156653 
















801'.» 562 


+20.0 


Hi 


3.8 




25 


X 


A2. Velocity probably 


8656 81 1 


+20.1 


4 


4.2 




12 


X 


variable; mean velocity 




+ 18.9 


6 


1.7 






T 


— 7.3 km/sec; range 24 


8719.635 


+00.4 


6 


3.0 






X 


km. 


8719.657 


-06.9 


4 


7.2 






X 


Hydrogen and 3933 




-01.7 


6 


5.1 






MR 


strong and well denned; 


S722 582 


+ 11.0 


4 


4.1 






X 


25-inch camera plate 


8999 . 785 


-02.6 


7 


1.6 






X 


shows many well defined 
metallic lines. Y. 


H.D. 158251 
















8718.685 


-04.6 


18 


2.4 




12 


X 


FOs. Velocity probably 


9009.862 


-04.1 


8 


2.0 




" 


X 


variable; mean velocity 


9019. S53 


-13.5 


16 


2.9 




" 


X 


— 11.5 km /sec. 


9112 574 


-22.7 


20 


2.6 




" 


P 


Hd. 


9114.579 


-12.5 


26 


2.5 






X 





The Radial Velocities of 500 Stars 
TABLE IV— Continued 



115 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. /sec 














H.D. 159330 
















S709 . 709 


-09.4 


15 


2.8 


1 


12 


N 


K2. Velocity probably 


8734.611 


, -18.2 


15 


1.9 


1 


" 


X 


variable; mean velocity 




-06.4 


16 






" 


P 


-12.7 ± IX km sec; 


8768.588 


-15.1 


16 


1.1 


1 


" 


X 


range 23 km. 


8984.912 


-03.6 


28 


1.5 


1 


" 


MR 


H. 




-00.8 


21 


1.9 




" 


P 




9064 729 


-25.7 


22 


1.7 


1 


" 


P 




91 U.542 


-11.7 


21 


l.S 


1 




T 




H.D. 162880 
















8379.614 


+14.9 


16 


3.6 


1 


12 


P 


A6. Velocity probably 




+20.6 


22 


2.4 




" 


.MR 


variable; mean velocity 


- -1.740 


-08.5 


19 


2.1 


1 


" 


P 


-00.1 km/sec. This 


9093.612 


-06.3 


10 


•"..1 


1 


•• 


P 


star is a double; magni- 


9104 597 


-01.8 


13 


4 5 


1 


" 


P 


tudes 7.8 — 7. S; separa- 


9139.582 


-01.9 


21 


2.6 


1 




P 


tion 3".4; -uided on 
south star. V 


H.D. 164078 
















8017.595 


-07.9 


4 


5.0 


1 


25 


X 


F5n. Mean \ el >city+03.1 


8378 ,-,i7 


-09.1 


7 


2.2 


1 


12 


X 


km sec. ; range !■"> km. 


8773.554 


+ 11.1 


5 


1.3 


1 


" 


\ 


in. 


8782 . 550 


+29.9 


4 


3.0 


1 


•• 


X 






+29.6 


8 


4.3 


1 


•■ 


MR 




9112 649 


-15.5 


9 


3.7 


1 


•• 


P 




9114.657 


-03.3 


11 


5.8 


1 


" 


N 




9116 589 


+ 16. 1 


5 




1 




X 




H.D. 164898 
















8362 694 


+21.9 


18 


3 1 


1 


VI 


\ 


\n M. in velocity 


8380 690 


7 ii 


7 


5 ii 


1 


" 


X 


±11.5 km sec.; range 


si 15 


+31.6 


7 


1 '• 


1 


■■ 


N 


.m. 11. 




+27.3 


6 


3 3 




" 


B 




8707 742 


-66 


6 




1 


•' 


\ 






ii! '.i 


1 


3 5 




•• 


B 




8720 662 


4 24 6 


1 


7 2 


1 


•• 


N 




8727 672 


II v 


5 




'-■ 


" 


\ 




8734 653 


61 5 


8 


5 n 


1 




N 





116 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE IV— Continued 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. /sec. 














H.D. 165170 
















8683.760 


-20.0 


10 


2 7 




12 


N 


F4. Velocity probably 


9047.822 


-09.2 


11 


3.1 




" 


.MR 


variable; mean velocity 


9109.697 


-28.4 


15 


2.0 




" 


P 


— 19.4 km sec. This 


9110.716 


-14.9 


15 


2.5 




" 


P 


star is double; magni- 


9123.675 


-24.7 


11 


2 :; 






T 


tudes 7.S, 9.0; separa- 
tion 0".53; the compon- 
ents were not resolved 
on the slit. Hd. 


H.D. 166014 
















7989 710 


-40.9 


4 


9.2 




12 


M 


B9. Helium \ve:ik, lines 




-25.4 


3 


2 5 




" 


S 


poor but suspected 


8221.965 


-20.6 


7 


6.0 




" 


M 


double in a few cases. 


8298. S81 


-21.3 


3 


4.4 




" 


M 


Velocities given here 


8304.858 


- 12 :; 


4 


4.2 




" 


M 


show no evidence of the 


8310 


-27.5 


7 


8.3 




•• 


M 


21.90 day period listed 


8316.767 


-27.7 


3 


1 5 




" 


M 


by Schnellar. This con- 


835C 


-34.1 


4 


2.3 




■■ 


M 


firms the constant lum- 


8350.040 


-29.0 


6 


5.2 




" 


M 


inosity found by Zverev 


8350 646 


-27.9 


1 


7.2 




" 


M 


in Sternberg Pub. , v. 8, 


8356.649 




4 


8.9 




" 


M 


p. 99. There is the possi- 


8356.658 


-33 it 


4 


4.0 






M 


bility that diffuse double 
lines are present but not 
separated enough for in- 
dividual measurement. 
M. 


H.D. 169223 
















8720.744 


4-24.5 


19 


2.9 


1 


12 


P 


K0. Velocity probably 


8758.617 


+ 16.6 


20 


3 2 


1 


" 


P 


variable; mean velocity 


8762.615 


+ 10.8 


19 


2.9 


1 


" 


P 


+ 15.7 ± 1.9 km sec; 


905S 849 


+ 22 8 


15 


4.0 


1 


" 


P 


range 15 km. 


9063.717 


+09. G 


22 


1.7 


1 


•• 


P 


H. 


9156.567 


+09.8 


23 


2.1 


1 


* ' 


T 




H.D. 172187 
















8003.729 


-56.6 


7 


9.3 


1 


25 


S 


A-". Velocity variable; 


8678.862 


+ 22.0 


9 


5.9 


1 


12 


P 


mean velocity from 13 




+29.1 


12 


5.2 




" 


MR 


plates; +06.9 ±6.4 


S735.711 


+44.7 


11 


3.8 


1 


it 


P 


km/sec; range 111 km. 




+47.8 


10 


4.7 




" 


N 


Lines somewhat diffuse 


8800 . 5S4 


-53.1 


8 


8.1 


1 


" 


P 


and variable in defini- 


8837.465 


-26.7 


5 


7.6 


1 


" 


P 


tion. 




-09.3 


4 


6.0 




" 


MR 


H. 


9141.592 


-01.7 


7 


6.3 


1 




T 





The Radial Velocities of 500 Stars 
TABLE IV— Continued 



11; 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. /sec. 














H.D. 175865 
















8014.632 


-29 n 


39 


1.5 


2 


P 


M5. R Lyrae. The 




-25 1 


32 


1.6 




•■ 


P 


velocity is known to be 


8799 522 


-32 :; 


18 


2.8 


1 


12 


P 


variable. 


8806 . 526 


2 : 


21 


2.1 


1 




P 


Hd. 


H.D. 176053 
















8055.551 


-14.1 


5 


4.9 


1 


12 


P 


A3. Mean velocity —37.0 


- 3 708 


-22.0 


11 


4.8 


1 




' 


P 


km sec. Lines rather 


8412 - 


-17.1 


6 


5.3 


1 




' 


P 


wide for measurement. 


8432 536 


-70.1 


9 


2.8 


1 




• 


P 


This star is a visual 




-71. s 


7 


1 9 






' 


MR 


double, magnitudes 


9069.832 


-56 1 


6 


5 3 


1 




' 


P 


8.0: separation 1".0 


9083.681 


-52 1 


3 


2.1 


1 




' 


P 


V. 


9188.483 


-26.3 


9 


1.9 


1 


* * 


T 




H.D. 181144 
















9082.758 


+25.0 


14 


3.3 


1 


12 


P 


F7. Mean velocity —04.5 


9170.583 


-15. 2 


18 


3.0 


1 


•• 


T 


km sec. 


')172 540 


-33 8 


16 


2.2 


1 


" 


T 


Hd. 


9184 543 


+ 18.0 


16 


3.4 


1 


'• 


B 






+ 18.3 


22 


2.2 




" 


T 




9205 




6 


3.8 


y 2 


* * 


T 




H.D. 182381 
















8801 589 


-19 l 


:; 


2 6 


i 


12 


MR 


AOn. Velocity probably 


9065 739 


+31 .6 


I 


9.0 


i 


•• 


P 


variable; mean velocity 




+16.0 


6 


5 






B 


-11.1 ± 8.4 km 


9103.676 


-39 8 


4 


8.7 


i 


" 


T 


e 64 km. 


9131 


-29.6 


4 


II 1 


i 


" 


P 


Vei y little but hydrogen 


9133 626 




1 


7 t 


i 




T 


visible; presence of heli- 
um suspected. M. 


H.D. 189013 
















7 717 


+22.4 


1 


2 1 


i 


12 


P 


Al. Velocitj probably 




+ 14 2 


8 


3 :; 




•• 


MR 


vari ible; mean velocity 


717 


+12. 5 


10 


5 1 


i 


•• 


P 


+ 7.5 km 


8783 592 


+06 5 


8 




i 


•• 


P 


Hydrogen, 3933 and 


9104 721 


|-02 i 


1 




i 


" 


P 


1481, and several • 


9 646 


+12.0 


6 


.; g 


i 


•• 


T 


lie lines well defim 


9157 624 


-1 1 7 


5 


1 1 


i 


" 


1 


Y. 




+ 02 


10 








N 





118 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE IV — Continued 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wi. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. /sec. 














H.D. 193349 
















8077 . 553 


-09.9 


10 


8.3 




12 


M 


AOsp. Velocity probably 


8823.499 


-29.0 


7 


7.1 






P 


variable; mean velocity 


9052.849 


+00.9 


12 


6.7 






P 


— 17.S ± 4.7 km sec; 


9120.681 


-23.2 


10 


3.4 






P 


ranye 43 km. Spectrum 


9182.502 


-42.3 


11 


5.7 






M 


appears peculiar, pos- 


9194 .117 


-03.1 


14 


3.1 






T 


sibly due to blending 
with another star; Fe 
and Ca I unusually 
strong; suspect He on 
some plates ; Ca 1 1 weak. 
M. 


H.D. 198726 
















7994.751 


-08.2 


18 


2.0 


2 


25 


Hd 


T Vulpeculae. Cepheid 


8723 765 


-11.3 


16 


2 


2 


■■ 


Hd 


variable. Spectral types 


8773.687 


+ 13.4 


7 


1.1 


1 


12 


Hd 


of these four plates are 


8782 622 


-01.2 


14 


4.9 


1 




lid 


F-l. I 8 F8 . F9. Veloci- 
ties fit Beal's orbit 
P.A.O. 3, 23) satisfac- 
torily if the period be 
changed from 4.4357S to 
4.43572 days. Hd. 


H.D. 199140 
















8000 . 7S0 


-47.2 


21 


2.8 


2 


25 


S 


B2sk. Known binary ; 




-59.9 


23 


1.9 




•• 


N 


Victoria mean velocity 


875S 708 


-51.0 


8 


6 6 




12 


P 


— 07±5 km/sec. Mean 


8778 


-04.6 


10 


5.9 






P 


velocity from D.D.O. 




-11.1 


14 


4.1 






MR 


plates -25.4 ± 8.5 


9054.856 


-33.7 


9 


3.7 






P 


km/sec; range 124 km. 


9064.851 


-66.8 


7 


2.2 






P 


H. 




-70.8 


9 


4.0 






B 




9169.565 


-43 1 


8 


2.8 






T 




9183.551 


+ 18. 2 


12 


1.7 






T 




9206.501 


+ 51.5 


10 


5.0 






T 






+60.4 


10 


4.4 






B 





The Radial Velocities of -500 Stars 
TABLE IV— Continued 



119 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


\Yt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. /sec. 














H.D. 199479 
















8737.743 


-16.4 


3 


8.6 


1 


12 


Hd 


BS. Velocity probably 




-1S.2 


7 


5.2 








T 


variable: mean velocity 


^771.660 


-58.2 


5 


3 6 


1 






11 : 


— 07 1 kin sec. Hydro- 




-18.0 


3 


6.4 








MR 


gen lines fair; helium 




28 


-1 


3.4 








T 


and 3933 and 44S1 are 


S777.628 


-41.0 


4 


4.7 


1 






Hd 


very weak. 




-03.8 


5 


10 S 








T 


Hd. 


91 10. SOS 


+ 16.0 
+03 . 6 


6 
8 


6.8 
6.] 


1 






Hd 
T 




9114.769 


+27 9 

+ 10.7 


4 

7 


7 . :; 
4.6 


1 






Hd 
T 




H.D. 201078 
















8003.789 


+16.3 


21 


1 3 


1 


25 


X 


Cepheid variable; 


8762.749 


-05.4 


16 


3 2 


1 


12 


\ 


orbit by Sanford. 


8789.630 


- 1 1 5 


15 


2.1 


1 


" 


\ 


H. 


H.D. 201433 
















8002 Mil 


-08.2 


8 


2 6 


1 


2.-. 


N 


A0. Known binary. Orbit 


8803.599 


-04.3 


3 


1 1 


1 


12 


X 


Pub. D.A.O. /, p 


8803.621 


-16.2 


3 


5.7 


1 


•• 


N 


These observations tit 


8838.512 


-40.4 


6 


1.7 


1 


" 


X 


orbit very well if period 


8838.531 


-41 2 


1 


8.0 


1 




X 


be altered from 3 

1 3133 days. Previous 
orbit tiives velocity of 
system = — 25. S km sec. 
Hydrogen, calcium, and 
rather poor 1 181. Y. 


H.D. 208174 
















807. 


+00.9 


11 


1 . 1 


1 


12 


M 


\.">v. Mean velocitj 8 : 


8417 . 685 


-03.4 


16 




1 


" 


M 


±2.8 km sec 


9 125. SOI 


24 ii 


16 




1 


• i 


I" 


km. Probably variable 




-2S.0 


29 








T 


velocity. Lines of C 1 


9131 ::s 


-13.3 


13 


3 1 


1 


•• 


T 


II, Sr II and others 


91 17.656 


-10.0 


17 




1 


•• 


T 


seem t<> varj in relative 


9182 638 


+01.7 


17 


2.2 


1 




B 


sitj . M. 



120 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE IV— Continued 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. /sec. 














H.D. 208835 
















8042.657 


4-23.2 


3 


10.2 


K 


12 


M 


B8. Mean velocity +0.8 


8403.717 


+30.8 


7 


7.1 


l 


" 


M 


±10.2 km/sec. ; range 81 


8844. .1.11 


+ 31 7 


3 


1.1 


l 


" 


N 


km. Si II lines visible. 


9119.758 


-37.2 


5 


10. 


l 


" 


T 


M. 




-55.0 


5 


5.5 






I' 




9144.692 


+07.0 


6 


3 . 7 


y 


' ' 


T 




9175.617 


-30.3 


7 


2.9 


i 




T 




H.D. 209205 
















8047.710 


+ 33,. 1 


3 


7 3, 


i 


12 


M 


B9n. Mean velocity +4.8 


9103.790 


+ 21.3 


3 


4.9 


i 


" 


I' 


±6.4 km/sec; rant;i- 63 


9105.778 


+09.2 


5 


14. 


y 


" 


P 


km. Probably variable 


9117.802 


-00.7 


4 


3.4 


i 


" 


T 


velocitv. 


9144 754 


-12. 2 


2 


12.5 


i 


" 


T 


M. 




-25.7 


2 


9 6 






B 




9168.656 


-10.9 


2 


2 1 


y 


ii 


T 






-49.6 


5 


13.1 






B 




H.D. 209469 
















8036 687 


-17.3 


4 


3.1 




12 


N 


B9. Mean velocity —12.7 


8763 728 


-13 2 


3 


1 . 




" 


\ 


±5.0 km/sec; range 67 


8817.562 


-44 .5 


4 


8.1 




" 


N 


km. Probablv variable. 




-36.8 


3 


8.9 






P 


V. 


9104.818 


-09.8 


2 


1.6 




" 


P 




9139 689 


-22.0 


3 


3.1 




" 


T 




9188.564 


+26.5 


3 


5.5 






N 




H.D. 209484 
















8070 606 


-17.9 


11 


3.5 




12 


M 


B9. Mean velocity -7.0 


8350 836 


-32.1 


4 


4.8 




" 


M 


±3.4 km/sec; range 34 




-20.1 


6 


4.1 






T 


km. Probably variable. 


9115.790 


+08.2 


5 


2.2 




" 


P 


3933 and 4481 quite 


9119 790 


-03.0 


5 


1 2 




" 


T 


sharp on most plates, 


9147 693 


+03.2 


5 


1.9 




" 


T 


other lines poor. 


9182.611 


-00.1 


4 


1.0 






T 


M. 


H.D. 209813 
















$131,491 


-34.2 


26 


1.6 




25 


P 


K0. Mean velocity —5.1 




-31.1 


27 


1.0 






MR 


±6.5 km/sec; range 50 


S432.731 


+20.5 


28 


2.1 




12 


P 


km. Y. 




+11.5 


18 


1.7 






MR 




8709 7 "id 


-08.0 


23 


1.4 




" 


P 




8798.644 


+04.2 


20 


2.1 






P 





The Radial Velocities of 600 Stars 

TABLE IV — Continued 



121 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. /sec. 














H.D. 209833 
















8039 694 


-66.9 


6 


12.8 




12 


N 


B9n. Mean velocity 




-31.2 


7 


7 1 






R 


— 15.4 ±6.9 km/sec; 


8483.478 


-02.1 


6 


12 




" 


N 


range 63 km. Only H 




+ 15.0 


6 


9.1 






T 


lines clearly visible. 


9095.810 


+ 13.7 


3 


5.4 




" 


P 


Suspect He and Ca II 




+ 15.2 


3 


3.1 






T 


but neither identified 


9120.805 


-30.9 


3 


8.6 




" 


T 


with certainty. M. 


9133 742 


-26 


3 


3.7 




" 


T 




9168.692 


-07.3 


3 


2.3 




" 


T 




H.D. 210334 
















8008.645 


-154.1 


12 






12 


P 


GO. Velocity of system 




+ 70. i 


9 








P 


from 12 plates -32 km. 


8375.828 


-114. 1 


19 






li 


P 


Double line Binary. 




+ 78.1 


15 








P 


Y. 


8380 . 780 


-109.1 

+ 65 . 1 


11 
15 








P 
P 




8381.799 


-103. | 
+ 62. I 


11 
12 








P 




H.D. 212442 
















8052.686 


+ 13 3 


4 


9 1 




12 


Hd 


BS. Mean velocity from 


SH9.588 


-33.2 


5 


6.5 




" 


IM 


10 plates+04.0 km/sec. ; 




-30.8 


7 


2.5 






T 


range 73 km. H lines 


8479 519 


-26.8 


5 


9.8 




" 


Hd 


are good, the other lines 


8718.854 


+09.3 


4 


3.0 




" 


lid 


4026, 4471, 4481 faint. 


8737.808 


+38.0 

+ 16 2 


5 

3 


10.6 

4.7 






Hd 


Hd. 


H.D. 213121, 
















8433.682 


+ 10.2 


7 


i g 




12 


MR 


V.' Mem veloi itj -05.7 


8664 576 


-07.1 


4 


8 9 




" 


MR 


±5.2 km/sec; range 43 




+01.3 


4 


7.9 






P 


km. Few poor lines. 


8882 167 


-27.1 


3 


1.5 




" 


MR 


II. 




-20.6 


5 


7 5 






P 




8896 965 


+13.7 


4 


10.0 




■ ■ 


MK 






+05.1 


E 


9.5 






P 




8926 81 l 


+06.0 


5 


4.6 




" 


MR 




9141 .72.-) 


-29 1 


5 


3.8 




" 


T 






-36.8 


7 


7 1 






R 





122 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE IV — Continued 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. /sec. 














H.D. 215242 
















S429.685 


+03.3 


5 


5.4 


1 


12 


MR 


AOs. Mean velocity —18.2 


8760 . 726 


-27.4 


4 


4.2 


1 


" 


MR 


±5.1 km/sec; range 45 


8858.499 


-25.8 


4 


2.5 


1 


" 


M 


km. Manx faint metallic 


9125.839 


-06.9 


5 


4.5 


1 


" 


P 


lines seen; 4025, 4046 


9144. 7S2 


-02.9 


I 


7.0 


y* 


" 


T 


and some others seem 


9178.672 


-41.9 


10 


2.9 


i 




M 


anomalously strong. 

M. 


H.D. 215566 
















8417.731 


-39.5 


3 


9 6 


i 


12 


MR 


B8. Mean velocity -23.1 




-38.4 


5 


12. 






P 


±5.0 km/sec; range 41 


8420.671 


-12.2 


3 


7.5 


i 


" 


MR 


km. Probably variable. 


8811.613 


-11.6 


1 


5.2 


i 


" 


MR 


3933 very faint. 


9117.846 


-59.0 


:; 


5.8 


i 


" 


T 


M. 




-42.7 


:; 


7.7 






N 




'.M 37. 809 


-15.6 


3 


6.0 


i 


" 


T 




9161.674 


-09.5 


3 


3.9 


i 




T 




H.D. 216608 
















8089 . 652 


4-05.4 


26 


1.8 


i 


25 


P 


Al. Mean velocity +16.2 


8845.551 


4-35.4 


15 


4.2 


i 


12 


P 


±4.2 km/sec; range 29 




+33.6 


23 


2.2 






MR 


km. Many fine lines. 


8776 .711 


+ 17.3 


19 


3.0 


i 


" 


P 


Star is double magnitude 


9188.585 


+07.6 


25 


1.7 


i 




T 


6.0, 8.0; sep. 0".2 V. 


H.D. 217491 
















8090.669 


-07.1 


16 


2.3 


i 


25 


MR 


A:!. Mean velocity -05.0 


8380.812 


+05.1 


16 


3.8 


i 


12 


MR 


±3.5 km/sec; range 2(i 


8440.692 


-16.1 


11 


5.0 


K 


" 


MR 


km. Probably variable. 




-19.1 


14 


3.6 






N 


H. 


8750.791 


+08.7 


11 


5.6 


l 


" 


MR 




8789.712 


+06.6 


13 


3.9 


l 


" 


MR 




•H71.728 


-18.4 


13 


2.4 


l 


" 


T 




9183.685 


-18.3 


19 


1.8 


l 




T 





The Radial Velocities of 500 Stars 
TABLE IV— Continued 



1 23 



Star 


Vel. 


Lines 


P.E. 


Wt. 


Cam. 


M. 


Remarks 


J.D. 


Km. /sec. 














H.D. 219634 
















8368.863 


-31.5 


6 


1 5 


i 


1L> 


Hd 


B4nk. Mean velocity 




-25.2 


4 


2 8 






MR 


-08.9 from 21 plates; 


8370.824 


-01.1 


4 


4.2 


i 


" 


11.1 


range 176 km. 3933 is 




4-12.9 


3 


1.8 






MR 


interstellar and yives a 


8374.868 


+ 11 •"- 


8 


5.4 


l 


•' 


Hd 


mean velocity of 




4-40.1 


6 


9 7 






MR 


from 15 plates. 




+40.1 


6 


9.7 






MR 


Hd. 


8378.879 


89 1 


ii 


9.1 


i 


'• 


II. 1 






-106.0- 


5 


8.8 






MR 




H.D. 219675 
















8029.789 


4-21.4 


14 


3.0 


l 


2.") 


T 


AS. Mean velocity +12.0; 


8113.554 


4-02.3 


19 


2.0 


l 


12 


N 


velocity is probably var- 




-05.6 


17 


2.4 






MR 


iable; range 23 km. The 


8521.458 


+09.2 


21 


3 1 


l 


" 


N 


star is double 7.4 and 


8742 . 864 


+ 19.2 


17 


1 ii 


i 


" 


\ 


8.8, sep. 0"41. 


8771.736 


+ 11 3 


12 


1 '.i 


i 




N 


Hd. 


H.D. 221114 
















8019.849 


+24.9 


:; 




o 


25 


P 


\2. Mean velocitv +62.2 




+24.9 


2 


l :; 






MR 


±3.7 kin see: Probably 


8082.656 


-21 .2 


8 


1.8 


l 


12 


1" 


variable. First plate 




-05.9 


1 


1.8 






MR 


very weak. 


8784.762 


. . ii i - 


12 


3.4 


l 


" 


P 


V. 


9146.755 


+06 9 


5 




l 




T 




9223.549 


+ 14 9 


ii 


:; ii 


l 




N 




H.D. 224801 
















8084 7 1 7 


-14.3 


5 


(i 9 


l 


25 


\ 


\i)p. Mean velocity —2.0 




-15 1 


11 


1 1 






1' 


±2.8 km Bee. ; ra: 


8511.483 


+05 3 


.") 


2 (i 


l 


12 


\ 


km. Probablj variable. 




+ 11 9 


7 


: 8 






1' 


Many ionized lines — 


8804.704 


1-14.6 


5 


I 8 


l 


• • 


N 


Si 11. M, 11, Sr. 11. 




• 09 


6 


1 3 






1' 




9105.856 


-is.;, 


2 


>i 


it 


■• 


T 


M. 


9119.869 


ill 6 


."i 


'_' '.' 


i 


•• 


T 




\>\\\ 799 


L2 I 


6 


;> ii 


i 


•■ 


N 




9182 691 


03 9 


5 


l :. 


l 




1 





PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

Volume I Number 4 



A CATALOGUE OF 1116 VARIABLE 

STARS IN GLOBULAR STAR 

CLUSTERS 



BY 



HELEN B. SAWYER 



1939 
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 

rokoN ni, ( .\\.\h\ 



A CATALOGUE OF 1116 VARIABLE STARS 
IN GLOBULAR STAR CLUSTERS 

by Helen B. Sawyer 

A. Introduction. 

It is now fifty years since the discovery of the first variable 
star was announced in a globular cluster. The Nova which appeared 
in the cluster Messier 80 in 1860 can hardly be said to be the 
beginning of variable star astronomy in clusters, as it is still in a 
class by itself. In 1902 Bailey gave a summary of the variables 
in all the clusters which he himself had investigated, and published 
co-ordinates for the variables. Except for this compilation however, 
no catalogue of the variable stars in globular clusters has ever 
been published. 

In 1930 Shapley published in Star Clusters a summary of the 
variables known in globular clusters. This summary was brought 
up to date in 1933 in the Ilandbuch der Astrophysik. Considerable 
knowledge has been added in the interim, with many new variables 
discovered, and periods determined. In June, 1938, the writer 
sent a paper to the Ottawa meeting of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science summarizing the present state of 
our knowledge. As a basis for this paper, a catalogue was made 
giving the magnitudes, positions, and periods of all the individual 
variables. There was originally no intention of publishing the 
actual catalogue of variables, but only a summary of the data 
contained therein. As the work progressed however, the writer 
became more and more impressed with the lack of unity in the 
subject, the wide scattering of the references through the literature, 
and the various ways observers have published their data. The 
writer came to the conclusion that one unifying publication ol 
actual lists of variables arranged according ti> individual cluster 
would l>c worth tli«' time spent in preparation and the cost of 
publical ion. 

The purpose of the catalogue is to enable a worker interested 
in the subject to gel a clear picture of exactly what ha-- been done 
on variables in clusters, eithei for clusters a- a whole or lor any 

127 



128 Publications oj the David Dunlap Observatory 

individual cluster in which he may be interested. For a person 
intending to work on the variables in any given cluster, the cata- 
logue is not intended to supplant the original papers. The original 
papers naturally contain much more information than could 
possibly be carried over into the catalogue. Often it has been 
difficult to decide what values to excerpt, in the case of slight 
changes of epoch, period, or other elements. 

While the catalogue is almost entirely a reprinting of material 
which can be located from published sources, its publication may 
help to prevent overlapping researches. For several clusters, 
variables have been announced by several observers, when the 
later worker did not know of the work of the earlier one. Confusion 
has arisen in the numbering of the variables. It would seem that 
this will happen more frequently in the future as the list of variable 
star references lengthens. Furthermore there has been a decided 
lack of homogeneity in the published results. The co-ordinates for 
the variables are given in several different units, and sometimes 
are not given at all. Maximum and minimum magnitudes are 
often lacking. Fpochs are given in almost every possible way, for 
minimum phase, maximum phase, or an arbitrary point on either 
the ascending or descending branch of the light curve. It is hoped 
that, if the available data are gathered together now in a uniform 
manner for all clusters, observers will be encouraged in the future 
to publish their results in a more standard form. This should 
make the material more suitable for statistical investigation. 

No attempt has been made to republish marked prints for the 
clusters. In general cluster variables are most readily identified 
from prints, although these have not been published for all clusters. 
For each cluster, however, a publication in which a marked print 
can be found is indicated. But it is felt that a compilation of the 
positions, even without the prints, is certainly statistically valuable. 
As a matter of fact, for some of the crowded clusters where the 
prints are blurred in the centre, one needs to use the positions 
anyway, rather than the prints, for identification. 

The positions of the variables are most logically given in x and 
y co-ordinates from the centre of the cluster. As the position of 
the exact cluster centre is practically never published, it may 
seem a trifle illogical to publish x and y co-ordinates without 
identifying the origin. But even though the position of the origin 
is indefinite, when there are as many as two variables published 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



129 



in a cluster, the identification from the positions only should not 
be ambiguous. 



B. Summary of Data on Variable Stars in Globular Clusters. 

1. Numbers of Variables. 

At the present time, 1215 variable stars have been found in 
60 globular clusters. There is no printed record of a search in the 
other 34 clusters. Of these 1215 variables, 99 are listed as un- 
published, and so cannot be catalogued with positions and magni- 





1 


FREQUENCY OF VARIABLE STARS 






IN GlO&ULAR CLUSTERS 




1+ 

IO 

12 
8 




1939 




4 




V//L- S7\ 


^ , 


'/////./ /.//A \/A \/A 1, 


o 


IO 40 60 tQ IOO 110 1*0 IOO liC 


IOO 



NUMBER OF VARIABLES 

Figure 1 

tudes. It is a somewhat startling fart that only recently have 
the efforts of all other astronomers equalled those of Professor 
Bailey alone, in the finding of new variables. Bailey found 541 
new variables, other observers 77 1. 

Of the 60 globular clusters searched so far, only I have been 
found to be entirely devoid of variables. These four have been 
searched by only one observer, and it is quite possible thai in the 
future some variables may be found in them. The cluster Messier 3 
(NGC 5272) has the largest number of variables, with a tota 
185, while w Centauri (NGC 5139) is a close second with 161. V 



130 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

other globular cluster has more than 100. Of all the clusters 
searched, 80 per cent have less than 30 variables. Figure 1 shows the 
frequency distribution of number of variables per globular cluster. 
Table I gives a summary of variable stars in globular clusters, 
arranged according to NGC number of the cluster. The second 
column gives the total number of variables known; an italicized 
number indicates that some unpublished variables have been in- 
cluded in the total. The name of the discoverer is given in the third 
column, followed by the date on which definite publication of the 
new variables was made. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the 
number of variables found by that person. As in some clusters 
variables have been found independently by several observers, it 
should not be expected that the numbers in parenthesis will total 
the exact number now known in the cluster. Stars which were 
once announced as variable, and since shown to be unvarying, 
have been omitted from the total. The fifth column gives the total 
number of periods actually determined. No attempt has been 
made to include in this table the numbers of stars which haw- 
been shown to have periods less than a day, but for which the 
actual period has not been established. In the sixth column are 
given the names of the authors who determined periods, and in 
the seventh the date when the periods were published. The last 
three columns of the table give the number of cluster type variables, 
of variables with periods between 1 and 125 days, and with periods 
greater than 125 days. The grouping of periods from one to 125 
days was purposely taken to include a number of stars with periods 
just over one hundred days. This group seems in rather higher 
proportion in globular clusters than in the galactic system. There 
are few variables with periods greater than 125 days; they apparently 
belong to the class of long period variables. 

2. Number of known periods. 

Of the known variables, periods have been determined for 656, 
or about one-half. Periods are known in only 20 globular clusters, 
or about one-fifth of the total number. Of the 656 periods deter- 
mined, the four bright clusters investigated by Bailey, Messier 3, 
Messier 5, Messier 15, and co Centauri account for 449 periods, or 
70 per cent of the total. The other 207 periods known are scattered 
through 16 clusters. Bailey has determined more periods in globular 
clusters than all other workers combined; he determined 353 
periods, while others have so far determined only 303. 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



131 



TABLE I 
Summary of Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 





Xo. 






Total 






P 


P 


P 


NGC Vars. 


Found by 


Date 


Periods 


Det. by 


Date 


<1 


1-125 


>125 










Determined 






day 


days 


days 


104 


8 


Bailey 


1902 


3 


Woods 


1922 








3 


288 


2 


Mt. Wilson 
















362 


14 


Bailey 


1902 


10 


Sawyer 


1931 


7 


3 





1851 


3 


Bailey 2 
Swope / 


1902 














1904 


5 


Bailey 


1902 














2298 


6 


Shapley 
















2419 


36 


Baade 


1935 














2808 


4 


Shapley 
















3201 


61 


Woods (56 
Bailey 


1919 
1922 














4147 


4 


Davis 1 
Baade 3 


1917 
1930 


3 


Baade 


1930 


3 








4372 


8 


Shapley 
















4590 


28 


Shapley and 
Ritchie 


1919 

-20 














4833 


6 


Swope and 
Shapley 
















- 


40 


Shapley and 
Ritchie (22 
Baade (16 
Grosse '_' 


1920 

1926 
1932 


32 


Grosse 


1932 


32 








5053 


9 


Baade 


1927 














5139 


161 


Bailey 1 28 
van Gent , 

HertzspruiiL'. 
and Martin 

'33j 


1902 
1937 


150 


Bailey 

Martin 

Barnard 


1902 
1937 

L906 


135 


13 


2 


5272 


185 


Pickering 1 

Belopolsky i 1 
Bailey (132 
5 
Barnard 1 
Shapley 
Larink 
Miiller, 
Guthnick and 

Pi er (2 
Greenstein 16 


18S9 
1895 
1902 
L913 
L905 

191 1 

1922 

1933 

1935 


166 


Bailey 
Larink 
Slavenas 

Miiller 
Greenstein 


1913 
1922 
1929 

1933 
1935 


164 


2 





5286 





Bailej 


1924 















Italicized number i indicate unpublished data. 
OUnd under individual clusters in t he 



• il daia tor I hi* Minimal \ ma\ 

catalog ue. 



132 Publications of the David Ihtulap Observatory 

TABLE I — Continued 





No. 






Total 






P 


P 


P 


NGC 


Vars. 


Found by 


Date 


Periods 
Determined 


Det. by 


Date 


<1 

day 


1-125 
days 


>125 
days 


5466' 


14 


Baade 


1926 














5634 


4 


Baade 
















5694 





Baade 


1934 




Barnard 


1898 








5904 


92 


Common (5) 
Packer 1 
Bailev (85) 
(7) 


1890 
1890 
1902 
1917 


73 


Bailey 
Shapley 
and Roper 


1917 
1927 


70 


3 





5986 


1 


Bailey 


1902 














6093 


3 


Auwers (1) 
Bailey (2) 


1860 
1902 














6121 


32 


Leavitt 


1904 


20 


Sawyer 


1931 


19 


1 





6171 


24 


Oosterhoff 


1938 














6205 


10 


Barnard (2) 


1900, 




















1914 


2 


Barnard 


1909 





2 









Bailey (2) 


1902 


















Shapley (4) 


1915 


















Guthnick and 




















Prager (j) 
















6218 


1 


Sawyer 


1938 


1 


Sawyer 


1938 





1 





6229 


21 


Davis (1) 
Baade (.201 


1917 














6254 


2 


Sawyer 


1938 


1 


Sawyer 


1938 





1 





6266 


26 


Bailey 


1902 














6293 


3 


Shapley and 
Ritchie 


1920 














6333 


i 


Mt. Wilson 
















6341 


16 


Woods (1) 
Nassau (14) 
Guthnick and 
Prager (14) 
Hachenberg 


1922 
1938 

1939 


13 


Hachen- 
berg 


1939 


13 








6362 


17 


Woods (16) 
Bailey (1) 


1919 
1919 














6366 


6 


Sawyer 
















6397 


2 


Bailey 


1902 


2 


Sawyer 


1931 





1 


1 


6102 


72 


Sawyer 


1938 


ij 


Sawyer 


1937 


12 


3 





6426 


10 


Baade 
















6535 


i 


Baade 
















6539 


i 


Baade 
















6541 


1 


Woods 


1922 














6553 





Shapley 


1920 














6584 





Bailey 


1924 















Italicized numbers indicate unpublished data. 
be found under individual clusters in the 



Sources of data for this 
catalogue. 



summary may 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 
TABLE I — Continued 



133 





No. 






Total 






P 


P 


P 


NGC 


Vars. 


Found by 


Date 


Periods 
Determined 


Det. by 


Date 


<1 

day 


1-125 
days 


>125 
days 


6626 


9 


Bailey 1902 














6656 


17 


Bailey (16) 1902 


8 


Shapley 


1927 


6 


1 


1 






Swope (1) 


1927 




and Swope 










6712 


4 


Davis (1) 
Baade (j) 


1917 














6723 


19 


Bailey (16) 
van Gent (3) 


1902 
1932-3 


19 


Bailey 
van Gent 


1924 
1932-3 


19 








6752 


1 


Bailey 


1902 














6760 


o 


Baade 
















6779 


6 


Davis (1) 
Shapley and 
Ritchie (2) 
Sawyer (4) 


1917 
1920 














6809 


2 


Bailey 


1902 














6864 


11 


Shapley and 
Ritchie 


1920 














6934 


51 


Sawyer 


1938 


35 


Sawyer 




35 






6981 


31 


Davis (2) 

Shapley and 
Ritchie (31) 


1917 
1920 


26 


Shapley 
.md Ritchie 


1920 


26 








7006 


20 


Shapley and 
Ritchie (2) 
Shapley, and 
Mayberry (9) 
Hubble (9). 


1920 
1921 














7078 


74 


Bailey (51) 
Bailey (15) 
Guthnick and 
Prater (8) 


1902 
1919 


60 


Bailey, 
Leland and 
Woods 
Wemple 
Levy 


1919 


59 


1 





7089 


17 


Chevre- 

mont (1 ) 
Bailey (10) 
Sawyer ( '> 


1897 

1902 
L935 


17 


Chevre- 

mont 
Sawyer 


1898 
L935 


13 


1 





7099 


3 


Bailey 


1902 














7492 


9 


Shapley and 
Ritchie 1 
Shapley (8) 


1920 















Italicized numbers indicate unpublished data. Sources ol data ten this Bummarj may 
In found under individual clusters in the catalogue. 



134 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

3. Distribution of periods. 

It is general knowledge that among the stars with known periods 
the variables of cluster type with periods less than one day greatly 
predominate. There are 614 cluster type periods in 15 clusters. 
In many clusters where no definite periods are known, inspection 
of the changes in magnitudes from a number of plates indicates 
that most of the variables have periods less than one day. There 
are 43 variables with periods greater than one day. Of these, 7 
have periods greater than 125 days; 27 are long period Cepheids, 
and the rest are semi-regular variables or belong in the group with 
periods about one hundred days. 

It is a rather amazing fact that while in globular clusters cluster 
type periods outnumber periods greater than one day in a 15 to 1 
proportion, yet the variables with periods greater than one day 
are distributed as widely among the clusters investigated as are 
the large numbers of cluster type variables! The 613 cluster type 
variables are to be found in 15 clusters, while the 13 variables with 
periods greater than one day are also scattered through 14 clusters. 

This fact lends considerable zest to the hunt for periods in 
globular clusters; for while one may guess that a cluster with 30 
variables may probably have a long period Cepheid, yet one must 
realize that a cluster with only one or two variables is quite as 
likely to have one. The relative scarcity of Cepheids with periods 
greater than one day naturally makes them the more interesting 
objects. From the point of view of distance determination, the 
distance as computed from the apparent magnitude of the cluster 
type Cepheids is probably just as good as the distance computed 
from the period4uminosity relation of the long period Cepheids. 
But because periods greater than one day are comparatively rare 
in globular clusters, these variables are summarized in Table II. 
A similar table which had 27 entries was published by the writer 
in 1931 (H.C. no. 366). Since then 17 stars have been added, and 
one dropped. Of these, 11 are Cepheids, 3 found by Martin in 
co Centauri, and 8 by the writer in 4 other clusters. A period 
of 103 days has been determined for Variable 95 in Messier 3, and 
several variables in w Centauri have been shown to have semi- 
regular periods. 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



135 



TABLE II 
Periods Greater than One Day in Globular Cli - 



NGC 


Yar. 


Period 


Magnitudes 


Med.M tg. 


Remarks 




No. 




Max. 


Min. 


CI. Type 




104 


1 


211.3 


11.0 


14.4 








2 


203. 


'1 .0 


112 








3 


192. 


11.0 


14.3 






362 


2 


105.22 


13.0 


14.5 


15. 19 






8 


3.901417 


15.0 


16 5 




Member of Sm ill M tg, 
Clou!. 




10 


4.20519 


14.9 


10.4 




Member of Small Mag. 
Cloud. 


5139 


1 


58 7D27 


10.7 


12.0 


14.(15 


RV Tauri, formerly 




2 


184. 


J13.06 


16.12 




thought Cepheid 




17 


GO: irr. 


l 1 18 


14.61 




with P=29 d . 34 




29 


14. 721 21 • 


12.44 


13.50 








42 


119.4 


1 2 . 5 


1 L9 








43 


1.1568183 


13. U 


1 1 55 








48 


4 . 474293 


1 3 . 09 


13.95 








53 


87: irr. 


L3.30 


L3 ^7 








00 


1 . 349404 


13 32 


1 1 18 








01 


2.273582 


13.72 


1 1. is 








78 


1.1681179 


1 1. 17 


1 1 84 




Eclipsing variable 




92 


1 3450659 


1 1 .1(1 


1 1 58 








138 


71 6: irr. 


12.5 


13 6 








148 


90: irr. 


12 9 


13. S 








152 


124: irr. 


12.8 


13.7 






5272 


95 


103. 19 


L3 73 


1 1 12 


15.57 






15 1 


15 2828 


12.9 


1 1 ll 






5904 


41 


25 71 


11 20 


1 2 2 1 


15 11 






50 


L06 


13 00 


1 1 2 








84 


26 5 


1 1 5 1 


12 61 






6121 


29 


1 097452 - 


1 3 i 


11 1 


L3 ss 




6205 


1 


6 n 

5 11) 


13 7 
1 2 85 


1 1 9 
13 8 


15.20 




62 IS 


1 


L5 508 


11 '» 


13 2 







136 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE II — Continued 



NGC 


Var. 

No. 


Period 


Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 


Med. Mag. 
CI. Type 


Remarks 


6254 


2 


18.754 


11.9 13.7 






6397 


1 
2 


314.6 
45 or 60 


11.2 16.0 
13.8 14.8 




RV Tauri ? 


6402 


1 
2 

7 


18.75 
2.7952 
13.59 


14.3 16.0 

15.4 16.3 
14.9 16.2 


16.85 




6656 


5 
14 


7.097 ? 
200.0 


12.0 12.8 
13.8 [15.5 


14.06 




7078 


1 


1.437478 


14.36 15.54 


15.63 




7089 


1 

5 

6 

11 


15.5647 
17.5548 
19.3010 
33.600 


13.2 14.8 
13.2 14.9 
13.2 14.9 
12.5 13.7 


16.1 





C. Description of the Catalogue. 

The catalogue contains all clusters for which there is a published 
record of a search for variables, and a few others for which the 
unpublished data have been kindly supplied to the writer. The 
clusters are arranged in order of NGC number. If the cluster has 
a Messier number, it is given. The right ascension and declination 
are for the equinox of 1950. 

The variables are numbered according to the number given by 
the discoverer except in a few cases where an adjustment has had 
to be made. The x and y co-ordinates are given in seconds of arc 
and correspond in direction to right ascension and declination. 
Whenever they have been published, magnitudes, epochs and 
periods are given. A blank in these columns indicates lack of 
published data. Some magnitudes have been followed by colons 
in the original papers; the colons have been omitted in the catalogue 
because the writer felt that there was far more uncertainty in 
many magnitudes in other clusters which had been published 
without colons. When an observer has given a table of maximum 
and minimum magnitudes, these have been taken. In many cases 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 137 

the writer has had to read these values from published measures 
of many plates; in these cases the brightest and faintest estimates 
of magnitude for the variable have been taken. Epoch of maximum 
gives the number of days past J.D. 2,400,000.000. 

Suspected variables have not been included in the catalogue 
except for one or two which had been assigned definite numbers 
in the midst of list of variables. It was felt that in these cases it 
would disturb the numbering less to include these suspected 
variables until they were definitely disproved. Announced variables 
which are now considered not to vary have been left in the catalogue 
so that a reader would not think the numbers had been omitted 
by accident; their non-variable nature has been indicated and they 
have not been included in the totals of known variables. 

When necessary, notes pertaining to the cluster are given at 
the end of the data on that particular cluster. 

D. References to Literature on Variable Stars in Globular Clusters. 
To the catalogue is appended a complete bibliography of 

literature on variable stars in globular clusters. The 39 funda- 
mental references given in Shapley's Star Clusters, Table IV, I, 
have been increased to 118, partly by inclusion of some of the 
very early references, partly by references since 1930, and partly 
by somewhat obscure references which had been overlooked 
earlier. These references have been arranged by years in the 
hope that the numbering would have some significance and might 
be reasonably permanent. In any one year the references have 
been arranged alphabetically by author. References to field 
variables around a cluster (when published under the name of that 
cluster) have been included, since there is often ambiguity as to 
which variables are actually cluster members. Variable star 
literature has been assumed to start with the first typical variable 
found in 1889, and not with the early nova of I860. The list of 
nova references therefore is not given directly in tin- bibliography, 
but can be found in the most recent paper under NGC 6093. .V 
the end of each cluster the list of numbers indicates the references 
to that cluster, and special note is made <>l the references in which 
pl.it es or charts of the clusters giving identification of the variables 
can be found. 

E. Suggestions for Publication of Future Results. 

The writer would like to make the lollnu in- >u^ue^tions th.it 



138 Publications oj the David Dunlap Observatory 

workers in this field might follow in the future. These suggestions 
arise out of the practice that has been most usual in the past; if 
the same practice could always be followed in the future it would 
put the knowledge of variable stars in globular clusters on a uniform 
basis, as Prager's catalogue has the knowledge of variables in 
the galactic system. 

It is suggested: 

1. That for the announcement of new variables, the x and y 
co-ordinates be published, with an assumed centre of the cluster, 
with the signs such that an increase in x or in y means an increase 
in right ascension or north declination. That since most co-ordinates 
have been published in seconds of arc, this unit should be adopted. 
That if an observer finds additional variables in a cluster already 
examined and wishes to change the origin of the co-ordinate system 
for some good reason, he republish on his system the x and y 
co-ordinates for all variables. 

2. That variables be numbered consecutively from the last 
known variable in the cluster. (This appears to be a very obvious 
procedure, but in a number of cases it has not been followed). 

3. That observers refrain from numbering suspected variables 
along with stars considered definitely variable. (The suspects can 
be lettered or designated in any way that the author wishes; but 
it is bound to lead to much unnecessary confusion in the future if 
they are numbered along with well-established variables). 

4. That since the maximum and minimum magnitudes of the 
variables in a cluster may be considered one of the convenient and 
fundamental quantities in which many astronomers are interested, 
a table giving these for all variables (including those for which no 
period has been determined) be published whenever possible. 

5. That, for variables whose periods have been determined, a 
table of well-established epochs of maximum be published. (Al- 
though the period may doubtless be computed more accurately 
from some other point, yet it would seem that a table of epoch of 
maximum is of general interest and use, and should always be 
published even when the periods have been computed from points 
selected o« some other part of the light curve.) 

Naturally a serious attempt has been made to make the cata- 
logue as complete and as accurate as possible. In a work of this 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 139 

sort, however, it is almost inevitable that errors will be found, sins 
both of omission and of commission, and the writer will be very 
grateful for all that are brought to her attention. She will also 
be glad to receive additional data as it is accumulated in the 
future. 

The writer wishes to acknowledge with thanks the assistance 
<>f Miss Edna Fuller in the preparation of this catalogue, and 
constructive suggestions regarding the manuscript made by- 
Professor Shapley and Dr. Prager. 

March 3, 1939. 



140 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



CATALOGUE 
OF VARIABLE STARS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS 



NGC 104 (47 Tucanae) a 00 h 21 m .9, 5 -72° 21' 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


1 
2 
3 

4 


+36.8 

+64.7 
+328.4 

-18.8 
+271.9 

+97.3 
+349.2 

+ 16. 


-112.6 
-193.9 

+52.8 
-160.4 
-284.6 
-103.8 
-113.0 

+57. 


11.0 14.4 
11.0 14.2 
11.0 14.3 


12717. 
12685. 
12755. 


211.3 

203. 

192. 


5 






6 






7 






8 













Refs. 9, 14, 20, 68. Plate in 20. 



NGC 288 a 00 h 50 m .2, 5 -26° 52' 
2 unpublished variables, Ref. 87. 



No map. 



NGC 362 a 01 h 00 m .6, 5 - 


71° 07' 








t 


-246.2 


—67.6 


14.9 


16.1 


23751 .558 


0.5850512 


2 


+41.4 


-204.4 


13.0 


14.5 


24391.8 


105.22 


3 


+93.6 


-143.2 


14.(1 


16.1 


23604. 806 


0.4744151 


4 


-50.2 
-79.2 


-27.3 
-31.9 


14.0 
15.1 


15.8 
L6.4 






5 


24025.729 


0.4900846 


6 


+82 . 4 


+ 15.5 


14.9 


16.3 


24461 642 


0.5146080 


7 


+ 131.1 


-21.2 


1 1 s 


1 6 


24468.687 


0.5285492 


8 


+33.4 


-308.5 


15.0 


16.5 


24433 677 


3.901447 


9 


-400.4 


+224.4 


14.7 


16.0 


24404 . 670 


i) 5476126 


10 


+282.8 


-381.8 


14.9 


16.4 


23315.643 


4.20519 


11 


-136.1 

-30.4 


-26.0 
-115.4 


15.1 
15.2 


16.0 

16.1 






12 


24391.839 


0.65254518 


13 


+ 14.5 


+38.8 


14.6 


16.3 






14 


-23.8 


-66.8 


14.8 


16.2 













Refs. 11, 14, 20, 90, 94. Plate in 20. Corrected period for No. 12 from ref. F. 



NGC 1851 a 05 h 


12 ra .4, 5 


-40° 05' 






1 


+261 
-45 


-9 
+30 


14 
14 


15\ 
15| 




2 















1 unpublished variable. 
Refs. 72, 87. No map. 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



141 



Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 1904 Messier 79) a 05 b 22™.2, 5 -24° 34' 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


1 


+29.6 
+ 78.3 
+34.8 
+93.4 
-11.6 


-199.6 
-6S.3 
-64.6 
-50.3 
+20.2 








2 






3 






4 






5 







Refs. 14, 20. Plate in 20. 



NGC 2298 a 06 b 47 m .2, b -35° 57' 
6 unpublished variables, 5 suspected. 
Ref. F. 



NGC 2419 a 07 h 34»8, 5 +39° 00' 



1 


+40 
-4 
+52 
+80 
+33 
+56 

+ 91 

-17 

-32 

+20 

+ 95 

+ 133 

+ 101 

-115 

+ '"'2 

+ 17 

+ 1(19 

-15 

-107 

28 

+ 109 

+ '-'7 

- 1 17 

•V 


-52 
-19 
-24 
-15 
+47 
-127 
+87 
+ 41 
+88 
-51 
-s 

+ 111 
-10 

-13 

+40 

+ 72 

+ 111 

+ 111 

-40 

+ 45 

• 30 

— 5 

+ 79 

-10 


17.59 18.32 

IS. 66 19.96 
18.84 19 65 
18.75 19.72 
18.86 19 64 
18.69 19.77 
17.50 18.10 
18.59 19.76 
L7.31 17 9:; 
i^ :.:. 19.81 
18.69 19.71 
18.55 19 7.". 
18.81 19 62 
is 62 19 :•'■ 
18.77 19 s."> 
is 65 L9 75 
17 84 L8 
is 77 19 86 
17 65 is 16 
l^ 76 19 7 1 
1^ 60 19 ^1 

L8 ''l 1 
18.74 19.81 






2 






3 






4 






5 






6 






7 






8 






9 






10 






11 






12 






13 






14 






1.-, 






16 






17 






is 






19 






20 






21 






.J 










24 




25 







142 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 2419 



No. 



2G 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 



-70 

+ 19 
-192 
-58 
-26 
+ 154 
-19 
+47 
+21 
+43 
+23 



-50 

-103 

+59 

-7 

+23 

-146 

+48 

-17 

+ 157 

+8 

+44 



Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



L9 


10 


19.55 


is 


72 


19.78 


1!) 


01 


19.92 



19.08 
18.60 
19.11 
19.00 
18.78 
19.10 



19.53 
19.71 
20.13 
19.66 
19.70 
19.83 



Epoch of 
Maximum 



Period 



Ref. 108, with plate. 

NGC 2808 a 09 h 10 m .9, 5 -64° 39' 
4 unpublished variables, 7 suspected. 
Ref. F. 



NGC 3201 a 10 h 15 m .5, 5 -46° 09' 



1 


+59 


-118 


2 


+29 


-117 


3 


+ 182 


-43 


4 


+ 155 


+3 


5 


+42 


-24 


6 


-116 


-143 


7 


-91 


-189 


8 


-69 


-99 


9 


-51 


-91 


10 


-181 


+235 


11 


-104 


+ 112 


12 


-86 


+ 108 


13 


-160 


+92 


14 


-156 


+ 133 


15 


-279 


-173 


16 


-197 


-238 


17 


+ 11 


-25 


18 


+23 


-24 


19 


+23 


+317 


20 


+39 


+284 


21 


+94 


+ 135 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



143 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 3201 










No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes Epoch of 
Max. Min. Maximum 


Period 


22 


-100 

-49 

-339 

+93 

+219 

+58 

+66 

-256 

-289 

+ 182 

+ 195 

+48 

+296 

-11 

-108 

-68 

-61 

+41 

-96 

+291 

-301 

-377 

+31 

+ 127 

-396 

+ 108 

-252 

-38 

-13 

-205 

+ 14 

-873 

+ 671 

-338 

+246 

- 2S.S 

+346 

190 

850 

-1125 


-56 
-50 

+ 17 

+ 173 

-140 

-323 

-48 

+ 113 

+272 

+ 131 

+ 199 

-40 

+285 

+ 121 

-11 

-74 

-60 

+54 

+68 

+28 

+ 197 

+ 15 

+ 67 

-32 

-510 

+245 

+ 12 

+ 151 

+27 

-26 

-812 

-758 

-804 

+767 

+ 91 

-72 

-80 

-70 

+ 95 

+ 175 








23 








24 






25 






26 






27 






28 






29 






30 






31 






32 







33 






34 






35 






36 






37 






38 






39 






40 






41 






42 






43 






44 






45 






16 






47 






48 






49 






50 






51 






52 






53 







54 






55 






56 






57 






58 






59 






60 






61 






Re 


fs. 46, 59. 


No map. 









144 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 4147 a 12 h 07 m .0, 5 +18° 49' 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


1 
2 
3 

4 


-100.1 

-20.2 

-28.5 

+1 


-45.7 
-28.8 
-35.3 
+ 18 


15.90 16.95 
15.95 17.25 
16.32 16.78 
16 5 17 1 


25324.68 

25305.541 

25321.528 


0.4993 
0.4920 
0.3834 











Refs. 36, 85, 89. Photograph in 85. 

NGC 4372 a 12 h 23 m .0, 6 -72° 24' 
8 unpublished variables, 6 suspected. 
Kef. F. 

NGC 4590 (Messier 68) a 12 h 36 m .8, 5 -26° 29' 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 



-280 

-HIS 

-140 

-117 

-56 

-54 

-50 

-38 

-31 

-25 

-18 

-10 

-6 

-4 

+9 

+ 11 

+ 16 

+19 

+33 

+ 34 

+48 

+61 

+64 

+74 

+ 141 

+ 158 

+380 

+440 



+ 109 
-45 
+ 91 

-131 

+ 170 
+ 17 
-79 

-134 
+-10 
-16 

-112 

-1 

-56 

+218 
+58 
+S0 
-75 
-96 
+ 70 

-114 

+8 

-22 

+380 
-8 

+ 123 
-44 

+263 

+ 160 



15.28 
15.69 
15.54 
15.56 
15.51 
15 64 
15.48 
15.69 
15.43 
15.28 
15.31 
15.07 
15.62 
15 16 
15.65 
15.71 
15.65 
15.59 
15.65 
15.45 
15.82 
15.30 
15.08 
15.74 
15.77 
15.67 
10.88 
15.62 



16.03 
16.39 
16 34 
16.02 
16.14 
16.03 
16 16 
16.14 
16.28 
16 62 
1 (i . 1 1 
16.23 
16.28 
16.29 
16.36 
16.43 
16.60 
16 28 
10.21 
16.02 
16.60 
16.52 
16.34 
16.34 
16.21 
16.35 
15.04 
16.14 



Refs. 44, 49. Photograph in 49. 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



145 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 4833 a L2 h 50 m .O, 5 -70° 36' 
6 unpublished variables, 2 suspected. 
Rets. 65, 87, F. No map. 



NGC 5024 (Messier 53) a 13 h 10 m .5. 


5 +18° 


26' 




No. 


X" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 








Max. 


Mm. 


Maximum 




1 


+9.6 


-171.0 


16.05 


Hi 95 


23083.422 


0.6098204 


2 


-78.0 


-183.6 


l'i 38 


16.88 


23 113 . 368 


0.3Siil((i)'. 


3 


-60.6 


-138.0 


16.14 


16.93 


23113.383 


(i 6306142 


4 


-109.5 


—156.6 


16.41 


16.84 


23113.482 


i) 3851668 


5 


-237.0 


-258.0 


15.89 


16.98 


23143.308 


6394291 





+123.6 


+13.5 


16.08 


17.11 


23083.4 1s 


i) 6640180 


7 


+79 5 


+83 . 5 


10.02 


16.95 


23145 135 


5448344 


8 


+72.0 


+60.0 


L6.28 


L6.95 


23113 552 


(I til 14954 


9 


+67.5 


-40.5 


16.03 


17.10 


231 15 500 


n .',1103715 


10 


-i:;s 6 


+54.0 


L5.90 


16.98 


23143. 115 


0.6082565 


11 


-143.4 


-58.5 


16 04 


16 82 


23113.536 


6299540 


12 


+409 •", 


+ 1S7 5 


16 05 


16.91 


23113.548 


6125865 


13 


+462.0 


-299.7 


15 87 


17.03 


23143 409 


0.6274 163 


11 


+354 6 


-207.0 


15.88 


17.00 


23143.366 


5 151021 


15 


+248 1 


+228.0 


16.39 


16.67 


23113 15s 


ii 2358820 


16 


-136 ■". 


-202.5 


L6. 13 


Hi 90 


23113 399 


n 3031713 


17 


-211 5 


+114.0 


L6.29 


Hi so 


23113.588 


n 381501 1 


18 


— 90.0 


+ 12.0 
-42.0 










19 


+165 6 


in 34 


L6 85 


23113 53 1 


o 3913751 


20 


+ 1SS 1 


-351.6 


L6 32 


16 81 


23113.615 


o 3844312 


21 


+437.4 


-27.0 


L6.32 


L6 si 


231! 3 315 


o 3381193 


22 


— ."):; 1 


—288.0 


van. 


ble ? 






23 


+96 i) 


-89.7 


L6 34 


L6 ^ 


23113 160 


o 3658077 


21 


— 118.5 


—29 2 


15 71 


Hi i ; 






25 


+130 3 


+31.7 


L6.16 


16 90 


23113 340 


7H517'.-, 


26 


-288.0 


-279 9 


if, 29 


L6 71 


23113 337 


ii 391 1181 


27 


-203 s 


-157 9 


hi 16 


16 93 


23083 628 


o 6710581 


28 


L81 .4 


+459.0 


15 7S 


L6 94 


23113 223 


o 6327872 


29 


+ 12.". 1 


-79 5 


16 »il 


16 ^ 


2281 i ' -' 


,i 391870 


30 


+57 7 


182 B 


16.18 


17 nl 


23113 398 


o 5354915 


;;i 


+60.6 
-111.9 


— 0. 1 










32 


-86 6 


L6 26 


Hi 65 


23113 545 


3900810 




— n;."i o 


+ 12 2 

2 1 • i 7 










:; 1 


— l t i i) 










35 


+ 101 1 


+ 153.2 


L6 38 


[6 ^ 


231 13 3 15 


ii 372 



146 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 5024 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


30 
37 


+ 120.3 

-44.0 

+21.3 

-234.0 

+8.9 

In 

In 


+306.5 
+62.2 
-143.2 
+ 212.5 
+111.5 

centre 

centre 


16.33 16.71 
16.08 16.81 
16.55 16 89 


23113.698 


0.3732511 


38 
39 


23083.777 


. 7057845 


40 
41 
42 


26418 664 


0.239250 



Refs. 51 , 58, 79, 92, 97. Photograph in 51, chart in 92. 



NGC 5053 a 13 b 13 ro .9, 5+17 57' 




Ret". 83, with plates. 



NGC 5139 (w Centaury a 13 h 23'". S. o - 17 03' 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



-416.16 

-340.00 
-507 93 
-337 61 
-282.75 
-162.43 
+153.19 
+629 43 
-473.17 
-397 7.i 
-158 63 
-193.16 
-487 2 i 
-473 51 
-194.09 



+298 89 


+238.51 


+ 167.43 


+262.10 


+328.29 


+252 . 95 


+879.15 


+ 16.20 


+137.14 


+ 244 4s 


+338.73 


+274.34 


+199.54 


-627.56 


+242.62 



10.7 

113.06 
14.19 

13.89 
14 06 
13.84 

13 ms 
13.90 
1 4 . 35 

14 38 
14.3 
14.43 
13.98 
14.40 
14.13 



12 6 

16.12 

15.11 

15 is 
1 5 . 34 
15 21 
15.11 
15.29 
15.32 
] 4 . 90 
15 
14.95 
15.12 
15.01 
14 98 



26524 245 

26473.374 
26460.409 

26470.425 
26472.238 
26453.421 

26524.241 

irr. 
26469 446 
26438 457 
26472.456 
26469 427 



5S.7027 
484. 

8412205 
0.6273172 
0.5152828 

irr. 
0.7130181 
0.5212846 
0.52333o8| 
i) 374950 
0.56481 
0.3867486 
0.6690480 
0.3771799 
0.8106198 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



147 



CATALOGUE — Continued 



NGC 5139 












Xo. 


x" 


v" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 






- 


Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 




16 


+517.05 


-530 si 


1 I 38 


14.95 


20435. 4S8 


0.3301694 


17 


+522 21 
+596.64 


+200.00 


14 IS 


14.61 




00: 


18 


+220.15 


13 89 


15 18 


26454. His 


ii 6216682 


19 


+444.14 


+32 11 


I 1 68 


15 22 


26434.540 


2 195533 


20 


+280.88 


+32 06 


14 01 


15.20 


26469 :;ss 


0.61555471 


21 


— 355 7."> 


+162.07 


14.20 


14.81 


26469 257 


0.3808180 


22 


+552.18 


-330.22 


14.43 


1 1 97 


irr. 


n 39609 


23 


+2.54 


+240.71 


14.26 


15 39 


20 170 392 


o 5108651 


24 


+524.71 


-336.96 


11 11 


14.88 


26468 520 


0.4622108 


25 


-210 77 


+ 17 18 


13 98 


15 07 


20 10!!. 1 


n 5885005 


26 


-229.58 


+ 101 21 


14.36 


15.06 


26459 169 


(i 7847199t 


27 


-205 17 


+24.11 


14.50 


15.19 


20171 - 


(i 6156764 


28 






not variable 






29 


-193.25 


—6 45 


12.44 


13 50 


20405 ss 


14.7212!! 


30 


-307.92 


-75 01 


14.40 


1 1 86 


irr. 


0.40' 3 


31 






not variable 






2 


+174.39 


+420.01 


i.; s 7 


15.20 


26469. 121 


ii 6204317 


33 


-r,r,l :,1 


-24.00 


13.88 


15.24 


20 101 . 136 


0.6023262 


::l 


-396 87 


-269 in 


14. IS 


15.13 


20171 300 


7339450 


35 


+ 71 70 


+ 305 07 


14.37 


11 1 


2040s. ls| 


n 38 18 82 


36 


+246 1 1 


+780 12 


1 1 38 


1 1 '.13 


irr. 


0. 37984 1 


37 






not variable 






- 


+ 1(10.10 


-170 37 


l l.:;o 


15 11 


26469.456 


0.7790480 


39 


+741.86 


-305.80 


14.43 


1 1 99 


20 Ki'.i 171 


ii 3933567 


40 


-220 99 


-125.30 


13.95 


15.1 5 


20471.304 


ii 63409691 


41 


+ 151.80 


-142.18 


1 1 03 




26523 is:, 


(i 6629590 


42 


+0.21 
-119.23 


—50.21 


12 5 


1 1 c .i 




1 in 1 


13 


+103 16 


13.41 


I i :,:, 


26470 385 


1 1568183 


11 


-243.40 


-354.05 


11 2 1 


i:, 36 


26466 3S0 


n 5675440 


15 


-764 is 


+80.97 


13.94 


15 19 


26473 mi 


0.5891259 


46 


-770 61 


+ 170.11 


1 1 03 


15 17 


20151 171 


0.6869382 


17 


-504.32 


+269 26 


1 1 27 


14.73 


irr. 


n 185171 


48 


-86 54 


-104 54 


13 09 


13 '.15 


26523 7i) 


1 174293 


19 


-391.98 


-553.77 


14.16 


15 28 


26470 107 


ii 6046505 


50 


.ii 75 


+ 05 10 


1 1 57 


15 Id 


20 172 336 


u 3861815 


51 


-36 85 


+258 7.; 


13 86 


15 16 


26441 Us 


(i 5741359 


:,2 


-112 85 


+ 30 17 


13.60 


1 1 22 


26461 Us 


ii 6603737 


53 


182 79 


- 1 17 71 


i;; :;n 


13 87 




s7: 


54 


-229 39 


+ 5-.12 70 


I 1 22 


15 (15 


26472 112 


7728973 


55 


-617 7:; 


816 68 


i i 38 




26471 323 


n 58 


56 


-515 93 


.Ml 96 


1 i 37 


15 38 


26428 137 


ii 56800 


57 


+635 72 


193 26 


1 1 31 


15 lit. 


26471 342 


n 7944118 



148 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 5139 












No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 








Max. 


Mm. 


Maximum 




58 


-335.44 


+277.68 


14.49 


14.74 


26524.233 


0.3699057 


59 


-282.90 


-65.84 


14.20 


15.18 


26523.231 


0.5185170f 


60 


-108.42 


-247.33 


13.32 


14.48 


26473.513 


1 . 349464 


01 


+280 . 44 


+68.07 


13.72 


14.48 


26468.345 


2.273582 


62 


-199.80 


+45.28 


13.88 


15.10 


26424.515 


0.6197937 


63 


-996.82 


-491.46 


14.47 


15.04 


26438.567 


0.8259507 


64 


-448.01 


-457.49 


14.45 


15.02 


26466.410 


0.3444512 


65 


-454.49 


-474.32 


14.77 


15.22 


26523.238 


0.06272282 


66 


-133.37 


+375.15 


I4.4ii 


14.95 


irr. 


0.4074.-,t 


67 


-178.11 


+59:; 57 


14.18 


15.28 


26470 377 


0.5644551 


68 


-338.18 


+545.12 


14.15 


14.67 


26469 366 


0.5344773 


69 


-965.76 


-530 '11 


14.10 


15.25 


26438.468 


0.6532165 


70 


+417.83 


-304 65 


1 1 15 


14.94 


26524.219 


0.3900091 


71 


+220.39 


+47.13 


14.38 


14.92 


26523.271 


0.3574826 


72 


+477.85 


+734.87 


14 42 


14 94 


26471.459 


0.384.-, Hi:; 


73 


-532.49 


+750.76 


13.87 


L5 is 


26472 . 358 


5752184 


74 


+215.47 


+664 . 83 


13.75 


15.24 


26454 399 


0.5032505 


75 


+341 11 


+591.55 


1 1 12 


14.87 


26456.501 


. 4222508 


76 


+ 113.31 


+.',11 81 


14 40 


14.82 


26523.135 


3378438 


77 


+352.29 


+392.42 


14.45 


1 4 93 


irr. 


0. 42593 t 


78 


+586.10 


+146 68 


14.17 


14.84 


27943 3071 


1.1681179 


79 


+ 1000.12 


-51.02 


13.97 


15.27 


26456 42:; 


0.6082747 


80 






not variable 






.81 


+511.36 


+228.72 


14.46 


14.98 


26523.110 


0.3894022 


82 


+499.94 


+ 126.98 


14.43 


14 96 


26463 . 452 


. 3358520 


83 


+226.09 


+424.66 


14.43 


15.00 


20471.427 


0.3566071 


84 


-1202.81 


-74.70 


14.09 


14.90 


26472.382 


0.5798722 


85 


-1010.51 


+307.98 


14.23 


15.09 


26523.243 


0.7427555 


86 


+293.14 


+ 147.26 


13.96 


15.18 


20470.383 


. 0478442 


87 


+ 113.68 


+ 184.13 


14.40 


14.90 


204.j4.448 


0.3965019 


88 


+98.13 


+203.28 


14.01 


14.81 


26523.273 


0.0901992 


89 


-2.95 


+ 159.29 


14.47 


14.97 


26523 . 329 


0.3748505 


90 


-5.30 


+ 137.09 


13.81 


14.73 


26460.432 


0.6034020 


91 


+43.72 


+ 144.35 


1 4 25 


14.91 


26459.480 


0.8951422 


92 


-317.86 


+446.38 


14.10 


14.58 


26473.345 


1 . 3450659 


93 






not variable 






94 


-504.09 


+355.09 


14.64 


14.95 


20463.416 


0.2539318 


95 


-824.80 


-11.05 


14.49 


14.98 


26473.448 


0.4049213 


96 


-71.20 


+97.06 


13.93 


14.82 


26455 . 467 


0.6245312 


97 


+225 . 50 


+ 187.93 


14.11 


15.16 


26523.234 


0.6918869 


98 


+ 198.25 


+ 102.38 


14.57 


15.09 


26524.265 


0.2805057 


99 


+ 160.35 


+50.36 


13.77 


14.90 


20472.390 


0.7660839 



Variable Stars in (ilobidar Star C lusters 



149 



Catalogue — Continut d 



NGC 5139 












No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 








Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 




100 


+ 179.49 


+05.68 


14.05 


15.05 


20434.489 


0.5527110 


101 


+444.11 


-73.28 


14.50 


11 1 


20523.291 


0.3408843 


102 


+361.83 


-94.10 


14.10 


15.22 


26468.445 


0.6913841 


103 


+283.14 


+2.35 


14.46 


14.80 


20450.354 


0.3288461 


104 


+822.98 


-309.01 


14 54 


14.95 


26471.370 


0.8678500 


105 


+603.23 


-246.92 


14.57 


15.12 


20524.300 


0.3353375 


106 


+ 130.35 


+26.92 


13.88 


15.02 


20523.189 


0.5699074 


107 


+279 . 83 


-139.13 


14.07 


15.39 


26466.424 


0.5141010 


108 


+ 185 till 


-46.36 


13 84 


1 1 s] 


20472.300 


0.59445:;:; 


109 


+ 153 91 


-57.13 


13.99 


15.03 


26469 . 395 


0.7440653 


110 


+ 158.94 


-87.08 


14.41 


14.96 


26524 . 250 


0.3221021 


111 


+27.20 


-0.30 


1 1 is 


14.80 


26438 . 498 


0.7628923 


112 


+ 79.83 


-103.36 


13.92 


14.92 


20170.380 


0.4743558 


113 


+99.99 


-187.65 


13.94 


15.22 


20523 . 244 


0.5733636 


114 


+38.08 


-101.15 


14.00 


14.75 


20470.410 


. 6753065 


llo 


-345 10 


-330 14 


14.03 


15.21 


26467.40.6 


0304590 


11'', 


-109.66 


+33 71 


14.12 


14.77 


20472.437 


0.7201327 


117 


-207.73 


-40.22 


1 1 10 


14.92 


20450.500 


0.4216653 


118 


-58.87 


-98.07 


13.88 


15.02 


20473.380 


0.6110200 


110 


-82.04 


-157 i:» 


1 1 51 


14.83 


20172 310 


0.3058774 


120 


-211.29 


-247.01 


14.26 


15.23 


26523.264 


(i 5485722 


121 


-181 36 


-189.58 


1 1 is 


14.81 


26524.250 


304181 1 


122 


-102.92 


-201 .41 


13.99 


15 17 


20437.512 


0.6349307t 


123 


+ 40 1 1 


-512.55 


1111 


14.90 


26473.331 


o 17:ioo:,i 


124 


+ 78.88 


-626.81 


I 1 37 


1 1 97 


26524 . 107 


11 331861 1 


125 


+23.74 


-742.59 


13 87 


15 20 


20 171 408 


0.5928902 


126 


+822 95 


-730 11 


1 1 15 


1 1 07 


26453 493 


3418933 


127 


-880.10 


+4.31 


1 1 54 


1 1 92 


20521. 177 


(i 3052752 


128 


-280 77 


-92.09 


1 1 'j:, 


! 1 86 


20 10!! 101 


11 8349748 


129 


+ 192.02 
-366 17 


—25 83 












+900 00 


1 1 30 


15.40 


irr. 


11 1932377 


131 


-105 05 


-50 95 


1 1 10 


1 1 86 


2052:; 329 


3921392 


1 32 


-72 11 


-20 31 


13 07 


I 1 00 


20 100 386 


11 6556410 


I.;:; 


— 1914.22 


+ 105:; 78 
+ 072 72 










i::i 


-942 N7 


13 93 


15 20 


26466.386 


11 6529039 


135 


-1S1 sv 


-37 25 


13 s; 


1 1 85 


20 170 31 1 


0.6325795 


136 


-151 'JO 


+ 00 (IN 


1 1 22 


11 ill 


20 172 100 


3919136 


137 


-149 54 


+oo •_':; 


1 1 38 


1 1 00 


26473 286 


11 3342134 


[38 


- 1 1 I [2 


-187 ~>~> 


12 5 


13 6 




7 1 6 


139 


-SO Ml 


+ 05 is 


1 1 00 


11 00 


26462 nil 


(i 6768666 


I to 


—42 65 


-86 60 










I 11 


55 17 


17 If, 


1 1 (I.", 


i 1 75 


irr. 


(i 6975651 



150 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 5139 












No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 








Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 




142 


-37.35 
-37.45 


-2.56 
+ 71.40 


14.24 


14 77 






143 


26470.394 


0.8207020 


144 


-33.28 


+22 14 


14.33 


14.81 


26454.329 


0.8353054 


145 


+49.07 


-148.51 


14.40 


14.87 


irr. 


I) 37315t 


146 


+65.96 


-48.03 


13.87 


14 77 


26469 . 386 


0.6331021 


147 


+298.70 


-151.04 


1 1 . 35 


14.80 


26473.333 


4226945 


148 


+299.20 


+44.21 


12.9 


13.8 




90: 


149 


+477.:;:; 


+894 is 


13 92 


15 I-'! 


26523.256 


0.6827332 


150 


+ 543.18 


-442.23 


14.07 


11 94 


26462.387 


0.8991585 


151 


+ 1010 06 


+ 7.".:; 35 


14.42 


1 1 si 


26523.333 


0.4077805 


152 


+13 84 
+34 16 


-48.83 
+136 32 


12 8 
14.48 


13 7 

1 1 ss 




121: 


1 53 


26524 170 


0.3864509 


L54 


+ 169.59 


-113.20 


14.55 


14.72 


26524.165 


0.3223311 


155 


+75.25 


+237.31 


1 1 !:; 


14.88 


20473.344 


0.4139117 


156 


+15 06 


-191 .94 


14 41 


14.83 


26468 132 


0.3591887 


157 


+1.77 


+82 58 


14.42 


1 1 7'." 


26523 370 


0.4064970 


158 


-10.58 


-119.80 


14 32 


14.74 


20472 442 


0.3673350 


159 


-2039.94 
-711 .13 


-891 15 
+969.21 


1 1 16 


1 1 '.is 






160 


26473.439 


0.397 


161 


-96.81 


-129.27 


13 :; 


13.8 




irr. 


162 


-392.40 
-575 24 


-252 39 
+ 109.91 


12.9 

1 1 51 


13.6 

1 1 7^ 






163 


26472. 151 


i) 3132294 


164 


+ 152 75 


+ 478 38 










165 


-69.92 


+ 104 59 










166 


-2.89 


+ 144.71 










167 


-352.63 


-321.43 

















fTwo periods given by Martin. *[Epoch of minimum. 

Variables Nos. 28, 31, :i7, 93 are said by Bailey to be not variable. 

Epochs of maximum from ref. D. 

Refs.14, 17, 20, 31,40,62, 07. 00, 90. 113, 116, 118, 119. Plates in 20 and 118. 



NGC 5272 (Messier 3) a 13 b 39».9, 8 +28° 38' 



-5.2 
+ 15. S 
+57.9 
-43.5 

+201.0 
-123.9 

-4.S 



-128.5 
+52.6 
-66.0 

-8.S 
-22.3 
+60.1 

+87.2 



14.80 10.14 



14.91 

14.9 

14.70 

14.75 

14.69 



16.16 

16.0 
16.09 
16.19 
10 25 



15021.378 

15021.225 

15021.239 
15021.452 
15021 004 



0.5200324 

. 5590333 

0.50618 
0.5143207 
. 4974290 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



151 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 5272 












No. 


x" 


v" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 








Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 




8 
9 


-81.7 
-291.4 


—23.4 


not V<l r,a l" | l f * 






-207.8 


14.84 


16.22 


15021 111 


0.5415672 


10 


4-153.6 


+ 138.0 


15.03 


16.17 


15021.270 


o 5695127 


11 


-152.6 


-209.7 


14.89 


16.22 


15021.131 


0.5078921 


12 


-3.8 


-145.4 


15.35 


15.98 


15021 .015 


0.3178890 


13 


-26.0 


-137.5 


15.08 


16.14 


15021.323 


o 1830535 


14 


-49.0 


-161.0 


15.01 


16.10 


15021 170 


0.6358993 


15 


-90.8 


-273.2 


14.83 


16 21 


15021.299 


5300771 


16 


-301.4 


-93.1 


14.73 


16.24 


15021 .418 


0.5115124 


17 


4-142.4 


-HO. 4 


15.24 


16.37 


15021 265 


ii .■,701344 


18 


+97.6 


-295 3 


15.08 


16 :;l 


15021 142 


0.5163462 


19 


4-350.5 
+333 5 


-245 6 


15.64 


16.20 




o 630971 


20 


-271.6 


I 1 71 


16.13 


15021.289 


0.4912607 


21 


+346.9 


+ 17.9 


14.88 


16.29 


15021.171 


.515711)" 


22 


+ 190.2 


-10.7 


14.83 


16.25 


15021.200 


0.481364 


23 


-113.0 


+279.2 


14.79 


15.70 


15021 Q82 


0.5953756 


24 


-147.6 


+ 10 1 


L5.07 


16.09 


15021 .563 


6633499 


25 


-124. 1 


-31.4 


1 1 77 


16 23 


15021.089 


n 180048 


26 


-177.4 


-13.0 


14.89 


16 15 


15021 239 


0.5977170 


27 


-110.2 


-102.8 


15.17 


16.21 


15021 566 


n 5790981 


28 


-25.0 


-105.8 


15.03 


16.28 


24290 335 


0.47123 


29 


— 65.2 


—73.6 










30 


-36.5 


+58.0 


14.88 


16 19 


22700 635 


o 5120891 


31 


+33 . 1 


+65 1 


1 1.73 


16.25 


15021 .542 


n 5807218 


32 


+ 11.8 


+60.1 


14.86 


16.38 


15021 .108 


n 1953526 


33 


+ 70.5 


-89.0 


15.01 


16 22 


15021 .217 


5252255 


34 


+135 1 


+ 170.2 


14.89 


16.16 


15021 136 


ii 5591078 


35 


-107.:; 


-278.2 


15.04 


16.24 


15021 032 


530608 


36 


+ 172.0 


-35.4 


14.86 


16.26 


15021 272 


ii 54 


37 


-236.7 


+164 7 


15.14 


16 02 


15021 248 


ii 3266402 


38 


-203 


+ 127 7 


L5 06 


L6 26 


21200 304 


ii 55S 


39 


-243.6 


+ 121 . 1 


15.07 


16 17 


15021 073 


u 5870732 


40 


-271.2 


+ 112 1 


1 1.93 


L6 18 


15021 609 


n 5515422 


11 


-93 :; 


+54.0 


15 1 


16 21 


15021 .441 


0.4850291 


12 


-78 6 


+ 41.0 


1 1 85 


16 27 


15021 515 


n 5902069 


13 


+99 9 


+ 21 7 


I I 86 


16 23 


15021 I'M 


o 5405023 


11 


+ 170 


+99 l 


1 1 75 


16 21 


15021 368 


u 506443 


15 


241 . 2 


-129 9 


1 1 93 


16 30 


L5021 349 


it 5368966 


16 


-128 I 


-51 5 


15. 16 


16 21 


15021 264 


ii 6123751 


17 


- 1 1 7 5 


-7:; 2 


1 1 98 


16 20 


L5021 159 


it 5410201 


IS 


+126.9 


-102 7 


15 16 


15 99 


L5021 088 


,i 6278087 


19 


+ 140.0 


100 7 


15 19 


L6 23 


15021 266 


o 5482222 



152 



Publications oj the David Dnnlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 5272 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magn 
Max. 


tudes 
Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


50 


+8.8 


-234 


15.15 


16.09 


15021.327 


0.5131155 


51 


+30.8 


-226.4 


1 5 08 


16.21 


15021 1st, 


0.5839856 


52 


-76.8 


+ 152.0 


14 99 


16.16 


15021 485 


0.5174045 


53 


-7.4 


+ 122.8 


14.70 


16.13 


15021 .006 


0.5048891 


54 


-32.6 


+ 106.4 


11 94 


Hi 22 


15021.193 


. 506493 


55 


-204.2 


+324 4 


14.85 


16.21 


15021.699 


0.5298114 


56 


-141.1 


+358.6 


15.20 


15.94 


22760.623 


0.247931 


57 


+ 155 2 


-0.2 


1 1 '.»7 


10 22 


15021 .618 


0.5122311 


58 


-86.2 


+46.2 


14 7S 


16.16 


22760.621 


0.517101 


59 


-109.8 


-228 1 


15 22 


16 2 1 


15021.332 


. 5888026 


00 


-297.4 


-315 l 


1 5 20 


1(5.14 


15021.389 


0.7077210 


til 


+190.2 


+363.0 


14 SS 


16.20 


15021 076 


0.5209367 


62 


+90.2 


+417.0 


15.21 


lti 10 


15021.331 


0.6524059 


63 


+37.2 


+341 .9 


14.93 


lti 11 


15021 094 


0.5704204 


64 


+ 11 1 s 


+330.4 


15 05 


It). 10 


15021 324 


0.6054592 


65 


+ 125 1 


+327.5 


14.74 


16 09 


15021 503 


0.6683397 


66 


-101 4 


+121.4 


15.20 


16.01 


15021 323 


0.6201973 


67 


-131.4 


+ 123.0 


15.21 


Hi 12 


15021 411 


0.5683681 


68 


+21 .9 


+ 171 8 
+ 141.0 


1 1 8 


it; 3 






69 


+80 6 


L5.09 


16.18 


15021.553 


0.5665806 


70 


+37 6 


+ 152.2 


15 12 


1 5 70 


15021 315 


. 3268207 


71 


+160.6 


-2.0 


15.12 


hi 20 


15021.168 


0.5490517 


72 


+445.5 


-2.2 


14. til 


16.37 


15021 327 


i) 1500721 


73 


+438.5 


+62.2 


1 5 


16.0 






74 


+ S8.2 


+151.0 


11 S7 


lti 26 


15021 452 


0.4921415 


75 


+49.0 


+ 159.5 


15.23 


15.99 


15021 411 


0.3140813 


76 


-14 4 


-88.2 


14.72 


16.41 


15021 .293 


0.5017529 


77 


-94.4 


+27.8 


1 1 85 


16.36 


15021.451 


0.459:vl22 


78 


+ 47.5 


+66 4 


15.10 


16.13 


15021 249 


0.611922S 


79 


+43.4 


+349.4 


14.81 


16.24 


15021 22H 


0.4832979 


80 


+416 8 


+284.6 


15.05 


16 27 


15021 .433 


0.5385169 


SI 


+342 8 


+ 351.1 


14.67 


16.28 


15021 325 


5291108 


82 


-102.6 


-601.8 


14.92 


10.27 


15021.527 


0.5245027 


83 


-441. (i 


+113.4 


14.66 


lti 25 


15021 .046 


0.5012348 


84 


+64.0 


+165 2 


15.20 


16.14 


15021 248 


. 5957289 


85 


+306.2 


+225.8 


15.00 


15.83 


22700.517 


0.2623439 


86 


+513.0 


-114.2 


15.31 


16.13 


15021.010 


0.2928977 


87 


+110.6 


+ 00.2 


15.31 


15 91 


22 7t 10.535 


0.3571320 


>s 


-35.0 


-70.2 


14.9 


16.0 


24290 . 324 


0.3012792 


89 


+28.0 


-110.8 


14.86 


16.15 


15021.507 


0.54S4778 


90 


+97.2 


-188 2 


14.80 


16.24 


15021.461 


0.5170344 


91 


-14.3 


-550.0 


15.05 


16.27 


15021.259 


0.5301710 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



153 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 5272 



No. 




Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



Epoch of 
Maximum 



Period 



92 


-29.0 


- His 1 


93 


-319.4 


-396.6 


94 


-488.4 


-224.6 


95 


-154 7 


+ 15.4 


96 


-164 2 


-234.0 


97 


-130.0 


-196.7 


98 


+ 132.4 


-3.2 


99 


+201.8 


-55.0 


100 


+69 . 9 


+97.3 


101 


+46.4 


+83 . 7 


102 


+5S 1 


+114.9 


103 


+58.1 


+ 120.4 


104 


-25 s 


+145.5 


105 


-20.9 


+191.6 


106 


-48.0 


+ 168.0 


107 


-75 s 


+335 


108 


-219.0 


+310.9 


109 


-89.3 


+2.7 


110 


-99.4 


-15. S 


111 


-92.7 


+21.9 


112 


-144.6 


-719.4 


113 


+ 199.8 


-689.8 


114 


+ 11.8 


+622 (i 


115 


+445.0 


+664.7 


116 


-4'.il s 


+465 2 


117 


+89.6 


-467 6 


118 


+ 141 1 


-292.2 


119 


+25:; l 


+ l()ii 2 


120 


-295 8 


+231 .4 


121 


-43 6 


+56.1 


122 


-33 5 


- 16 1 


123 


-259 




124 


-66 1 


- 201 l 


1 25 


+186 :; 


-132 8 


126 


-15 1 


-146 1 


127 


+95 6 


-63 6 


128 


+ 111 6 


+131 l 


129 


-43 6 


+ 77 2 




+4 2 


1-84.6 


1 1 


-7:; 2 


+27 1 


l ..' 


-53 6 




i ;.; 


-58 ■ 


+43 5 



1 1 Ss 

15.30 
14.84 
13.73 
14.78 
15.53 



16.23 
16.22 
16.21 
14 42 
16.13 
16.01 



not variable 
11 8 15. S 
15.3 16.2 
15 50 16.14 
15.2 15.9 

not variable 
14 74 16.09 
15.17 15.66 



15.17 

15.02 
14.77 
14.86 

15 02 
1 1 96 



16.20 
15.99 
16.21 
16.31 
16.24 
16.18 



not variable 
14.90 16 13 



I.", (is 

1 1.69 

1 1 SI) 

15 26 

1 1 73 

1 1 7:; 

15 36 

15 11 

1 I 6 



15 
15 
15 

1." 



16 24 
16 25 
16 22 
16 23 
16 28 
16 16 
16 ()■". 
L6 25 
16.1 
16 7.". 
16 2 
16 us 
16.03 



not variable 



07 
2 

10 
is 

L5 3 
I I 89 



15 '.'7 

16 1 
16 L3 

15 94 

16 1 
15 96 



15021.083 
15021.177 
15021. US 

15021.019 
15021 524 



15021.101 



15021.288 
15021.315 
1 :.()21.310 
15021 443 
15021 .083 
15021 033 
15021 397 
15021 402 

15021 211 
15021.515 
15021.297 
15021.441 
15021 579 
15021 272 
15021 160 
15021 2s 1 
22760.550 

15021 395 

1.-021 029 
15021 208 



347 

15021 318 

21200 :;s7 

15021 182 



0.5035579 

0.6023041 
0.5236921 
103.19 
. 4994538 
. 2509695 



o 6438557 



0.5699246 

0.2877 U.-. 
ii 5471636 
0.3090344 
0.5196047 
o 5339259 
o 5353700 
0.5101921 

0.513003] 
o 5977254 
0.5133533 
0.5148090 
o 6005122 
4993795 
o 5177376 
6401377 
5351935 
ii .-,017 
o 5454416 



o :;»■■- 
o 3484044 

o 292266] 
59594 

.1 568 

n 2976902 
98479 



154 



Publications of tJie David Dunlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 5272 












No. 


x" 


y" 


Magn 
Max. 


itudes 
Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


134 


-22.4 


+52.4 


14.9 


16.3 


24290 . 282 


0.6190 


135 


-27.0 


+38.0 


15.0 


16.5 




. 56843 


136 


-25.4 


+33.4 


15.6 


16.2 






137 


+53.0 


-18.8 


14.9 


16.2 


15021.155 


0.5742061 


138 


-263.6 
+34.5 


+41.9 
+28.0 


not variable 
15.25 16.12 






139 


22760 . 465 


0.5608270 


140 


-15.7 


+ 108.9 


15.10 


15.88 


22760.216 


0.3331259 


141 


-1497.5 
-30 


-249.9 
-59 


14.9 
15.0 


16.4 
16.6 






142 


24290 . 397 


0.567S:; 


143 


-34 


+ 16 


15.4 


16.4 


2 1290 . 337 


0.51111 


144 


+54 


-100 


14.8 


16.7 


24290 . 565 


0.59674 


145 


+29 


+8 


14.9 


16.5 


24290 . 528 


0.5004 


146 


+96 


-59 


1 1 6 


16.5 


24290. 50: ! 


. 37308 


147 


-21 


+46 


15.1 


Hi 3 


24290.005 


0.34644 


148 


-7 


+37 


L5 3 


16 1 


24290.170 


0.46777 


149 


+34 


+52 


14.7 


Hi 5 


24290.228 


0.54985 


150 


+ 60 


+:i7 


14.8 


16.7 


24290.359 


0.52307 


151 


+4 


-40 


1 1 9 


L6 3 


24290.191 


0.51705 


152 


+ 77 


+ .-,() 


15.0 


16 :; 


24290 . 355 


0.32641 


153 


-38 

+2 


+60 

-29 


not variable 
12.9 14.0 






154 


24647 : 


15.2828 


155 


-64 
-21 

-17 


-74 
-42 
+35 


not variable 
14.2 15.7 






156 






157 


24647.650: 


0.5971:; 


158 


-16 


-41 


15.2 


16. 5 


24647 . 564 : 


0.50809 


159 


-15 


+16 


14.9 


16.6 


24647.602: 


0.56594 


160 


-9 


-44 


14 .9 


16.1 


24647 . 446 


0.64792 


161 


+ 17 


-58 


15.4 


16.4 


24647.567: 


0.49874 


162 


+28 
-16 
+21 
+73 


-32 

-32 
-36 

+20 


not variable 
not variable 
15.3 15 9 
14.7 16.5 






163 






164 






165 


24647 544 


0.49 


166 


-97 

-78 


-8 
-37 


15.1 
15.4 


16.2 
16.5 






167 


24647 . 448 


0.69245 


168 


-45 


+ 7 


14.9 


16.0 


24647 til 7 


0.37740 


169 


-29 

-28 


-35 

+32 


not variable 
15.1 16.1 






170 


24647.716: 


0.57187 


171 


-27 


+ 16 


15.0 


16.1 


24647 . 864 


0.30095 


172 


-21 


+25 


14.9 


16.5 


24647 . 700 


. 59400 


173 


-13 


+39 


15.2 


16.6 


24647.670: 


. 4988 


174 


-9 


-34 


15.1 


16.1 


24647.710 


0.4082 


175 


+42 


+26 


14.9 


16.2 


24647.914 


0.60780 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



:- 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC . 


S272 










No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximu m 


Period 


176 


+46 


+32 


14.8 16.4 


24647.621 


0.58118 


177 


+63 


-29 


15.0 16.3 


24647 953 


0.34835 


178 


+79 


+46 


15.2 16.5 


24647 755 


0.26480 


179 


+39 
-19 

-30 
-19 

+29 


-774 
-27 
-14 
+60 

+ 7 


not variable 
not variable 
not variable 
not variable 
not variable 






180 






181 




182 




183 




184 


-25 


-14 


14.9 16.4 


2HH7 841 


0.517 


185 


-15 

+ 12 


+32 
-64 


15.2 16.1 
15.1 16.1 






186 


24647.670 


. 675 


187 


-23 


+9 


14.9 16.2 


24647.961 


0.3927 


188 


-27 


+24 


15.0 16.0 


24647.615: 


0.3677 


189 


-25 


-21 


15.2 16.0 


24647 . 964 


. 668 


190 


-8 


+28 


14.8 16.5 


24647.936 


0.501 


191 





+24 


15 1 16.1 


24647.981 


0.512 


192 


-2 


+ 3 


15.0 16.1 


24647 933: 


. 525 


193 


+ 15 


— 7 


14 8 16 :; 


24647 777 


0.630 


194 


+ 17 


-13 


15.1 16.4 


24647 . 758 


0.549 


195 


-13 


-29 


15.0 16.2 


24647.470: 


600 


196 


+ 47 


+ 1 








197 


+58 


+ 10 


15.1 16.5 


24647 . 689 


0.499 


198 


-23 


+ 15 


15.2 16.0 


24647.923: 


0.3617 


199 


-19 


+ 13 


14.8 16 3 


24647.699: 


0.488 


200 


-4 
+4 


+21 
-9 








201 













Kefs. 1,8, 10, 11, 14, 17, 19, 20, 22,25,2s. 3 1. 32, 38, to, 13, 15,50 

56, 61, 76, 84, 86, 98, 101, 105, 109, 110, 111, 115. Plates in 20 an 

The data for this cluster have had to be collected from several sources, as follows: 
Positions: Nos. 1-137 Bailey. 138-141 Larink, 142-183 MiiII.t, 184-190 Greenstein. 
Magnitudes and periods from Greenstein. Epochs: 1-153 from Mulh-r. 154-199 Greet 

Shapley's publication in l'JH of 23 new stars in this cluster as definitely variable 
(Ref. 28) appears to have been confused with his several lists of suspected varia 

rdingly several observers have announced as new. variables which Shaplej 
definitely found earlier. The writer's careful checking ol all Shapley's varial 
variables 142-199 results in the conclusion that all but two of Shapley's variables have 
l.itrr been announced by some one else. These twi Fore numbered 200 and 201. 

Shapley's co-ordinates were published in right ascension and declination. i sing t 

- value "i the cluster centre, the writei to t and - 

of arc, for purposes of comparison. As the identification ol Shapley's variables with 
announced later is not always a positive one, a table giving the comparison ol Shai 
computed ,r and y with the variables is given. A corn 

in x. ami — 4" in v appears to bring the I t-ordinate systems into i urespondence. 

Eight ol the stars suspected variable by Shaplej in 1914 are t., be found on the lisl 
\ ariables annoum ed later. 



156 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 5272 

IDENTIFICATIONS OF SHAPLEY'S ANNOUNCED VARIABLES 



Shapley's 


Shapley's 


Positions 


Permanent 






Variables 


x" 


y" 


No. 




y 


1 


-00 


-70 


155 


-64 


-74 


2 


-32 


-55 


142 


-30 


-59 


3 


-29 


+ 21 


171 


-27 


+ 16 


4 


-27 


-17 


189 


-25 


-21 


5 


-23 


-25 


? 180 


- 29 


— 27 


6 


-22 


-38 


156 


-21 


-42 


7 


-lv 


+ 40 


157 


-17 


+ 35 


8 


-17 


-36 


158 


-16 


-41 


9 


-16 


+ 20 


159 


-15 


+ 16 


10 


-11 


-40 


160 


-9 


-44 


11 


-10 


+33 


190 


-8 


28 


12 


-6 




200 


-4 


- -'1 


13 


-4 


- ; 


192 


-2 


+3 


14 


+ 2 


-5 


201 


+ 4 


-9 


15 


+ 12 


-3 


193 


• [5 


-7 


10 


+ 15 


-9 


194 


+ 17 


-13 


17 


+ 16 


-53 


n.i 


• 17 


-58 


18 




+ 13 


L83 


f + 29 


/ +7 

\ +.s 








H.i prob. 


+ 2!) 


19 


+ 26 


-27 


L62 




-32 


20 


■ - 


+ 31 


139 


-34 .-, 


+ 28.0 


21 


+ 45 




196 


• 17 


-1 


22 


+ 57 


+ 14 


1<<7 




+ 10 


23 


- 


— 57 


? 140 




-59 



NGC 5286 a I3 h 43°\0, 6 -51 c 07' 

No variables found in this cluster. Ref. 71. No map. 



NGC 5466 a 14 ! " 


03'".2, 5 +28° 46' 






No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 
Mag. Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


1 


+858 
-62 
-31 

-80 

-64 

+ 122 

-210 

+23 

+31 

+8.5 

+ 117 

+ 17 

-49 

-47 


-9o 
-110 

-8 

+ 9 

+ 112 

-24 

-225 

-6 

+ 15 

+46 

+68 

-88 

-73 

+52 


15.66 16.68 
15.68 16.59 
15 48 10.55 
15.76 16.63 
15.58 16 57 

15.91 16.59 
15.76 16.59 
15.72 16 67 

15.96 16.62 

16.14 16.39 




2 






3 






4 






5 






6 






7 






8 






9 




10 






11 






12 






13 


16.01 16.51 






14 


15.80 16.47 













Refs. 78, 79. Chart in 78. 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



157 



Catalogue — Continued 

NGC 5634 a 14>> 27«\0, 5 -05= 15' 
4 unpublished variables. Ref. A. 

NGC 5694 a 14* 36*>.7, 8 -26° 19' 

Xo variables found. Ref. 104. No map. 



NGC 5904 (Messier 5) a 15 1 ' 16"\0, 5 +02° 16' 



Xo. 


x" 


y" 


Magn 

Max. 


tudes 
Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


1 


+28.3 


+ 161.3 


14 21 


15.57 


15021.106 


0.5217858 


2 


-345.0 


-29.9 


14.58 


15.51 


15021 


508 


0.52n3 4 4 


3 


+160.9 


+113.1 


14.68 


1.-, 54 


15021 


575 


0.6001 873 


4 


-11.9 


+74.2 


14.20 


15.53 


15021 


130 


(i 1496 187 


5 


-7 6 


+52.0 


14.29 


15.60 


15021 


191 


5 45903 


6 


+27.1 


-40.3 


14 20 


15.20 


15021 


039 


0.5488300 


7 


-5.0 


-191.4 


14.26 


15.80 


15021 


!7s 


0.4943870 


8 


+134.3 


-133 8 


14.26 


15.61 


15021 


205 


0.546224 2 


9 


+ 196.2 


+87 . 3 


14.40 


15.50 


15021 


47M 


0.6988919 


10 


+ 107 9 


+381.8 


14 17 


15.47 


15021 


353 


. 5306634 


11 


-155.2 


+85 3 


14.13 


15 4_> 


15021 


is l 


0.595S'i_'i 


12 


-175.9 


-16.2 


14.20 


1.") 7'i 


15021 


060 


0.467721 is 


13 


+ 11.8 


-65.4 


14.20 


l.-. 26 


15021 


418 


0.513121 


14 


-146.4 


+ 104.7 


14.50 


15.41 


L5021 


466 


o.4s: _ 


15 


+ 193.2 


+2.9 


14 79 


15.30 


L5021 


372 


0.50774:; 


1(3 


+91.6 


+83 7 


14.20 


15.50 


15021 


366 


0.6476222 


17 


-27.7 


+43.7 

-108.8 


14.17 


16.4 






0.60186? 


18 


+ 151.9 


1 \ 60 


15.48 


L5021 


436 


i) 164001 1 


19 


+237.0 


-130.8 


14.30 


15.75 


15021 


034 


16995 (5 


20 


-256.9 


-23.7 


1 1 30 


15.31 


15021 


537 


I) ii()!»47t',2 


21 


+324 . 1 


+72.8 


14.54 


15.48 


1.5021 


169 


0.004S'.t.V, 


22 


-206.2 


+381 2 

-9.6 

-71.5 


14.63 


If, l:, 








23 


-254 6 
-46.8 


14 71 
14.40 


I.", :; 
15 50 








24 


L5021 


398 


ii 1783750 


25 


-29.6 

+22.2 


-127 9 
+ 101.8 


L3 83 

1 1 :;i 


14.73 
15.40 








26 


15021 


591 


n 622562 


27 


-6.6 


-58.9 


11 is 


15.58 


L5021 


381 


ii 1703355 


28 


+132 9 


-121.8 


1 1 I.", 


\r, 72 


L5021 


160 


5439475 


29 


-376.0 


-75 1 


14 50 


15.49 


15021 


339 


n 151 112 ; 


30 


+2:; 3 


-213.0 


1 1 60 


IT, ;,() 


15021 


307 


ii .V.I2I77:: 


:;] 


+ 152 .0 


-142.5 


1 l 66 


15 38 


L5021 


L93 


0.2309690? 


32 


+202 7 


-151 7 


14.16 


i:, 60 


15021 


220 


n 1577848 




-21 1 


+ 127.8 


1 1 :;i 


i:» 7.". 


15021 


296 


.-,!>! 172 1 


34 


+84.8 


+59.2 


14.41 


15.48 


15021 


125 


i) :,.;si 154 



158 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 5904 












No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 








Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 




35 


— 12.1 


-114.7 


14.62 


15.23 


15021.096 


0.3083788 


36 


-7.5 


-51.7 


14.17 


15.78 






37 


+44.7 


+67.2 


14.10 


15.76 


15021.256 


0.4887962 


38 


-44.0 


+ 117.2 


14.34 


15.51 


15021.414 


0.4704310 


39 


-126.1 


-249.5 


14.13 


15.57 


15021.512 


0.5890323 


40 


+ 125.5 
+ 19.5 


+ 113.2 


14.51 


15.78 






41 


+231.4 


14.10 


15.68 


15021.279 


0.4885745 


42 


-123.8 


-120.1 


11.20 


12.24 


15032.48 


25.74 


43 


-202.7 


+ 155.1 


14.68 


15.43 


15021.122 


. 660235 


44 


-102.8 


+31.0 


14.66 


15.23 


15021.240 


0.2478988 


45 


-117.5 


+65.9 


14.37 


15.40 


15021.080 


0.6166379 


46 


-80.2 


+69.6 


15.11 


16.0 




variable? 


47 


-75.4 


+58.2 


14.28 


15.78 


15021.050 


0.5397330 


48 


-62.8 


+ 106.4 


14.56 


15.47 




variable? 


49 


+53 . 1 


+ 177.4 


15.16 


L5 7^ 




variable? 


50 


+38.5 


+ 109.5 


13.00 


14.20 


15101.0 


106.0 


51 


-0.1 


+ 136.2 


not varinhle 






52 


+ 108.7 


+35.0 


14.25 


15.40 


15021.216 


0.5017575 


53 


+68.8 
+27.1 
+80.3 


+ 19.2 


not variahlp 






54 


+56.8 


13.83 


16.10 






55 


-163.1 


14.75 


15.25 


15021.106 


0.4907365 


56 


-68.8 


+96.9 


14.34 


15.60 


15021 015 


0.5346931 


57 


-30.3 


+99.7 


14.39 


15.47 






58 


-608. 


+ 163 


14.10 


15 56 


15021.467 


0.4915684 


59 


-150.9 


-34.8 


14.26 


15.44 


15021.229 


. 5420250 


60 


-110.1 


+8.6 


14.40 


15.47 




0.45? 


01 


-255.7 


-30.2 


14.46 


15.52 


15021.298 


0.5686140 


62 


+ 167.6 


-217.9 


14.70 


15.34 


15021.012 


0.2814092 


63 


+214.0 


+50.6 


14.23 


15.57 


15021.412 


. 4976776 


64 


-51.6 


-249.2 


14.40 


15.70 


15021.000 


0.5445091 


65 


-160.7 


-93.6 


14.36 


15.52 


15021.057 


0.4806628 


66 


+219.7 


+405.9 


14.69 


15.18 


15021.194 


0.3510465 


67 


-102.3 

+896. 


-60. 
+50. 


14.17 
14.75 


16.0 
15.23 






68 


15021.217 


0.502136 


69 


+654. 


+751. 


14.17 


15.44 


15021.205 


0.4948754 


70 


+393. 


+626. 


14.40 


15.50 


15021.153 


0.5585215 


71 


+661. 


+292. 


14.26 


15.60 


15021.027 


. 5024678 


72 


+689. 


+38. 


14.59 


15.49 


15021.505 


0.5621279 


73 


+ 18.3 


+605 . 


14.22 


15.32 


21425.710 


0.340116 


74 


+205.6 


+162.2 


13.45 


14.17 






75 


+78.6 


-413.8 


14.70 


15.40 


15021.501 


0.6868916 


76 


+80.9 


-309.8 


14.40 


15.42 











Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



159 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 5904 



No. 


x" 


v 


Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


77 


-172.7 


-184.5 


14 50 


15.27 


15021.108 


0.8451077 


78 


+65 . 7 


+ 159.4 


14.61 


15.37 






79 


-134.3 


-31.7 


14 60 


15.15 


15021.089 


0.2498925 


80 


-48.7 


+ 111.8 


14.73 


15 25 


15021 059 


0.2516290 


81 


-72.5 


-121.5 


14.57 


15.65 


15021.510 


0.5573287 


82 


-68.3 


+ 13.1 


14.69 


15.31 


15021.349 


0.556012 


83 


-84.9 


-87.6 


1 1 50 


15.70 


15021.538 


0.5533048 


&> 


+43.0 


-32.8 


11 . 54 


12 61 


15027.5 


26.5 


85 


+37.9 


-35.1 


14.50 


15.60 


15021.409 


0.527046 


86 


+34 7 


-31.6 


14.40 


15.40 


15021.050 


567901 


^7 


+ 122 3 


-2.3 


14.80 


15.29 


15021.511 


0.738 - _ 


88 


+65.4 


+61.4 


14.87 


15.38 


15021.189 


. 2468705 


89 


+60.4 


+64.3 


14 53 


15.70 


15021.518 


. 558430 


90 


-44.8 


+ 15.3 


14.31 


15.47 


15021 070 


0.557151 


91 


-35.9 


+35 5 


14.60 


15.49 


15021.172 


0.585855 


92 


-57.0 


-122.5 


13.83 


15.26 











Co-ordinates, magnitudes and epochs from Bailey; periods as determined 

by Bailey and revised by Shapley and Roper. 
Refs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12. 14, 15. 17, 20, 21, 26, 31, 33, 40, 42, 53. 54. 60 

82, Plates in 20 and 33. 



NGC 5986 a 15 h 42">.8, 5 -37° 37' 

1 variable at a radial distance of 1'.7 from center. 
Refs. 14, 20. No map. 

NGC 6093 Messier 80^ a I6 h 14-.1. 5 -22° 52' 



1 
2 
Nova 



-137.6 

+22.5 
+4.0 



+79.7 

-l'.i (i 
+2 7 



6 s 



Kefs. 20, 69, 122. Plate in 20. Kef. 122 contains a complete bibliography 
of references on the nova. 



NGC 6121 (Messier 4) a 16 b 20 ra .6, 5 -26° 


24' 




1 


-2S1 
248 

-208 
185 


+ 12 

-195 

507 

-340 


13 73 11 l'.i 
13 s7 1 1 36 
13 04 1 I 37 
11.43 12 25 






2 






:; 
1 


20684 7 II 


5066293 









160 



Publications of the David Duulap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 6121 



No. 



o 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 



-185 

-115 

-113 

-110 

-104 

-68 

-64 

-53 

-47 

-47 

-32 

-29 

-8 

+ 4 

+ 11 

+ 13 

+19 

+34 

+38 

+49 

+70 

+94 

+ 118 

+259 

+32f, 

+340 

+353 

+ 746 

+805 



-93 

+318 

+231 

+ 111 

+ 105 

+ 159 

-297 

-207 

+270 

-24 1 

+436 

+69 

+20 

+27 

+358 

-63 

-4 

+80 

-26 

+ is 

+70 

-72 

+25.-) 

+84 

+598 

-69 

+ 45 

-40 

+630 



Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



14.08 
13.65 
13.88 
13.01 
13 76 
13.03 
13.42 
14.03 
12.37 
13.82 
13.98 
13.58 



14.24 
14.18 
1 1 72 
14.38 
14.64 
14 64 
14 59 
14 79 
13.08 
15.16 
1 1 71 
14 47 



not variable 
13 54 14 78 



13 37 
13.7 

12.90 
13 72 
13 :>7 
i:; 37 
13.45 
13 64 
13 38 
13 37 
i:i 19 
13 28 
12 98 
13.51 
13.3 



14 .37 
14.3 

1 1 is 
1 \ 20 
14 17 
14.77 
14.18 
1 \ 77 
14 24 
14.18 
14.61 
14 06 
14.18 
14.31 
14.1 



Epoch of 
Maximum 



23307 556 
23221.536 

23914.687 

22105.782 
26178.679 

23593 585 

23877 741 
23249 656 

20685 7 1 1 
23610 551 

2216 



20r.2ii.811 

20685 714 
23280 513 
20685.714 
23249 555 
23249 656 
23914 686 

2107s 568 



Period 



0. 5347988 
5081713 

0.4823935 

0.4930734 
0.4461313 

i) 1635316 
0.4438676 
0.5425413 

0.470 
0.4678131 

0.4719722 



0.51712 18 

0.5412222 
0.6120161 
0.5223606 
1.097452 

0.3697670 
0.505317.") 

0.6148267 



Refs. 21, 90, 93. Plate in 90. Magnitudes from B. 



NGC 6171 a Hi h 29" 



5 -12" 



-112.8 

+148.8 

-224.4 

-99.6 

+231.0 

-10.8 

+42.0 

+ 12.0 



-522.0 
-388.8 
-183.6 
-156.6 
-161.4 
-67.2 
-61.2 
-42.0 



114.16 

15.62 
15.55 
15 64 
15.74 
15 68 
15.57 
1 5 . 57 



16 75 
16.29 

16.14 
16.14 
16.21 
16.15 

16.64 
16.52 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 
Catalogue — Continued 



161 



NGC 6171 



No. 




Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



Epoch of 
Maximum 



Period 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 



-26.4 
-57.0 
+9.6 
+58.8 
-27.0 
+ 17.4 
+19.2 
-67.2 
-99.0 
+77.4 

+232.8 

+31.2 

+81.0 

-1354.2 

-263.4 
0.0 



-19.8 

+8.4 

+33.0 

+61.2 

+72.0 

+82.2 

+ 120.0 

+ 113.4 

+71.4 

+215.4 

+ 162.6 

+51.0 

-144.6 

-183.0 

+ 19.2 

+8.4 



15.91 
15.48 
15.69 
15.27 
15.45 
15.35 
15.57 
15.69 
15.35 
15.75 
15.77 
15.66 
16.33 

15.61 
15.66 



16.33 
16.65 
16.46 
16.48 
16.59 
16.45 
16.12 
16.51 
16.45 
16.46 
16.25 
16.40 
16.78 

16.13 
16.46 



Kef. 121, with chart. 
NGC 6205 (Messier 13) a 16 h 39 m .9, 5 +36° 33' 



+91.1 
-67.4 

-159.2 
-59.0 
+89.3 

+115.5 
-49.6 



-24.9 

-3.0 

+16.5 

+58.2 
— 14. J 

+76.6 
-82.7 



13.7 

12.85 

15.2 

15.33 

14.6 

14.0 

14.7 



14.9 

13.8 

16.11 

15.86 

15.8 

14.74 

1.1 If. 



6.0 

5.10 



3 unpublished variables. 

Co-ordinates of variables taken from Ludendorff's Catalogue (Potsdam Pub. 

v. 15, no. 50, 1905). 
Kefs. 11, 18, 20, 23, 27, 29, 30, 37, 40, 76. Plate in 20. 

NGC 6218 (Messier 12) a h. 11 «,. 8 -01° 52' 



I 



+34 



-62 



11.9 13 2 



27306.708 



i.-, :,os 



Kefs. 11, 102, 113, 123, 124. Plate in L23. 
NGC 6229 a I6 h 45».6, 5 +47° :;7' 



1 



- 



i:, 1 15.8 



20 unpublished vari iblcs. 
Kefs. :«;, 113, A. No map 



162 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 6254 (Messier 10) a 16 h 54"\5, 5 -04° 02' 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


1 


+5 
+30 


+22 
+ 120 


13.2 13.8 
11.9 13.7 






2 


26607.712 


18.754 



Refs. 14, 102, 113, 123, 124. Plate in 123. 



NGC 6266 (Messier 62) a 16 h 58 m .l, 5 -30° 0V 



1 


+41.0 


2 


-26.6 


3 


-89.2 


4 


-94.6 


5 


-163.4 


6 


-81.2 


7 


+22.6 


8 


-94.6 


9 


-92.7 


10 


-452.7 


11 


-456.2 


12 


-203.4 


13 


+ 16 


14 


-92.2 


15 


+ 122.8 


16 


-74.8 


17 


-21.4 


18 


-33.4 


19 


-15.3 


20 


+ 131.4 


21 


+ 105.4 


22 


+62.6 


23 


-74.3 


24 


+62.6 


25 


+ 150.4 


26 


-186.8 



+6.1 

-68.9 

-5.8 

-39.6 

+ 123.4 

+33.1 

+169.1 

+ 163.4 

+214.0 

+ 160.0 

+ 128.3 

+268.9 

+30.2 

+264.7 

+303.0 

+94.1 

+ 102.7 

+91.4 

+65.2 

+ 159.8 

+80.6 

+ 12.6 

-37.4 

-39.0 

-73.4 

-302.1 



Refs. 14, 20. Plate in 20. 



NGC 6293 a 17 h 07" 1. 5 -26° 30' 



+81.0 
-135.6 

+48.6 



+49.5 
+64.5 
+ 18.6 



Ref. 51. No map. 



Variable Stars in G lobular Star Clusters 



163 



Catalogue: — Continued 



NGC 6333 (Messier 9) a 17" 16»2, 

1 unpublished variable. Ref. 87, 



5 -18 3 28' 



NGC 6341 (Messier 92) a 1 


r h i5 m .6, 


5 +43 D 


12' 




No. 


x" 


v" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 








Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 




1 


+ 127.5 


+41.3 


14.44 


15.48 


27340.211 


0.702807 


2 


+91.2 


+69.2 


14.56 


15.51 


27340.329 


0.643886 


3 


+53.7 


+252.7 


14.57 


15.59 


27340.344 


0.6374'Jt 


4 


-76.0 


+58.0 


14.52 


15.43 


27340.111 


0.628911 


5 


+81.6 


-53.7 


14.55 


15 13 


27340 . 302 


0.619707 


6 


+38.7 


+43.3 


1 1.53 


15.40 


27340.360 


0.600001 


7 


+ 1.6 


-50.5 


14.14 


14.58 


27340 . 373 


0.515075 


8 


+208.9 


+208.0 


14.73 


15.43 


27340. 366f 


0.401895 


9 


+ 18.0 


-48.1 


14.73 


15.43 


27340.218 


0.377949 


10 


+83.0 


+36 . 3 


1 1 . 75 


15.29 


27340.283 


0.377315 


11 


+ 71.2 


-67 1 


14.74 


15.29 


27340.301 


0.235734 


12 


-29.9 


-97.8 


14.80 


15.16 


27340.009 


225130 


13 


+ 153 1 


-60 1 


14 93 


15 08 






14 


-316.0 


+245.7 


14.80 


15.10 


27340.089 


0.346178* 


15 


+30 


-102 


14 6 


15 2 






16 


-2 


+77 


14 


14.5 













fTwo epochs given. 

"Variable No. 14 is of the W 1 Ma type. 

Refs. 64, 76, 114, 120, 125, C. Plate in 120, but the numbers of the variables 
marked on the plate are those assigned by Nassau and do not correspond 
with the numbers as listed here, which were assigned by Hachenberu. 
Most of the variables were discovered independently by Guthnick and 
Prager, and by Nassau. The numbering of the German astronomers has 
been adopted, since they first published references to the variables and 
the periods, although the identification was first published by Nassau. 

The correspondence in numbering is as follows: 

Hachenberg 12 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 10 11 12 13 11 
Nassau... 7 3 1 S 6 2 5 1 '.I 13 11 .. 14 .. 

Variable No. 11 was first found by Miss Woods in 1922. 

Nassau's variables 10 and 12 were not found by the German observers and 
I have assigned them numbers IS and IB respectively. 



NGC 6362 a 17 1 ' 26 m .6 1 5 -67 01' 



1 


00 
-29 


00 
-100 

-89 








2 






:; 













164 



Publications oj the David Dunlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 6362 










No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


4 


-79 

+81 

+54 

+22 

-263 

-207 

+ 186 

-28 

-245 

-234 

+370 

+51 


-88 

-14 
+ 175 
+ 104 
+ 108 
+ 138 
+352 

+48 
-104 
-120 

+28 
+2 








5 






6 






7 






8 






9 






10 






11 






12 






13 






14 




15 













2 unpublished variables. 
Refs. 47, 87. No map. 



NGC 6366 a 17 h 25 m .l, 8 -05° 02' 
6 unpublished variables. Ref. E. 

NGC 6397 a 17>> 36»8, 5 -53° 39' 



+210.7 
-279.0 



+448.4 
-424.6 



11.2 
13.8 



16.0 
14.8 



13727.6 



314.6 

45. or 60. ? 



Refs. 11, 20, 66, 90. Plate in 20. 



NGC 6402 (Messier 14) a 17 h 35 m .O, 6 -03° 13' 



1 


+ 17 

-116 

-3 

+ 169 

-136 

+34 

+62 

+96 

+ 151 

-51 

+ 196 

+224 

-29 


+47 

-119 

-90 

+ 73 

+90 

— 77 

-97 

+35 

-39 

-205 

-223 

-177 

-118 


14.3 
15.4 
16.2 
16.3 
16.1 
15.8 
14.9 
16.6 
16.3 
16.3 
16.0 
16.2 
16.3 


16.0 
16.3 
17.0 
17.5 
17.5 
16.4 
16.2 
17.7 
17.5 
17.4 
17.3 
17.6 
17.6 




18.75 


2 




2 . 7952 


3 






4 






5 






6 






7 




13.59 


8 






9 






10 






11 






12 






13 













Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



165 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 6402 



No. 



Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



Epoch of 

Maximum 



Period 



14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
16 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 



+54 

-135 

-79 

-228 

+61 

-128 

-145 

+72 

+70 

+74 

-2 

-28 

-85 

-421 

-465 

-68 

+76 

-41 

+36 

-138 

-70 

-112 

+204 

+5 

+ 11 

+46 

+253 

-13 

+36 

+68 

+20 

-90 

+91 

-89 

-4 

-98 

-15 

+ 104 

+82 

+134 

+ 121 

+33 



+ 1 

+ 147 
-36 

+ 122 

-22 

+2 

+98 

+ 125 
+95 

+281 
+75 

-312 
+27 

+ 151 

+372 

-152 
-12 
+32 

+ 147 
+ 12 
+26 
-49 

-346 

+ 18 

-17 

-2 

+310 

-3 

+ 12 

+23 

+116 
+ 94 
-66 
+2(1 
+40 
-19 
-38 

-30.") 
+39 

+129 

+113 

+106 



16.2 
16.1 
16.2 

14.8 
16.1 
16.3 
16.3 
16.3 
16.4 
15.9 
16.1 
16.4 
16.5 
15.4 
15.0 
15.7 
16.2 
16.0 
16.2 
16.2 
It). 4 
16.2 
16.4 
16.4 
16.0 
16.1 
16.4 
16.0 
15.9 
16.2 
16.3 
15.7 
16 l 
16.5 
16.3 
16.0 
16.1 
16.5 
16. 5 
16 » 
16 6 
16 5 



17.5 
17.5 
17.4 
15.7 
17.7 
17.6 
17 4 
17.4 
17.6 
17.4 
17 6 
17.5 
17.5 
16.2 
16.0 
16.2 
17.5 
17.0 
17.1 
17.3 
17.6 
17. 1 
17.5 
17 7 
17.0 
17.6 
17.1 
17.1 
17 1 
17 3 
17.5 
16.4 
17.4 
17 6 
17.7 
16.9 
17.0 
17 5 
17 
17 :; 

!7 6 
!7 5 



166 



Publications oj tlic David Dunlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 6402 



Refs. 102, 113, 117, 123. Plate in 123. 

NGC 6426 a 17" 42'". 1, 5 +03° 12' 
10 unpublished variables. Ref. A. 

NGC 6535 a 18" 01-3, 5 -00° 18' 
1 unpublished variable. Ref. A. 

NGC 6539 a IS" 02'". 1, 5 -07° 35' 
1 unpublished variable. Ref. A. 

NGC 6541 a IS" 04'".4, 5 -43° 44' 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


56 


-68 

+ 134 

-123 

-32 

+41 

+ 12 

-232 

+ 122 

-51 

-125 

-133 

+34 

+10 

+ 140 

+43 

-116 

+ 122 


-1S4 

-lie. 

-34 
+30 
+54 
-43 

-154 
-63 

-169 
+ 13 
+37 
+ 14 
-19 
+26 
-23 


16.4 17.4 

16.3 17.6 

16.4 17.3 

16.4 17.7 
16.2 17.7 
16.1 17 7 

16.5 17 6 
16.5 17 4 
16.5 17.5 
16.4 17.2 






57 






58 






59 






60 






61 






62 






63 






64 






65 






66 


16.6 17.4 
16.1 17.5 
16.6 17 5 

16.6 17 :; 
16.0 17 2 




67 





68 




69 






70 






71 


-50 16.5 17 7 
-119 16 5 17 5 






72 

















1 -54 



-100: 



12.5 [16. 



Ref. 63, 70. No map. 

NGC 6553 a IS" 06 m .3, o -25° 56' 

2 suspected variables. Ref. 51. No map. 



NGC 6584 a IS" 14 m .6, o -52° 14' 

No variables in cluster. Ref. 71. No map. 



/ 'ariable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



167 



Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 6626 .Messier 28) a 18* 21 m .5, 5 -21' 54' 



No. 



Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



Epoch of 
Maximum 



Period 



+ 174.0 

-47.3 

-32.9 

-34.5 

-44.8 

+34.1 

+172.2 

+227.3 

-158 6 



+ 188.5 
+63.1 

+ 111.0 

+33 . 6 

+16.4 

+50.4 

+ 102.7 

-222.3 

-252.4 



Kefs. 11, 14, 20. Plate in 20. 



NGC 6656 (Messier 22) a IS 1 ' 33»3, 5 -23° 58' 



8 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
If, 
17 



-.-,4.0 

+158 6 

+214.7 

-4.0 

-178.2 

-74.4 
-342 1 

-39.5 
-211.2 

-39.0 

-14.4 
+0.8 

+76 I 

+250 8 

+115.3 

+ 185.0 

i t8 



-10.0 
+69.2 

+420.2 
-68.0 
-33.8 

-100.0 

+ 111 2 
-64 s 
-35.0 

-125.0 
+ 14 
-77 S 

+158 '.i 

+ 186 1 
-83.2 
-17.8 

+126 (i 



13.8 
13.8 

1 1 55 

13.6 

12.0 

13.3 
13.3 
12.0 
12.7 

1 3 . 3 

12.H5 

14.2 

13 1 

13 S 
1 1 
1 1 
1 1 6 



1 4 . 75 
14.35 
[15.0 

1 l 5 
12.8 
14.5 
14 5 
12 7 
13.3 
1 1 ti 
13.9 
l ! 5 
1 I .-,:, 
1 15 5 
14 55 
1 1 45 
15 



0.615542 


o 6428+ 


340 + 


0(>± 


7.0'.»7 J 


0.6± 


0.6495191 


0.6± 


variable ? 


0.6725203 


200 


3 + 


. 324 + 



Refs. 11, U, 2(i, is. si. Plate in 20. 



NGC 6712 a 1- 5n ::. 5 -OS 17' 



-67 



-8 



15 16 7 



al unpublished vai iables. 
, A. No map. 



168 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 6723 a 18 h 56«\2, 5 -36° 42' 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magn 
Max. 


itudes 
Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


1 


4-75.6 


-197 1 


15.10 


15.80 


23618.56 


0.538411!* 


2 


+ 135.2 


-76.9 


14.45 


16 05 


23618.68 


0.5048 


3 


-244.9 


+6.0 


14.70 


15.80 


23618.90 


0.4949 


4 


+ 17.1 


+77.4 


14.55 


1 5 90 


23618.79 


0.4521 


5 


-4.8 


+50.8 


15.20 


16.00 




. 49 


6 


+ 7.1 


+46.2 


14.90 


16.05 


23618.80 


0.4812 


7 


+ 197.9 


-70 1 


15.20 


15 75 


23618.91 


. 4675 


8 


+ 15.9 


+ 10.8 


14 75 


15 60 




. 53 


9 


+73.6 


+ 17.2 


14.70 


15.80 


23618 71 


0.5779 


10 


+ 149. G 


+84.2 


15.10 


15.60 


23618.60 


0.33855 


11 


+ 133.3 


+228.8 


14.85 


15 65 


23618.70 


0.5342935 


12 


+45.1 


-45.0 


1 \ 95 


15.85 


23618 53 


0.5333 


13 


-46.8 


-70.8 


14.80 


16.00 


23618.48 


. 5078 


14 


-37.9 


-43.0 


14.95 


15.80 


23618.91 


0.6190 


15 


-93.4 


+165.7 


14.40 


15.80 


23618 7 1 


0.4355162 


16 


-46.4 


+91.6 


1 1 75 


15 65 


23618.67 


0.4114 


17 


+43.9 

-139.2 
-174.0 


-102.0 

-24: 
-120: 


1 1 1 
1 1 6 
14.6 


15 7 
15 3 
15 5 




5301595 


18 




5263801 


19 




53 171 us 









The three vari 
Refs. 14, 20, 7 



ables found b; 
::, 74, 91, 96. 



• van Gent have been given numbers 17, 18, 19. 
Plate in 20, charts in 



NGC 6752 a 19 h 06^.4, 5 -60° 04' 

1 variable, 4' from cluster centre. 
Refs. 11, 14, 20. No map. 



NGC 6760 a 19 h 08 m .6, 8 +00 3 57' 
2 unpublished variables. Ref. A. 



NGC 6779 (Messier 56) a 19 h 14"\6, 5 +30° 05' 



+51.0 
+21.0 
+33.0 



+ 75.6 

+54.4 

+ 124 5 



14.43 15.20 



*Suspected. Several unpublished variables. 
Refs. 35, 51, E. Plate in 51. 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



169 



Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 6809 (Messier 55) a 19 h 36". 9, 5 -31° 03' 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 


Epoch of 

Maximum 


Period 


] 


+304 . 2 
-214.9 


-55.6 
-26.0 






2 












Refs. 20, 75. 77. Plate in 20. 



NGC 6864 (Messier 75) a 20 h 03 m .2, o -22° 04' 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 



7 

8 

9 

>10 

U 

12 



+15.6 

-9.0 

+ 18.0 

-18.0 

+ 108.0 

+8.4 
-24.6 
-13.5 
+45.6 
-43.5 
+ 121.2 
+39.6 



-83.4 
+54.0 
+85.5 
-84.6 
-36.0 
-81.0 
+78.0 
-41.4 
-24 
+50.4 
+84.0 
+75.0 



•Suspected. Four additional suspected variables, numbered 13-16, are 

omitted. 
Ref. 51, with plate. 



NGC 6934 a 20 h 31»7, 5 +07° 14' 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



-45 
-40 

+39 
+59 
-27 
+92 

+ 100 
+63 

-135 
+ 17 
+29 
-47 
-7 
+ 10 



-39 
-14 
+58 
+58 
+221 
-33 
+59 
+ 50 

H8 

+ 72 
+28 
n 
+ 25 
-90 
- 53 



15.9 
16.0 
15.9 
15.6 

15 9 
16.1 

16 2 
16 3 

15 9 
15.8 

16 6 

15 6 

16 (» 
15 8 
15 2 



17.3 

17 4 
17 3 
17.2 

17.2 
17 5 
17.3 
17 1 
17 4 
17 2 
17 :, 
17 1 
17 2 
17 1 
15 8 



170 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 6934 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 
Max. Miti. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


16 


+36 

-73 

+49 

+30 

-26 

-35 

-240 

-31 

+37 

+50 

+ 31 

-148 

-234 

-85 

+ 161 

+ 146 

-10 

+37 

-21 

+157 

+ 10 

+ 23 

+ 12 

+8 

-8 

+30 

+55 

+21 

-4,3 

-32 

+ 14 

+ 10 

+33 

+ 13 

+ 15 

+7 


+ 18 

-107 

-8 

+ 1 

+ 17 

-3 

-17:; 

-16 

-53 

+37 

-196 

+ 180 

+ 100 

-183 

+ 127 

-101 

+51 

+ 12 

+ 16 

- 1 (2 

-35 

+ 10 

-18 

-16 

+ 26 

-39 

+20 

+27 

-30 

-9 

-24 

-26 

+52 

-55 

-37 

-25 


L6.1 17.4 

16.2 17.4 
16.1 17.1 
15.9 17.4 

16.0 17 3 

16.1 17.5 
16.0 17.2 
16.4 17 1 

16.3 17.:; 

15.9 17 1 

16. 4 17.2 
16 2 17.2 
I.". 7 17 3 
15.7 17.3 
If, 2 17.2 
16.0 17.3 
15 S 17 1 
16.0 17 2 
If. 1 17.4 
16.0 17.5 
1.'. 6 17.0 

16.0 17.3 

16.2 17.:; 

16.1 17.:; 

15.7 L6.3 

16.2 17 5 
15.9 17.3 
15.9 17.4 

15.8 17 :; 
15.8 17.2 
16.4 17.4 

16.3 17.3 
16.0 17.4 
16.2 17.3 

16.4 17.3 
15.4 16.1 






17 






18 






19 






20 






21 






22 






23 






24 






25 






26 






27 






28 






29 






30 






31 






32 






:;;; 






34 




35 






36 






37 






38 






39 






40 






41 






42 






43 






44 






45 






46 






47 






48 






49 






50 






51 













Ret". 102, 107, 113, 123. Plate in 123. 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



171 



Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 6981 -Messier 72) a 20 h 50.7. 5 -12 H 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magn 

Max. 


itudes 
Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


1 


+43.5 


-54.0 


16.40 


17 27 


22162 "7 


0.01 '.i7! 


2 


+99.0 


+ 194.4 


L6 nn 


17 32 


22102.817 


0. 16561 


3 


-52.5 


-58.5 


16.25 


17.35 


22162.968 


0.4v 


4 


-106 5 


+37.5 


16.16 


17.34 


22 It 12.90 


i) 3619 


5 


-38.4 


-21.6 


If). 40 


17. 13 


22163.738 


. 4991 


*6 


+ 78.0 
-3.G 


+78.6 
+5.') 5 










7 


16.20 


17 211 


22103.896 


0.524(13 


8 


-6.6 


+89. 1 


n; in 


17.32 


22163.835 


0.57 


9 


+ 11 1 


+50.4 


16.30 


17 34 


221(12 HI 


i) 5902 


10 


-48.6 


— 73 5 


16.23 


17 32 


22163.63 


0.548 


11 


+57.0 


-36 6 


16 :;:. 


17 32 


22H12 7: iii 


0.3345 


12 


+9.0 


-21 6 


16.31 


17.17 


22163.90 


o 1111 


13 


+ 13.5 


+17.4 


16.10 


17 15 


22161.907 


0.54is_' 


14 


-13.5 


+36.0 


16.40 


17.06 


22163.90 


0.5904 


15 


-64 :, 


-21.0 


16.15 


17.30 


22163 83 


it 5499 


16 


-4.5 


-19.5 


16.30 


17 37 


22163 83 


0.5641 


17 


+3.0 


-43.5 


16 35 


17.32 


22162.845 


0.56308 


18 


-26.4 


-37 .-» 


15.70 


L6 28 


22102.88 


0.52016 


*19 


+3.0 
-:,l 6 


+ 112.5 
+ 15.0 










20 


16.42 


17 12 


22162.92 


0.5955S 


21 


-82.5 


+ 12.(1 


16 32 


17.37 


22162 " 


0.5310 


22 


-113 4 


+ 1 :, 










23 


-99.0 


+116 \ 


16.20 


17 2.". 


22Hi:; '.mi 


i) 5 ■ 


21 


-15.6 


-24 


in 20 


|ii 55 


221(11 92 


0.4973: 


25 


—133 5 


+ H7.5 
-45.0 


in i." 


17 06 






20 


-91.5 










27 


+209 l 


-234 


15 72 


17 I.'. 


221(12 981 


1) 6588S 


28 


-65.4 


+81.0 


L6 is 


17.21 


22162.94 


(l 36381 


29 


+30.0 


-.-.2 .', 


16.40 


17 37 


221(11 83 


(i 36865 


30 


+71.4 

+ 5.4 


-97 5 


L6 38 


16 '.»1 






31 


+36.6 


hi :,() 


17 22 


22162 02 


:,:. in:. 


32 


-138.0 


-42 


if, :,() 


17 22 


221.'.; 7 3 


o 50544 


•33 


+2 1 


-(i() ti 










:;t 


-6.0 


^7 :, 


16 06 


Hi 7:: 













•Suspected. 

The two variables first discovered by Miss Davis in 1917 are probably 

the same as \os. •''» and is. 
kefs. 36, 51, 52. Plate in 51. 



172 



Publications of tlic David Dunlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 7006 a 20 h 59™. 1, 5 +16° 00' 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


1 


-177.6 
-38.0 

-27.6 
-24.2 
-24.2 
-15.5 

+31.0 
+36.2 
+38.0 
+ 141.4 


+ 113.8 
-38 
+32.8 
-42 2 
+36.2 
-44 8 
-38.0 
+ 13.8 
+ 15.5 
-13.8 
+48.3 








2 






3 






4 






5 






6 






7 




8 






9 






10 






11 













Variables Xos. 2 and 5 were first announced by Shapley and Miss Ritchie 

in 1920. 
Numerous unpublished variables. 
Refs. 51, 57, A. No map. 

Note added in proof: Hubble reports that one of the stars in this cluster is 
a long period variable. Ref. G. 

NGC 7078 (Messier 15) o 21 h 27^.6, 5 +11° 57' 



1 


-118.6 


+24.4 


14 36 


15.54 


15021.990 


1 . 437478 


2 


-171.7 


+6.0 


15.14 


15.95 


15021.078 


0.684270 


3 


-248.0 


-46.8 


15.34 


16.03 


15021.097 


0.3891545 


4 


-112.6 


-163.6 


15.31 


16.08 


15021.277 


0.3135750 


5 


-100.3 


-212.5 


15.33 


16.00 


15021.291 


0.384619 


6 


+24.4 


+ 76.5 


15.20 


16.29 


15021.603 


0.665971 


7 


+ 10.1 


+ 73.2 


15.56 


16.16 


15021.134 


0.367586 


8 


-0.6 


+ 126.8 


15.22 


16.14 


15021.330 


0.646251 


9 


+ 15.6 


+ 138.7 


15.12 


15.98 


15021.425 


0.715284 


10 


+ 125.6 


+ 1.7 


15.50 


16 04 


15021.370 


0.386395 


11 


+ 172.3 


-21.8 


1 5 . 2S 


16.07 


15021.243 


0.3435678 


12 


+ 163.0 


-50.7 


15.22 


16.13 


15021.090 


. 592934 


13 


+126.6 


-68.8 


15.12 


16.20 


15021.365 


0.574961 


14 


+84.1 


-256.2 


15.44 


16.00 


15021.128 


0.381999 


15 


+81.7 


-304.1 


15.22 


16.16 


15021.064 


0.584386 


16 


+ 101.9 


+ 129.8 


15.50 


15.97 


15021.556 


0.69464 


17 


+83.7 


+ 110.6 


15.40 


15.90 


15021.216 


0.666979 


18 


+77.3 


+ 100.4 


15.50 


16.00 


15021.331 


0.37816 


19 


+ 111.3 


+ 160 4 


14.85 


16.10 


15021.552 


. 572293 


20 


+81.2 


-9.8 


15.27 


16.17 


15021.261 


. 700570 


21 


+34.4 


-57.5 


15.25 


16.20 


15021.322 


0.624690 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 



173 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 7078 












No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 








Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 




22 


-330.8 


-45.8 


15.18 


in 04 


15021 .566 


0.721728 


23 


+ 192.0 


+256 . 1 


15.07 


15.95 


15021.198 


. 632690 


24 


-106 7 


-6.1 


15 12 


16.17 


15021 055 


0.369697 


25 


4-302.9 


-10.7 


15.10 


16.00 


15021.499 


0.665329 


26 


+23 . 5 


+331.9 


15.33 


15.97 


15021 272 


0.402326 


27 


+222.5 


+248.2 


varia 


ble ? 






28 


+309.9 


+534.2 


15.19 


16.15 


15021.632 


0.670640 


29 


+163 :: 


+212.2 


15 L3 


16.06 


15021 281 


0.574062 


30 


-165.0 


-3.4 


15.42 


16.00 


15021.293 


0.405976 


31 


-112.6 


+245.6 


15.30 


16 07 


15021 375 


. 435693 


32 


-50.4 


+ 107.8 


15.14 


15.98 


15021 000 


. 605400 


33 


-41.2 
-55.4 
-34.0 


-29.4 

-54.5 

-163.6 


varia 

15 10 


ble ? 
16.11 






34 






35 


15021 278 


0.383997 


36. 


-27.7 


-81.6 


15. IS 


L6.26 


15021 371 


0.624142 


37 


-25.2 


-77.4 








• 


38 


+7 6 


-116.2 


15.29 


16 L6 


15021.328 


375274 


39 


+20.5 


-124 s 


15.34 


16.14 


15021.259 


0.389984 


40 


+ 131.8 


-116.7 


L5 34 


16.00 


15021 320 


0.377390 


41 


+62.9 


-55.4 










42 


+227.5 


-36.8 


15.3 1 


L6 07 


15021.110 


0.360167 


43 


+416.7 


+ 103 2 


15 25 


15.88 


15021.041 


0.406744 


44 


+91.3 


+3.0 


15.20 


L6 11 


L5021 :57:; 


(i 59f 


45 


+66.9 


-31.0 


15.19 


L6 11 


15021 521 


0.66210 


46 


+56.0 


+33.2 


15 10 


L6.32 


1.-021.210 


0.692730 


47 


+45 . 7 


-4 3 


L5 32 


16.04 


L5021 604 


0.662900 


48 


+59.7 


+ 150 6 


15.35 


L6 17 


15021 266 


378881 


49 


+40.3 


+166 6 


1 1 ?:. 


L5 35 


15021.037 


o 11 7'. »72 


50 


+ 165.0 


+ 100.0 


15 35 


16.00 


15021 202 


29850 


51 


+6.2 


+91.4 


15 51 


16.03 


L 5021. 158 


397757 


52 


+ 192.4 


-22 6 


15.12 


L6 24 


L5021 L06 


0. 57500 s 


53 


-92.6 


-111 


15.28 


L5 91 


15021 301 


0.41 1 


54 


+ 10.8 


+88.4 


15 58 


16 L3 


L5021 240 


39832S 


55 


+65.3 


-18.8 


15 19 


10 30 


L5021 675 


0.719615 


56 


+57.4 


0.0 


15.19 


10 11 


15021 249 


570307 


57 


+75.2 


-56 1 


15 26 


\r, -.17 


L5021 243 


348 


58 


-55 6 


+8.8 


15 64 


L6 32 


15021 :;ss 


it 120 


59 


+41.3 


+ 11 5 


L5 50 


16 lo 


15021 117 


0.5.. 


60 


+53 1 


-59 :: 


L5 29 


L6 00 


1.-.021 Us 


o 691852 


61 


-67.3 


- to 2 


L5 13 


16 16 


L5021 526 


61030 


62 


-7! 6 


+ 3!) 6 


L5 65 


L6 26 


L5021 L61 


ii 38818 


63 


+49.8 


+31.0 


15 54 


[6 U 


15021 076 


o 67 



174 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 7078 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


64 
65 
66 


-46.2 

-102.4 

-68.4 


+ 19.1 

-38.7 

-112.4 


15 61 16.24 
15.43 16.18 
15.41 16.10 


15021.207 

15021.377 
15021.191 


0.351695 
. 756048 
0.379330 



8 additional variables without published data (Ref. 74). 

Refs. 14, 17, 20, 34, 39, 41, 45, 76, 95, 100. Plates in 20 and 41. 



NGC 7089 (Messier 2) a 21 


• 30 m .9, 


5 -or 


03' 




1 


+25.6 


+ 79 1 


13.2 


14. S 


26607.800 


15.5647 


2 


-45.8 


+71.1 


11 6 


16. 1 


21454 '.171 


0.527858 


3 


+222 . 9 


-39.6 


IT) 1 


16.4 


26921 .936 


619705 


4 


-26.8 


+31.5 


15.2 


16.6 


26628.644 


0.564247 


-. 


-44.4 


+2.1 


13 2 


14.9 


26628.611 


17.5548 


6 


+ 11.8 


-45.4 


13.2 


14.9 


22162.928 


19.3010 


7 


+153.0 


-189.2 


15.1 


16.4 


27274.901 


0.594857 


8 


-66.9 


-56.8 


15.1 


16.4 


27273 . 896 


0.643677 


9 


-173.2 


-128.2 


15.2 


16.4 


27274.901 


0.609291 


10 


+90.6 


+38.8 


15.2 


16.4 


27275 . 909 


0.466910 


11 


+85 


+8 


12.5 


13.7 


26607 . 800 


33.600 


12 


-62 


+43 


15.1 


16.5 


26628.776 


0.665616 


13 


-77 


+73 


15.1 


if, | 


26921 972 


0.706616 


14 


+83 


-68 


15 4 


16.4 


20749.843 


0.693785 


15 


+80 


-76 


15.7 


If. I 


26944 . 880 


0.430152 


16 


-31 


-27 


15.3 


16.5 


27275 . 950 


0.655917 


17 


+2 


-63 


15.2 


16.3 


27274.901 


0.636434 



Refs. 11, 13, 14, 16, 20, 88, 102, 106, 112, 123. Plates in 20 and 112. 



NGC 7099 (Messier 30) a 21 h 37 m .5, 5 -23° 25' 




Refs. 11, 14, 20. Plate in 20. 



NGC 7492 a 23 h 05" 7, 5 -15° 54' 



1 



+1.2 



+96.6 



Variables numbered 2-5 are only suspected of varying. 
8 unpublished \ariables. 
Refs. 51, 87. Plate in 51. 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clusters 175 

REFERENCES TO VARIABLE STARS IX GLOBl'LAR CLUSTERS 
IX CHRONOLOGICAL ARRANGEMENT 

Pickering, E. C, A.N., v. 123, p. 207. 

Common, A. A.. M.N., v. 50, p. 517. 

Fleming, M., Sid. Mess., v. 9, p. 380. 

Fleming, M.. .LA 7 ., v. 125. p. 157. 

Packer, D. E., Sid. Mess., v. 9, p. 381 : E.M.. v. 51, p. 37S. 

Packer, D. E., Sid. Mess., v. 10, p. 107. 

Packer, D. E., E.M.. v. 52, p. 80. 

Porro, F., A.N., v. 127, p. 197. 

Pickering, E. C, A.N., v. 135, p. 129. 

Belopolsky, A., A.N., v. 140. p. 23. 

Pickering, E. C, H.C., no. 2; A.N., v. 139, p. 137: Ap.J.. v. 2, 

p. 321. 
Pickering, E. C, A.N., v. 140, p. 285. 
Chevremont, A., Bull. Soc. Astr. France, v. 11, p. 485. 
Pickering, E. C, H.C., no. 18; A.N., v. 144, p. 191 ; Ap.J., v. 6, 

p. 258. 
Barnard, E. E., A.N., v. 147, p. 243. 
Chevremont, A., Bull. Soc. Astr. France, v. 12, p. 10, 90. 
Pickering, E. C, H.C., no. 24; A. N., v. 14ti, p. U3; Ap. J., v. 7, 

p. 208. 
Barnard, E. E., Ap.J., v. 12, p. 182. 
Pickering, E. C, H.C., no. 52; A.N.. v. 153, p. 115; Ap.J., v. 12, 

p. 159. 
Bailey, S. I., H.A., v. 38. 

Leavitr, H. S., H.C., no. 90; A.N., v. 107, p. 161. 
Barnard, E. E., A.N., v. 172, p. :;r>. 
Barnard, E. E., Ap.J., v. 29, p. 75. 
Barnard, E. E., A.N., v. 184, p. 273. 
Bailey, S. I., H.A., v. 78, p. 1-98; Viert. der Astr. Gcs., v. 48, 

p. 418. 
Barnard, E. E., A.N., v. 196, p. 11. 
Barnard, E. E., Ap.J., v. 40, p. 179. 
Shapley, 1L, Mt. IT. Cont., no. 91 =Ap.J., v. 40, p. 1 13. 
Shapley, H., P.A.S.P., v. 27, p. 131. 
Shapley, H., P.A.S.P., v. 27, p. 2 - 
Bailey, S. I., H.C., no. 19:;. 
Shapley, IL, P.A.S.P., v. 28, p. 81. 
Bailey, S. I., II. A., v. 78, pt. 2. 
Bailey, S. L. I\>p. Astr., v. 2r>. p. 520. 
Davis, H., P.A.S.P., x. 29, p. 211). 
Davis, II.. r.l.S.r.. v. 2'.'. p. 260. 
Shapley, II., Mt. 11". Cont., no. 116, | 
Shapley, II. and Davis, II., P.A.S.P., \. 29, p. l 10. 
Bailey, S. L, /'op. Astr., v. 26, p. 683. 
Shapley, II., Mt. If. Cont., no. 151 Ap.J., v. is. p, 89 
Bailey, S. I., Leland, E. F. and Woods, !. I . // A., % 78 



1. 


1889 


2. 


1890 


.';. 


1890 


i. 


1890 


5. 


1890 


6. 


IS' III 


7. 


1890 


8. 


1891 


9. 


1894 


10. 


1895 


11. 


1895 


12. 


1896 


13. 


1897 


14. 


1897 


15. 


1898 


16. 


1898 


17. 


1898 


18. 


1900 


19. 


1900 


20. 


1902 


21. 


1904 


22. 


1906 


23. 


1909 


24. 


1909 


25. 


1913 


26. 


1913 


27. 


1914 


28. 


1911 


29. 


I'M.", 


• i' 


L915 


31. 


1916 


32. 


L916 


.;:;. 


1917 




1917 


• 


I'M 7 


36. 


1917 


::7. 


1917 


8 


!'H 7 


39. 


1918 


in 


1918 


11. 


1919 



176 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Barnard, E. E., Pop. Astr., v. 27, p. 522. 

Sanford, R., Pop. Astr., v. 27, p. 99. 

Shapley, H., P.A.S.P., v. 31, p. 220. 

Shapley, H., Mt. W. Cont., no. 154 = Ap.J., v. 49. p. 24. 

Woods, I. E., H.C., no. 216. 

Woods, I. E., H.C., no. 217. 

Bailey, S. I., Pop. Astr., v. 28, p. 518. 

Shapley, H., Mt. W. Cont., no. 175 = .1 />./., v. 51, p. 49-61. 

Shapley, H., Mt. W. Cont., no. 170 = .!/>./., v. 51, p. 140. 

Shapley, H., Mt. W. Cont., no. l90=Ap.J., v. 52, p. 73. 

Shapley, H. and Ritchie, M., Mt. 1!'. Cont., no. 195 =.4 p. J., 

\ . 52, p. 232. 
Turner, H. H., M.N., v. 80, p. 640. 
Turner, H. H., M.N., v. 81, p. 74. 
Larink, J., A.N., v. 214, p. 71. 
Shapley, H., H.B., no. 761. 

Shapley. H. and Mayberry, B. W., P.N.A.S., v. 7, p. 152. 
Baade, W., Ham. Mitt., v. 5, no. L6. 
Bailey, S. I., H.C., no. 234. 
Barnard, E. E., Pop. Astr., v. 30, p. 548. 
Larink, J., Berg. Abh., v. 2, no. 6. 
Shapley, VI. , H.C., no. 237. 
Shapley, 1L. H.5., no. 764; .1..V.. v. 215, p. 391. 
Woods, I. 1... II. B.. no. 773. 
Bailey. S. I.. H.B., no. 792. 
Bailey, S. 1.. II. B.. no. 790. 
Innes, R. T. A.. U.C., no. 59, p. 201. 
Shapley, H., H.B.. no. 78 
Bailey, S. I.. II. B.. no. 798. 
Bailey, S. I., II. B., no. 799. 
Bailey, S. 1.. II. B., no. 801. 
Bailey, S. I.. II. B.. no. 802. 
Baile\. S. I.. II. B., no. 803. 
Bailey, S. I., H.C., no. 266. 
Bailey, S. I., H.B., no. 813. 
Guthnick, P. and Prager, R., Sitz. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., v. 27, 

p. 508. 
Paraskevopoulos, J. S., H.B., no. 813. 
Baade, \\\. Ham. Mitt., v. 6, no. 27, p. 61. 
Baade, \\\, Ham. Mitt., v. 0, no. 27, p. 66. 
Baade, W.. Ham. Mitt., v. 6, no. 27, p. t>7. 
Shapley, H., H.B., no. 848. 
Shapley, H., H.B., no. 851. 

Baade, W., Ham. Mitt., v. 6, no. 29, p. 92; A.N., v. 232, p. 193. 
Slavenas, P., A.N., v. 240. p. 169. 
Baade, W., .4. A 7 ., v. 239, p. 353. 
Rybka, E., B.A.N. , v. 5, p. 257-70. 
Shapley, H., Star Clusters, pp. 45-46. 



42. 


1919 


43. 


1919 


44. 


1919 


45. 


1919 


46. 


1919 


47. 


1919 


48. 


1920 


49. 


1920 


50. 


1920 


51. 


1920 


52. 


1920 


53. 


1920 


54. 


1920 


nrx 


1921 


56. 


1921 


57. 


1921 


58. 


1922 


59. 


1922 


tiO. 


1922 


Gl. 


1922 


62. 


1922 


63. 


1922 


64. 


1922 


t '.."). 


1923 


66. 


1923 


07. 


1923 


68. 


1923 


69. 


1924 


70. 


1924 


71. 


1924 


72. 


1924 


73. 


1924 


74. 


1924 


7."). 


192.') 


76. 


1925 


77. 


1925 


78. 


1926 


79. 


1920 


80. 


1926 


SI. 


L927 


82. 


1927 


83. 


192S 


84. 


1929 


85. 


1930 


86. 


1930 


87. 


1930 






88. 


1930 


89. 


I'.i.Il 


90. 


L931 


91. 


1932 


92. 


1932 


93. 


1932 


94. 


1932 


95. 


1932 


96. 


1933 


97. 


1933 


98. 


1933 


99. 


1933 


100. 


1933 


101. 


L933 


102. 


1933 


103. 


1933 


104. 


L934 


105. 


1934 


106. 


1034 


107. 


I'.t.'M 


108. 


1935 


109. 


1935 


110. 


1935 


111. 


L935 


112. 


L935 


113. 


L936 


111. 


1937 


115. 


L937 


1 Hi. 


L937 


117. 


L937 


1 is. 


L938 


1 1 9. 


19 18 


120. 


L938 


121. 


L938 


122. 


1938 


123. 


L938 


124. 


L938 


12.".. 


1939 


A. 


1939 


B. 


l '. >:;'.» 


C. 


L939 


D. 


1939 


1.. 


1939 


F. 


L9 [g 




L939 



Variable Stars in Globular Star Clust, 177 

Shapley, H., Star Clusters, p. 51. 

Baade, W., A.N., v. 244, p. 153. 

Sawyer, H. B., H.C., no. 366; Pub. A.A.S., v. 7. p. 35. 

van Gent, H., B.A.N. , v. 6, p. 163. 

Grosse, E., A.N., v. 246, p. 377. 

Hogg, F. S. and Sawyer, H. B., P.A.S.P., v. 44, p. 258. 

Sawyer, H. B., H.C., no. 374. 

Wemple, L., H.B., no. 889. 

van Gent, H., B.A.N. , v. 7, p. 21. 

Grosse, E.. A.N., v. 249, p. 389. 

Guthnick, P., Sitz. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., v. 24, p. 24. 

Hertzsprung, E., B.A.N. , v. 7, p. 83. 

Levy, M., H.B., no. 893. 

Muller, Th., Berl. Babels., Yerof.. v. 11, p. 1. 

Sawyer, H. B., Pub. A.A.S., v. 7, p. 185. 

Shapley, H., Hand. d. Astr. V, p. 719. 

Baade, W., P.A.S.P., v. 46, p. 52. 

Guthnick, P., Sit-.. Preuss. Akad. \Yiss., v. 2b — Naturuiss., v. 22, 

P. 319. 
Sawyer, H. B., Puh.A.A.S., v. 8, p. 20. 
Sawyer, II. B., Pub.A.A.S., v. 8, p. 149. 
Baade, W., Mt. IP. Cont., no. 529 = A p.J., v. 82, p. 396-412. 
Greenstein, J. L., A.N., v. 257, p. 301-30. 
Greenstein, J. L., H.B., no. 901, p. 11. 
Miczaika, G. R., Pop. Astr., v. 43, p. 260. 
Sawyer, H. B., Pub. D.A.O., v. 6, no. 14. 
Shapley, H., Hand d. Astr., VII, p. 536. 
Guthnick, P., Yiert. der Astr. Ces., v. 72, p. 100. 
Jo; . \. II.. Pub. A.A.S., v. 9, p. 45. 
Martin, W. Chr., Photo^raphisehe Photometric van Yeranderiijke 

Sterren in c*> Centauri. (Proefschrift ) Leiden, Luctor et Emerge 
Sawyer, H. B., J.R.A.S.C, v. 31, p. 57. 
Martin, W. Chr., Leiden Ann., v. 17, pt. 2, p. 1-166. 
.Martin, \\ . Chr., B.A.N. , v. 8, p. 290. 
Nassau, J. J., Ap.J., v. 87, p. 301. 
OosterhofT, P. Th., B.A.N. , v. S, p. 273. 
Sawyer, H. B., D.D.O. Connn., no. 1. 
Sawyer, H. B., Pub. D.A.O., v. 7, no. 5. 
Sawyer, H. B.. Pub. D.D.O. , v. 1, no. 2. 
Hachenberg, O., Zeit.f. Astr., v. is. P . 19. 

I ide, W., Letter summarizing Mt. Wilson observations. 
Greenstein, J. L., Letter. 

Yosui, J. J., Letter. 

OosterhofT, P. Th. I... Letter giving Leiden data. 
Sawyer, II. I'., Unpublished observations. 
Shaple; . II.. I ettei summarizing Harvard data. 

I I ubble, I. P., ( 'inn ei Bal ion \\ it h .mt hi 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume I Number 5 



TWELVE NEW VARIABLE STARS IN THE 

GLOBULAR CLUSTERS NGC 6205, 

NGC 6366, AND NGC 6779 



HELEN B. SAWYER 



1940 

THE UNIVERSITY OI<" TORONTO PRESS 
TORONTO, CANADA 



TWELVE NEW VARIABLE STARS IN THE GLOBULAR 
CLUSTERS NGC 6205, NGC 6366, AND NGC 6779 

by Helen B. Sawyer 

(with Plates XXV and XXVI) 

An intensive search of three globular clusters on plates taken with 
the large reflectors at both the Dominion Astrophysical and the 
David Dunlap Observatories has resulted in the discovery of a few 
new variable stars. Material is being accumulated which will 
enable a determination of the periods in all three clusters. Although 
each of these clusters is rather poor in variables, at least two of 
them contain long period Cepheids. The study of even a few 
variables should yield interesting results. 

1. NGC 6205 = Messier 13 Herculis 

Although the great star cluster in Hercules, situated in R.A. 
16 h 39 m .9, Dec. +36°33' (1950), is one of the best known objects 
in the sky, the variable stars in this cluster have received very little 
at tention. It is frequently cited as an example of a globular cluster 
in which variable stars are practically absent, but the writer's study 
(it this cluster brings the total of known variables to eleven, which 
are certainly sufficient to make an interesting study. However, 
in comparison with the clusters Messier 3, Omega Centauri, and 
Messier 5, the Hercules cluster is poor in variables. 

Two variable stars, both of them relatively bright with large 
ranges, were discovered many years ago in this cluster. Bailey 1 
found them in 1898 but did not publish their positions until 1902. 
Barnard,- hearing of Bailey's discovery, independently found 
Variable No. 2. In 1914 Barnard 3 also announced the discovery of 
.i third variable. Shortly afterward, in his comprehensive study 
of the Hercules cluster, Shapley 1 announced the discovery of 
additional variables, refinding those previously announced, so thai 
the total stood at seven. The ranges for several of these were small 
and n<» further work has been done in confirming them in the 
intervening years. 

The writer has intensively compared, by the method of positive 
and negative, about fifty plates of the Hercules cluster, and has 
found four additional variable stars, besides rediscovering most of 
those previously announced. About ten other st,n> were suspected 

181 



182 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

of variability by the writer, and measured on a hundred plates, but 
finally rejected. The variation was no larger than might be expected 
from stars in rather crowded regions under different conditions of 
seeing. One suspected variable is the star Ludendorff 928 which 
though usually of magnitude 14.8 was found to be definitely 
fainter on one plate only with a magnitude of 15.2. 

Table I lists the variables in the cluster and Plate XXV gives 
the identification. For variables 3 and 4, found by Shapley, the 
ranges are small, and the variables near the limiting magnitude of 
many of the plates. But the writer's plates give no evidence for 
rejecting them as variables. The other variables on the list have 
ranges sufficiently large to establish their variability. 

The magnitudes of the comparison stars were taken from 
Shapley's catalogue 5 of the Hercules cluster; the positions are com- 
puted from Ludendorff's catalogue. 6 A correction should here be 
noted to the positions of the first seven variables as catalogued by 
the writer 7 in 1939. The co-ordinates referred to there as x" are 
really _W', and should therefore be multiplied by a factor of .8023 
to transform them to x". Bailey's sequence was used to start the 
investigation (except for his stars a and b which are too distant from 
the centre) but as this was not sufficient to cover the large area of 
the cluster, supplementary sequence stars were selected close to the 
variables. This was not so satisfactory a procedure as hoped, 
since Shapley did not publish magnitudes within 2' of the centre 
of the cluster. When accurate magnitudes are determined closer 
to the centre of the cluster the magnitudes of the variables can then 
be reduced to them. 

When the writer came to measure Shapley's variable Ludendorff 
806/3 on her plates, after much struggling with the measures of this 
close double star, she became convinced that both its components 
vary. Shapley's variable is the northern component; accordingly 
the preceding and southern component of this double is called a. 
There is a range of a full magnitude in each component, even on 
plates taken under good seeing conditions. 

The eleven variables have been measured on over one hundred 
plates and a number of the periods determined. The writer 
expects to publish periods and light curves for these very soon. 

In 1900 Barnard 2 published a series of 36 visual observations 
of Variable No. 2, made mostly during the summer of 1900, and 
announced a period of 5.10 days. The writer's observations con- 



Twelve New Variable Stars 183 

TABLE I 
Variable Stars in XGC 620.5 = Messier 13 Herci lis 











Magnitudes 




No. 


Lud. 


.v" 


y" 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean 


Discoverer 


1 


816 


+73.06 


-24.S6 


13 1 


15 2 


! 1 2 


Bailey 


2 


306 


-54.10 


- 3.04 


12.6 


14.0 


13.3 


. Barnard 


3 


L35 


-127.70 


+16.52 


1 5 . 4 


15.8 


15.6 


Shapley 


4 


22 


-47 34 


+58.18 


14.9 


15 6 


15 2 


Shapley 


5 




+71 62 


-14.06 


14.0 


15.1 


1 1 6 


Shapley 


6 


872 


+92. 6S 


+76 


13.5 


1 is 


14.2 


Shapley 


7 




-39.78 


-82.72 


1 1 :. 


L5 5 


1.5.0 


Barnard, Shapley 


8 


206 


-93.02 


+11.29 


14.2 


15 5 


1 1 8 


Sawyer 


9 


SOoa 


+71 - 


-14.06 


1 1 


15.1 


1 1.6 


Sawyer 


10 


487 


- 5.40 


-70.73 


13.1 


14.0 


13 6 


Sawyer 


11 


324 


-45 7s 


-7.5.88 


12.9 


13 8 


13.4 


Sawyer 



Comparison Stars 



Shapley 



liley 


Lud. 


x" 


y" 


Mag. 




222 


- 82.01 


-103.40 


12.54 






+ 79 03 


-115 


13 23 


c 


954 


+ 117 50 


-217 s; 


13.4.5 


d 


1073 


+244.16 


-209 11 


13.75 


e 


919 


+ 10.5 24 


-185.88 


13.88 


f 


948 


+114.83 


-162 85 


13 94 


g 


921 


+ 10i) :;i 


-1 16 85 


14.16 


h 


833 


+ 78.40 


-234 


1 1 52 


k 


946 


+113 83 


-139 06 


1 I 71 


1 


943 


+113.11 


-150 16 


14.80 


in 


1011 


+ 1.5.5 11 


-196 23 


15.23 


n 


1035 


+ 177 21 


-205 27 


15.85 




123 


-139.39 


- 1 1 35 


15 54 




170 


-113 33 


- 4 92 


1 1 '.is 




194 


-100.47 


+ 38 95 


[3 5s 




195 


- 99.55 


+ 32 9] 


L5 90 




313 


- .51 66 


+ 95 81 


1.5 12 




953 


+ 110 93 


+ 65 15 


1.5 20 




985 


+136 60 


- 20 92 


1 1 71 




1001 


+ 11.5 12 


+ 1.5 6] 


l 1 65 



firm this period. In a later paper <>n the I [ercules cluster in L909, 8 
he commented thai he had determined a period of 6.0 days for 
Variable No. I. The writer's observations show thai this is an 
erroneous period. 



18-4 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

2. NGC 6366 

This little known cluster lies in the constellation of Ophiuchus, 
at R.A. I7 h 25 m .l, Dec. -05°02' (1950). It is an outstanding 
example of the type of globular cluster which is exceedingly faint, 
but possesses a large angular diameter, like the cluster NGC 5053 
investigated by Baade. 9 The modulus adopted in 1929 10 from 
integrated apparent magnitude and diameter alone, uncorrected 
for absorption, was 17.34. 

A search for variables on 30 existing plates, mostly taken at the 
David Dunlap Observatory with half-hour exposures has resulted 
in the discovery of two variable stars. These are fairly conspicuous 
because of their large ranges and brightness compared with other 
cluster stars. Variable No. 1 is one of the brightest stars in the 
cluster. Variable No. 2 is equally bright but is situated at a 
considerable distance from the centre of the cluster. The other 
four variables mentioned in D.D.O. Pub. 1, no. 4, could not be 
confirmed. The observational material is as yet insufficient to 
determine whether the periods of these variables are greater than 
one day. 

Table II gives the positions of the variables and comparison 
stars, and the maximum and minimum magnitudes of the variables. 
The magnitudes are considered as preliminary as they are based 
on only one sequence plate, exposed for twenty minutes on the 
cluster and for twenty minutes on Selected Area 109.* The positions 
were measured by means of a reseau which was oriented by a trail 







TABLE II 












Variable Stars in XGC (VMM 






No. 


x" 


y" Mux. 


M 


agnitudes 
Min. 


Mean 


1 
2 


- 26 
+305 


- 42 15.5 
-390 15.7 

Comparison Stars 




17.0 
16.8 


16.2 
16.2 


a 
b 
c 
d 
e 
f 


+ 69 
-206 

- 12 

- 47 

- 48 

- 75 


-104 14.2 
+ 106 15.1 

- 35 15.5 

- 48 16.0 

- 67 16.7 

- 6 17.1 









*Note added to proof. Two additional sequence plates taken in July, 1940, 
confirm that these magnitudes are of the right order. 



Twelve New Variable Stars 185 

in right ascension. An arbitrary origin was selected as being near 
the centre of the cluster. This origin is indicated on the print 
by a cross. Plate XXV shows the cluster with the variables and 
comparison stars indicated. 

Baade 9 and Hubble pointed out in 1927 the similarity between 
the clusters NGC 5053, 6366 and 6539. As more data are now 
available on NGC 6366, it is interesting to make a table of com- 
parison of these first two clusters. The writer has estimated the 
magnitudes of the brightest stars on the one available sequence 
plate and determined a preliminary modulus from these by the 
usual method. Unless otherwise noted, the data in Table III are 
taken from Baade's paper for NGC 5053 or determined by the 
writer for NGC 6366. 

TABLE III 

XGC 5053 XGC 6366 

Concentration class 11 XI XI 

Integrated apparent magnitude 12 (on int. photo- 
graphic scale' 3 ) 10.9 12.1 

Angular diameter (large scale plates) 13'. 4 12' 

Xumber of variables 9 2 

Median magnitude of variables 16.19 16.2 

Magnitude 25 brightest stars 15.65: 15.78 

Magnitude 6th brightest star 15.1 14.2 

Magnitude 30th brightest star 16.0 16.5 

Colour excess 14 0.0* .55 

Modulus uncorrected for absorption 16.20 16.2 

Modulus corrected for absorption (if pg. abs. = 9 

times colour excess 10 ) 16.2 11.2 

Distances allowing for absorption 17,400 parsecs 1 ,740 parsecs 

Galactic longitude 309° 3 16 

Galactic latitude +78° +15° 

* Assumed 

The extreme faintness of these clusters combined with their 
large angular diameters has made it difficult to obtain measures of 
integrated brightness or diameter from small scale plates. Shapley 
and Saver 10 did not measure the angular diameter of either. The 
diameter of NGC 6366 was determined as 4': by Shapley and 
Sawyer, 17 while Baade has estimated that a diameter of 6'. 25 con- 
tains 90% of the stars in NGC 5053. 

A comparison of the absolute magnitudes of these two clusters 
should be of great interest. Christie 13 has not yet determined the 
integrated magnitude of either with the schraffierkassette, and the 



186 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

magnitudes in NGC 6366 must be regarded as preliminary. But if 
we use the data available at present, and Christie's formula, we 
derive a value of -5.3 for NGC 5053 and -4.0 for NGC 6366. 
These clusters are at the lower end of the luminosity scale for 
globular clusters. 

But although these clusters are very similar in appearance they 
differ radically in their position in the sky. NGC 5053 is near the 
north galactic pole, whereas NGC 6366 is toward the general direc- 
tion of the galactic centre. Stebbins and Whitford gave a colour 
excess of 0.55 magnitudes for NGC 6366. They were unable to 
determine that for NGC 5053, stating it "too faint and diffuse for 
measurement of color," but they determined the colour excess 
of NGC 5024, only a degree away, as 0.0 magnitudes. If the ratio 
of total photographic absorption to colour excess is large, as much 
as 9, the latest value given by Stebbins, Huffer and Whitford, then, 
corrected for absorption, the brightest stars in NGC 6366 are of 
the eleventh magnitude. Since there is no absorption correction 
to be applied to NGC 5053 the bright stars remain in the fifteenth 
magnitude. Therefore the similarity in appearance of magnitude 
in these clusters is caused by the absorbing cloud. NGC 6366 
may be one of the nearest globular clusters. 

3. NGC 6779 = Messier 56. 

This cluster is one of the most northern of the globular clusters, 
situated at R.A. 19 h 14 m .6, Dec. +30°05' (1950). It is in a rich 
region of the sky, at galactic latitude +8°, and has the appearance 
of a knot of stars in a rich star field, though it is, of course, definitely 
a globular cluster. The cluster is classed as X on the basis of its 
central concentration 11 ; the angular diameter as determined by 
Shapley and Sayer 16 is 7'. 2, but the writer's plates indicate at least 
10'. This diameter is similar to that of NGC 6366 but the appear- 
ance of the cluster is vastly different. The magnitude of the 25 
brightest stars is 15.31. 10 

Several investigators have previously worked on this cluster. 
Miss Helen Davis 18 first published the discovery of a variable star 
in this object, commenting that the variable was one of the bright- 
est stars in the cluster at maximum. Later, Shapley 19 published 
the discovery of one variable, one suspected variable, and Miss 
Davis' star. At about the same time Kiistner 20 published an 
extensive catalogue of the positions and magnitudes of 532 stars 



Twelve Neiv Variable Stars 187 

in this cluster but did not work especially with the variables. Since 
11)20 the cluster has been apparently untouched. 

The writer has examined carefully about 3o David Dunlap 
Observatory photographs and has found six new variable stars. 
The two variables found by Miss Davis and by Shapley are very 
definitely confirmed, but the one suspected by Shapley is neither 
confirmed nor rejected. The star which the writer identified as 
Shapley's suspected variable has only a small variation, if any, on 
these plates. One of the new variables found by the writer is 
quite definitely the brightest star in the cluster at maximum. It 
is estimated that about 500 stars were searched for variability, of 
which, however, probably only half are actually members of this 
cluster. 

Table IY gives the positions and magnitudes of the variables 
and comparison stars. The sequence was established by means of 







TABLE 


IV 










Variable Stars in XGC 6779 








Kiistner 






Magnit 


:udes 


No. 


No. 


x" 


y" 


Max. 


Min. 


1 


363 


+ 41 69 


+ 74.10 


15.0 


in •_' 


2 


326 


+ 18.16 


+ 33.09 


15 1 


L5.6 


3 


337 


+ 25.10 


+ 91 69 


1 1 2 


1.". 1 


4 


1 11 


-112.13 


-159 If. 


15.9 


16.4 


5 


305 


+ 6.79 


-131 7s 


1 1 :» 


1.-, n 


6 


284 


- 2.02 


+ 37 06 


12 9 


1 1 s 


7 


504 


+293.48 


-213 24 


15 5 


L6 2 


8 


150 


- 97.63 


-:\:\r> '.hi 


15.9 


16 6 



+ 177 +525 15.5 16 1 

Variable X". ii ha- a close companion, Kiistner No. 285 
Comparison Stars 











M i n 


[tildes 










Kiistner 


Sawyer 


a 


LI 2 


+ 87 ::i 


+159 20 


12 Id 


11 5 


1) 


195 


- (12 15 


+115 95 


13 46 


[3 o 


C 


im 


- 8s 77 


+108 70 


13 82 


i ; 5 


(1 


117 


-14 1 19 


-106 ss 


1 1 13 


1 1 s 


e 


85 


-2(i:. 82 


- 22 66 


15 22 


15 2 


f 


1 ■_':. 


-133 1'.' 


si is 


i:. 33 


L5 s 


« 


lis 


Ill 12 


82 


L6 <U 


L6 :; 


li 




-His 


- 82 




16 7 


k 




— IT*. 


- 76 




17 



188 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

two plates with exposures on Kapteyn Area 64 of 15 and 20 minutes' 
duration. The magnitude of the sequence stars as determined 
by the writer agrees with Kiistner's magnitude at 15.2, but di- 
verges at the ends, particularly for the brighter stars. The positions 
of the variables are taken from Kiistner's Catalogue except for 
Variable No. 9, which is outside the limits of this catalogue and 
was measured on a D.D.O. plate with a reseau. The positions of 
the comparison stars also are taken from Kiistner except for stars 
h and k which were too faint to be included in his catalogue and 
were measured on plates here and reduced to Kiistner's origin. 
The variables and comparison stars are marked on Plate XXYI. 

From an inspection of the measures on the existing plates it 
would appear that several of these variables probably have periods 
greater than one day. The fainter variables are probably cluster 
type Cepheids. At present 56 plates are available for this cluster. 
It is hoped that at the end of another season the plates will be 
sufficiently numerous for a determination of the periods in this 
cluster. It should prove an exceedingly interesting one. 

References 

Bailey, H.A., v. 38, 1902. 

2 Barnard, Ap.J., v. 12, p. 183, 1900. 

'Barnard, Ap.J., v. 40, p. 179, 1914. 

4 Shapley, P.A.S.P., v. 27, p. 134, p. 238, 1915. 

5 Shapley, ML W. Cont., no. 116, 1915. 

6 Ludendorff, Potsdam Pub., no. 50, 1905. 

7 Sa\yyer, D.D.O. Pub., v. 4, p. 161, 1939. 

8 Barnard, Ap.J., v. 29, p. 75, 1909. 

9 Baade, Ham. Mitt., no. 29, 1927. 
10 Shapley and Sawyer, H.B., no. 869, 1929. 
u Shapley and Sawyer, H.B., no. 849, 1927. 
12 Sawyer and Shapley, H.B., no. 848, 1927. 
"Christie, Mt. W. Cont., no. 620, 1940. 
"Stebbins and Whitford, Mt. W. Cont., no. 547, 1936. 
15 Stebbins, Huffer and Whitford, Ap.J., v. 90, p. 209, 1939. 
16 Shapley and Sayer, P.N.A.S., v. 21, pp. 593-597, 1935. 
17 Shapley and Sawyer, H.B., no. 852, 1927. 
18 Davis, P.A.S.P., v. 29, p. 210, 1917. 
"Shapley, Mt. II'. Cont., no. 190, 1920. 
20 Kustner, Bonn Veroff., no. 14, 1920. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario, 
July 2, 1940 



Plate XXV 





Upper. The globular cluster NGC 6205 — Messier 13 Herculis, with 
the eleven variables indicated. Comparison Btara have 
been omitted to avoid congestion. 

Scale, lmni -i>". I. Enlarged from D.D.O. plate 1816, 
1939 Aug. I I 
Lower. The globular clustei NGC 6366, a heavily obscured object, 
showing two variables and comparison Btars 

Scale, 1 in in 12".2. Enlarged from D.D.O. plate 1996, 
1937 June 5 



Plate XXVI. 



* 



. N 



a. — *• • 



1 — 

2- 



■« -3 



* . -4 «. 



h 



Theglobular cluster NGC 6709 = Messier 56, showing nine variables and comparison 

stars. 
Scale, 1 mm=S"2. Enlarged from D.D.O. plate 4967, 1939 Sept. 11. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATO.RY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

Volume I Numbers 6, 7, 8 



THE ORBIT OF THE 
SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY H.D. 1826 

By G. H. Tidy 



THE ORBIT OF THE 
SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY H.D. 9312 

By John F. Heard 

THE ORBIT OF THE 
SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY H.D. 22124 

By Ruth J. Northcott 



1940 

THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 

TORONTO, CANADA 



THE ORBIT OF THE SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY H.D. 1826 

By G. H. Tidy 

HP HE star H.D. 1826, a( 1900) 00 h 17 m .6, 5(1900) +28°56', vis. mag. 
6.89, type A5, was announced as a binary in D.D.O. Publica- 
tions, Vol. I, No. 3. Forty-four plates given in Table I have been 
made the basis of a least-squares solution for the orbital elements. 
The spectrum is characterized by many fine well-defined metallic 
lines ; 39 lines were used in all. The wave-lengths based on the 
system given in the reference above were corrected to give a zero 
residual for each line. 



TABLE I 



J.I). 242 


Vo 


Phase from 


Vc 


Vo-Vc 


Km. /sec. 


final T 


Km. /sec. 


Km. /sec. 


8036.806 


4-28.1 


1.290 


+27.8 


+ 0.3 


379.865 


-07.4 


2.892 


- 7.7 


+ 0.3 


412.768 


-28.6 


2.963 


-18.0 


-10.6 


776.806 


+38.0 


2.560 


+25 1 


+ 12.6 


disk r,.-,i 


-26.6 


0.719 


-26.6 


0.0 


89.696 


4-51.4 


1.761 


+55 1 


- 4.0 


91.644 


-49.2 


0.426 


-47.0 


- 2.2 


97 (130 


-34.8 


3.129 


-33.7 


- 1.1 


99.626 


+53.9 


1.841 


+57.0 


- 3.1 


9200 614 


-04 


2.830 


- 3.3 


- 0.7 


02.619 


+49.1 


1 551 


+46.6 


+ 2 5 


03.615 


+20.2 


2.547 


+27.0 


- 6.8 


06 619 


+48.2 


2.268 


+47.7 


+ 0.5 


07 582 


-46.3 


3.231 


-11 5 


- 4 8 


09.603 


+53.7 


1 .969 


+ 57 6 


- 3.9 


1 2 . 58 1 


+52.8 


1 .667 


+52 2 


+ 6 


13.585 


+ 11 7 


2.668 


+14.3 


+ 0.4 


l 1 555 


-48.4 


354 


-48 l 





17 576 


-48.8 


0.092 


-48.9 


+ 0.1 


is 563 


+05 9 


1 079 


+08 3 


- 2 I 


23.595 


+01.8 


2 S28 


- 2.8 


+ 4.6 



192 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE I— continued 



J.D. 242 


Vo 


Phase from 


Vc 


Vo-Vc 


Km. /sec. 


final T 


Km. /sec. 


Km. /sec. 


26.557 


+30.3 


2 . 507 


+30.5 


- 0.2 


28.547 


+ 17.5 


1.213 


+21.0 


- 3.5 


30.533 


-40.5 


3.200 


-39.5 


- 1.0 


34 . 527 


-37.3 


0.627 


-34.4 


- 2.9 


47.571 


-41.4 


0.538 


-40.7 


- 0.7 


52 . 52 \ 


+50.9 


2.20S 


+51.0 


- 0.1 


9496.818 


-46.8 


0.258 


-50.8 


+ 4.0 


500.751 


+07.3 


0.908 


-08.6 


+ 15.9 


02 . S04 


-13.4 


2.958 


-17.2 


+ 3.8 


03.848 


-37.3 


0.721 


-26.4 


-10.9 


09.781 


-42.0 


0.088 


-48.8 


+ 6.8 


10.769 


+07.4 


1.076 


+ 7.9 


- 0.5 


12.803 


-31.9 


3 110 


-39.5 


+ 7.6 


24 . 752 


+61.6 


1.926 


+57.7 


+ 3.9 


30.785 


+24.0 


1 393 


+36.0 


-12.0 


38.694 


-05 l 


2 735 


+07.0 


-12.4 


40.700 


+37.8 


1 458 


+40.8 


- 3.0 


56.628 


+01 .6 


0.970 


- 2.8 


+ 4.4 


68.624 


-30.0 


3.116 


-32 - 


+ 2.8 


87.639 


+45 1 


2.431 


+36.9 


+ 8.5 


92.568 


-31.7 


0.794 


-19.7 


-12.0 


96.461 


+51 . 1 


1.403 


+36.8 


. +14.3 


9602.473 


-04.5 


0.849 


-13 5 


+ 9.0 



The observations given in Table I were first plotted on a single 
cycle and reduced to 29 normal places. A preliminary orbit was 
then obtained by a graphical method and the residuals left treated 
by the method of least squares to give the final elements given below. 
All six elements are included in the solution. 

Final Elements 



Period 


P= 3.28325 days 


± 


.000029 


Eccentricity 


e= .056 


± 


016 


Angle of periastron 


w = 151°.63 


±21 


.5 


Date of periastron 


r=J.D. 2429191.218 


± 


.194 


Velocity of system 


7= +5.90 km. 


± 


66 


Semi-amplitude 


K= 54.49 km. 


± 


96 


a sin i 


= 2,460,000 km. 






mi 3 sin 3 * 


n^^/Oi 







(wi+w) 2 



The Orbit of the Spectroscopic Binary II. D. 1826 193 

Figure 1 shows a plot of the individual observations. The 
residuals in Table I yield a probable error of a single plate 3.9 km. 



k» .< 
























60 










° o 


o 


\^ o 










AO 










/o 




\ ° 










20 






O ) 


/o 


o 












- 









o/ 


















-20 
















o N 






- 


-40 


5 


°&6 


/ o 

/oo 












oV 





^0 


-60 

























J.D 



Fig. 1. Radial Velocity Curve of H.D. 1826 



THE ORBIT OF THE SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY H.D. 9312 
By John F. Heard 

>y HE star H.D. 9312, a(1900) 01 h 26 m .6, 5(1900) +16°28', vis. mag. 
6.81, type Go, was announced as a spectroscopic binary from 
19 plates taken at this observatory in the course of a recent radial 
velocity program. 1 Since then 16 additional plates have been ob- 
tained. The orbit here presented has been determined from these 
35 plates which are dated from September 18, 1935, to February 15, 
1940. All the spectrograms have been taken with the 12-inch 
camera of the one-prism spectrograph, an arrangement giving a 
dispersion of about 66 A/mm. at H7. 

The spectrum of H.D. 9312 is of average quality for G5 type. 
On our spectrograms upwards to 28 lines may be measured in the 
region 4005 to 4415. Some of these lines, however, notably 4045, 
4101, 4143, 4254, 4260, have consistently large velocity residuals 
when the standard wave-lengths 1 are employed — an effect, no doul>; . 
of blending. Accordingly, corrections were applied to the velocities 
of 11 lines for which the residuals were well marked. These correc- 
tions do not affect the velocities from well-exposed plates on which 
all the lines involved are measurable; they do appreciably affect the 
velocities from under-exposed plates. 

Table I shows the preliminary elements derived by R. K. 
Young's graphical method and the final elements derived from a 
least-squares solution using 23 normal places. Reduction of Ipv- 
w as from 787 to 702. 

Table II shows the data for the individual plates. Considering 
the observations numbered serially, the following were grouped 1 
6, 7, 8; 9, 10; 11, 12; 23, 14; 15, 16; 18, 20; 26, 27, 28; 29, 30, 
31 ; 33, 34. Weights were assigned according to numbers of plates. 





TABLE 


I 








Preliminary 


Final 




Period 


P= 36.64 days 




36.588 days 


± .024 


Eccentricity 


e= 0.20 




.203 


± .031 


Angle of periastron 


co = 165° 




178°.8 


+8.3 


Date of periastron 


T = J.D. 2428085 


75 


2428088.87 


±1.24 


Velocity of system 


7= -2.9 km. 




-3.49 


±0.57 


Semi-amplitude 


K= 29.5 km. 




29.97 


±0.88 


a sin i 


= 




14,780,000 km. 




mi 3 sin 3 * 


= 




.0964© 




(mi+m) 2 




'Pub. D.D.O. vol. I, no. 3, 1939. 









194 i 



The Orbit of the Spectroscopic Binary H.D. 9312 195 

TABLE II 



J.D. 242 


Vo 


Phase from 


Yc 


Vo— Vc 


Km. /sec. 


final T 


Km. /sec. 


Km. /sec. 


8063.788 


+ 10.2 





+ 10.1 


+ .1 


8771.828 


+ 19.6 


12.862 


+ 13.0 


+ 6.6 


8786.804 


-25.4 


27.838 


-32.7 


+ 7.3 


8806.782 


+ 19.5 


11.228 


+ 16.6 


+ 2.9 


9130.902 


+25.8 


6.053 


+20.2 


+ 5.6 


9197.668 


+ 11.3 


36.231 


+ 8.7 


+ 2.6 


9199.673 


+ 11.4 


1.648 


+ 14.4 


- 3.0 


9201.720 


+ 9.0 


3.695 


+ 17.9 


- 8.9 


9205 . 684 


+27.1 


7.659 


+20.4 


+ 6 7 


9206.701 


+21.5 


8.676 


+20.0 


+ 1.5 


9208.603 


+ 19.4 


10.578 


+ 17.7 


+ 1.7 


9208.782 


+ 13.9 


10.757 


+ 17.6 


- 3.7 


9212.613 


+ 5.6 


14.588 


+ 7.2 


- 1.6 


9214.592 


+ 0.7 


16.567 


- 0.3 


+ 1.0 


9218.604 


-32.1 


20.579 


-22.1 


-10.0 


9222.683 


-34.2 


24 . 658 


-39.7 


+ 5.5 


9226.616 


-31.9 


28.591 


-29.0 


- 2.9 


9247.519 


+ 7.4 


12.905 


+ 13.0 


- 5.6 


9278.526 


+ 18.4 


7.324 


+20.4 


- 2.0 


9283 . 476 


+ 6.7 


12.274 


+ 14.3 


- 7.6 


9289.510 


- 5.6 


18.308 


- 9.1 


+ 3.5 


9498.851 


+24.7 


8.119 


+20.1 


+ 4.6 


9517.828 


-44.2 


27 . 096 


-35.8 


- 8.4 


9527.817 


+21.7 


497 


+ 11.6 


+ 10.1 


9570.694 


+ 17.9 


6.786 


+20.4 


- 2.5 


9591.665 


-32.9 


27.757 


-33.1 


+ 0.2 


9592.616 


-31.8 


28.708 


-28.7 


- 3.1 


9593.601 


-24.4 


29.693 


-23.2 


- 1.2 


9594.617 


-12.0 


30.709 


-16.3 


+ 4.3 


9595 . 592 


- 8.4 


31.684 


-10.4 


+ 2.0 


9596.558 


- 5.3 


32 . 650 


- 5.6 


+ 0.3 


9625.517 


-33.5 


25 . 020 


-39.5 


+ 6.0 


9656.510 


-18.0 


19.425 


-15.2 


- 2.8 


9659 184 


-33.9 


22 . 399 


-32.7 


- 1.2 


9675.497 


+ 5.2 


1.824 


+ 14.9 


- 9.7 



Since, with our telescope and seeing conditions, it is hardly 
practicable to study spectroscopic binaries of this magnitude and 
fainter with higher dispersion than that used here, it is of some inter- 
est to notice the degree of accuracy which may, apparently, !».' 
expected. From the solution the probable error of a single obser- 



196 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



vation comes out to be 3.2 km. /sec. The larger part of this is to 
be regarded as arising from the difficulty of measuring the plates, 
since the average probable error of an observation as computed from 
inter-agreement of the lines is 1.7 km. /sec. The remaining part 
must represent instrumental errors arising from such effects as focus, 
temperature, flexure. These, like the errors of measurement, will 
be expected to be greater with lower dispersion. 

km/sec. 







— r- 


o°o 


1 


1 






-1 






+20 




o 

y o 

r O 














o/ 















\° 






°/ 






-20 










\ 


\ s 


, 








-40 




1 




^^_ 






o 


» 




" 



10 20 30 

Radial Velocity Curve of H.D. 9312 



days 



THE ORBIT OF THE SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY H.D. 22124 
By Ruth J. Northcott 

HP HE star H.D. 22124, a(1900) 3 h 28 m .8, 5(1900) +31°41', vis. mag. 
6.76, type F2, was announced as a spectroscopic binary from 
six plates taken at this observatory in 1935-38. l Forty-four spec- 
trograms between the dates 1935 and 1939 have been made the basis 
of a least-squares solution for the orbital elements. All the spectro- 
grams save the first have been taken with the 12-inch camera and 
one-prism spectrograph giving a dispersion of 66 A/mm. at Hy. 

The velocities are based on the system of wave-lengths published 
in D.D.O. Publications, Vol. I, No. 3, but were corrected so that the 
sum of the residuals for each line of this particular star was zero. 
In all, 30 lines were used in obtaining the velocities given in Table I. 







TABLK I 






J.I). 242 


Vo 

Km. /sec. 


Phase from 
final T 


Vc 

Km. /sec. 


Vo-Vc 
Km. /sec. 


8082.822 


+52.4 


1.105 


+51.6 


+ 0.8 


8432.830 


+ 19.2 


0.946 


+ 14 6 


+ 4 6 


8784.879 


+02.8 


0.175 


+05.1 


- 2.3 


8838.764 


+22.1 


1.005 


+30.7 


- 8.6 


9146.892 


+31 1 


0.084 


+31.6 


- 0.2 


9167.862 


+57.0 


1.158 


+57. S 


- 0.8 


9188.823 


+09.1 


0.897 


+00.8 


+ S.3 


9189.833 


-61 .2 


0.581 


-66.0 


+ 4.8 


9191.792 


+67 6 


1.213 


+60.1 


+ 7 5 


9197.756 


-64 6 


(i 545 


-67.2 


+ 2 6 


9199.817 


+63.6 


1.280 


+56.8 


+ 6.8 


9200.788 


+08.7 


0.924 


+08.3 


+ 0.4 


9201 845 


-57 


0.655 


-58.5 


+ 1.5 


9202.667 


+ 12.7 


0.151 


+ 12 1 


+ 0.3 


9202.886 


- II :; 


0.370 


-49.2 


+ 4 9 


9208 . 707 


+05 1 


. 8S5 


-03 1 


+ 8.5 


9209.727 


-ill :; 


0.57'.' 


-66 2 


+ 1.9 


9214 756 


-18.8 


0.302 


-32 8 


+14.0 


9222.731 


-31 6 


0.319 


-37 3 


+ 5 7 


9223 681 


+64.3 


1.269 


+ 57.5 


+ 6 8 


9224 694 


+ 20 6 


0.955 


+ 17 2 


+ 3 1 


9247.616 


+50.9 


0.002 


+49.7 


+ 1 2 


9261.590 


-53.0 


0.712 


-48. 5 


- 1 5 


9263.624 


+27.0 


0.094 


+28 9 


- 1 9 













'Pub. D.D.O., vol. I, no. 3, 1939. 



!•»; 



198 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE I — continued 



J.D. 242 


Vo 

Km. /sec. 


Phase from 
final T 


Vc 
Km. /sec. 


Vo-Vc 
Km. /sec. 


9278.563 


-70.2 


0.442 


-61.3 


- 8.9 


9283.520 


+28.3 


0.094 


+28.9 


- 0.6 


9283.555 


+21.7 


0.129 


+ 19.0 


+ 2.7 


9283.592 


+06.3 


0.166 


+07.9 


- 1.6 


9283 . 626 


-05.3 


0.200 


-02.6 


- 2.7 


9293 . 535 


-31.6 


0.824 


-20.8 


-10.8 


9496.892 


+52.6 


1.243 


+59.4 


- 6.8 


9500.845 


+51.3 


1.217 


+60.1 


- 8.8 


9503 . 894 


-33.2 


0.287 


-28.7 


- 4.5 


9510.892 


-61.8 


. 653 


-58.8 


- 3.0 


9524.881 


+37.9 


0.052 


+39.5 


- 1.6 


9530.904 


-38.2 


0.769 


-35.4 


- 2.8 


9538.790 


-55.2 


0.697 


-51.4 


- 3.8 


9539.844 


-59.0 


0.425 


-59.0 


+ 0.0 


9542.791 


-42.0 


0.719 


-47.0 


+ 5.0 


9543.793 


-59.9 


0.394 


-53.9 


- 6.0 


9557 . 724 


+40.3 


1.061 


+43.6 


- 3.3 


9569.787 


+61.8 


1 187 


+59.6 


+ 2.2 


9570.790 


-15.5 


0.864 


-09.3 


- 6.2 


9584.753 


-20.3 


0.236 


-13.7 


- 6.6 



Column 1 gives the Julian date of the observation; column 2, the 
final velocities after the wave-lengths had been adjusted; column 3, 
the phase from the periastron time of the final orbit; column 4, the 
computed velocity from the final orbit; column 5, the residual O-C. 

A preliminary orbit was derived graphically and corrections 
computed for all six elements. Owing to the small eccentricity the 
periastron time and angle are very uncertain and a circular orbit fits 
the observations fairly well. 

Final Elements 



Period 


P= 1.326390 days 


± .000012 


Eccentricity 


e= 0.024 


± .013 


Angle of periastron 


oj= 32°.6 


± 14° 


Periastron passage 


T = J.D. 2429146.808 


± .051 


Velocity of system 


7= -4.90 km. 


±0.56 


Semi-amplitude 


= 63.67 km. 


±0.93 


a sin i 


= 1.161X10 6 km. 




m\ 3 sin 3 z 


r>Q^=LiOi 





(wi + w) 2 



The Orbit of the Spectroscopic Binary H.D. 2212.'+ 



199 



The individual observations are plotted on the graph in Figure 1 . 
The probable error of a single observation is 3.7 km. 



3: 



40 



--■: 



-40 





























) 






















- _ -z 





^\ 




















A 


s 


^— 


— \ 
























- 


— 


















y J 






— 


— 


\ 














O 








— 


— 
























— 


— 
























— 


— 


0> 


3 





















— 






^vO 








0/ 

<4> 


/ ° 










— 


- 






X 
















- 








c >. 


^ s- 


/' 


















1 




' 





















+ Ob J 8 



Fig. 1. Radial Velocity Curve of H.D. 22121 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume I Number 9 



THE SPECTRUM AND THE VELOCITY 
VARIATION OF H.D. 142926 



Fohn F. Heard 



1940 

Illl UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 

TORONTO. CANADA 



THE SPECTRUM AND THE VELOCITY VARIATION 
OF H.D. 142926 

By John F. Heard 

The star H.D. 142920, R.A. (1900) 15 h 52"\2, dec. (1900) 
42° 51', vis. mag. 5.61, H.D. type B8, was announced as a spectro- 
scopic binary by Plaskett 1 from eight Victoria spectrograms of 
1919-20, the total range being from -3.2 to -34.9 km. /sec. 
Plaskett remarked that "broad and diffuse hydrogen and broad 
faint magnesium are the only lines measurable in this spectrum". 

From spectrograms taken here between 1936 and 1940 the 
velocity variation of this star has been confirmed 2 and emission 
lines in the spectrum have been detected. 3 The purpose of the 
present paper is further to describe peculiarities in the spectrum, 
to discuss the velocity variation, and to indicate a possible con- 
nection between the two. 

The Spectrum 

Forty spectrograms taken with the one-prism spectrograph 
fitted with the 25-inch camera lens (dispersion 33 A/mm. at H7) 
have been used in this investigation. Most of these are on Astra 
II plates, a few on Eastman 40 and one (J.D. 2429059.9) on 
Eastman Process. As well, there are several Astra VIII plates 
showing Ha fairly strong in emission. No spectrum variations 
have been detected on these plates which cover the period 1936- 10. 
The Process plate shows greater detail than the others; on this 
plate the hydrogen lines appear as broad-winged absorption lines 
of total width about 30 Angstrom units with distinct sharp central 
absorption cores; the helium lines 4020 and 4471 are fairly 
prominent and are very broad and diffuse, other helium lines are 
faint, broad and indistinct; Mg + 4481 is slightly stronger than 1471 
and not quite so broad; Ca + 3933 compares in intensity with 1026 
but is, by comparison, much sharper; less prominent are many 

'Pub. D.A.O. vol. 1. p. 287. 

•Pub. D.D.O. vol. l. no. 3, p. 71. 

'Joui R \.S.C vol. 33, p. 384, 1039 (Comm. D.D.O. no 1 

201 



202 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

fine lines due to Fe + , ten of which are easily measurable and all 
of which are strikingly sharp by comparison with the helium lines. 
On the Astra II plates the broad wings and sharp cores of the 
hydrogen lines are evident, the broad 4020, 4471 and 4481 and the 
sharper 3933 are usually seen, and, of the sharp Fe^ lines, only a 
few of the stronger, particularly 4233, are occasionally seen, 
depending on the quality of the plate. 



I0A 




\f^^ : ^* :i - 



\\4$h^^, 




B 

Figuro 1 — Microphotometer tracings of II- for H.D. 142926. 
A— Victoria, J.D. 2422085.839. 
B— Toronto, J.D. 2428304.651. 

Struve and Swings 4 have called attention to the existence of a 
small group of B-type stars of peculiar spectrum characterized 
by hydrogen emission, sharp absorption cores of hydrogen with 
broad wings, sharp lines of ionized metals and broad diffuse lines 
of helium. They have interpreted the broad hydrogen wings and 
helium lines as arising from the reversing layer of the star, rotation 
accounting for the broadening of the helium lines, and the hydrogen 
cores and the sharp ionized metal lines as arising from an extensive 
atmosphere with less rapid rotation. This view found support in 
the anomalous sharpness of He 3904 in the spectrum of several of 
these stars. 

The composite nature of the spectrum would seem to put H.D. 

4 Ap. J. vol. 88, p. 84, 1938. 



The Spectrum and the Velocity Variation of II. D. 142926 203 

142920 in this class of stars, with the broad helium lines and 
hydrogen wings originating in the reversing layer and the hydro, 
cores and sharp Fe" 1 " lines originating in the shell. Ca + 3933 and 
Ml. 4481 which are of intermediate width may originate partly in 
the reversing layer and partly in the shell. He 3904 might be 
expected to be sharp as it is for some other stars of this class, 
but its region is obscured by the wide wing of He. 

Plaskett's failure to remark on the hydrogen cores led to tin- 
suspicion that these had become accentuated since 1920. Through 
the kindness of Dr. J. A. Pearce the Victoria plates have been 
made available here. These plates do show spectral characteristics 
similar to those described above, but the cores of the hydrogen 
lines are decidedly less pronounced. Figure 1 reproduces micro- 
photometer tracings of Hy from two plates of comparable density, 
one from Victoria, one of ours. The tracing of the Victoria plate 
has been reduced photographically in one coordinate to make the 
scales of dispersion the same. 

The Velocity Variation 

The forty plates mentioned above have been measured for 
radial velocity. The hydrogen cores are easily measured and give 
accordant results. Other lines measured on some plates seemed 
to be much less reliable. Accordingly, in attempts to determine 
a period, the mean velocities from H/3, H7 and H5 only were used. 
These velocities are given in Table I. 

A period of 0.97025 day fits the observations. Longer and 
shorter periods are ruled out by several series of observations 
made during single nights. This period results in the velocity 
curve shown in Figure 2. If this be interpreted on the binary 
hypothesis the approximate elements of the orbit derived by the 
graphical method of R. K. Young are as follow-: 
P = (1 97025 
e = 0.5 

CO = 0° 

A' = 15 km. /sec. 
7 = — 18 km. /sec. 
T = J.D. 2428207.176 

a sin i = 171000 km. 
■ M) = 0.00022 O. 



204 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



The eight Victoria observations have not been used in deter- 
mining the period and, indeed, they do not fit well with this period. 
The fit, however, is not so poor as to rule out the period for the 
1919-20 interval, especially in view of the poorer character of the 
lines at that time. 



TABLE 1 





Velocity (km. 


J.D. 


Velocitj (km. - 


J.D. 




He 








He 






242 


11 


1026 


Ca+ 


Mg+ 


2 VI 


H 


1026 




Mg+ 




cores 


and 


3933 


1481 


cores 


and 


3933 


44S1 






I 171 










4471 






8206.977 


-20. S 




-35.9 


8342.606 


-29.4 


— 5 1 5 


-57 7 




8220.952 


-15.4 




-31.2 


-68.8 


8344 608 -16.1 


-78.2 


-28.1 


+ 1.2 


8221.940 


-9.3 


-23.2 


-34.6 




8348.594 -19.9 




-22.0 


-1.9 


8228.949 


-21.9 




-43.9 




8357 626 -8.2 


-13.9 


-27 :: 


-114.8 


8262 . 854 


+5.7 




-40.2 


-11.2 


8359 584 


- 7 




-26.5 




8280 753 


-20.9 




-27.0 


-64.2 


8616.758 


-28.6 


-19.1 




-42.3 


8281.747 


-25.4 






-65.9 


8616.917 


-26.1 


: 


-0.5 


-87.7 


8281.859 


-21.1 


-82.8 


-43.3 




8682 . 655 


-3.4 


-56 1 


-9.2 


-50.0 


8281.901 




-31.2 


-32.8 


+ 17.7 


8682.794 


-16.3 


-39.9 


-22 6 


-103.2 


8282.760 


-15.8 


+2.3 


-62.5 


-36.0 


s7J:; 638 


+11.2 




-39.3 


-18.3 


8283 788 


-24.6 


-28.4 




+2.6 


8723.681 


-1.0 








8285 783 


-17.5 


-31.1 


- i:. 7 


-50.5 


8764. :»7_- 


-8.0 


-38.1 




+6.6 


8294 751 


-18.7 


-36.1 


-19.7 


-103.5 


9424. 675 -13.0 


-:,1 :, 




-34.0 


8296.744 


-33.7 


-47.5 


-31.8 


-15.6 


653 


-32.3 


-34.3 


- 18 1 


-47.2 


8297 . 64S 


-17.7 




-10.3 


-74.5 


9438.619 


-33.8 


-62 7 


-26.3 


-15.0 


8297.810 


-23.7 




-18.9 




9455 598 




-35.8 


-20.0 


+24.4 


8303 . 658 


-13.1 


-54 8 


-10.2 




'.n.-,:, 760 


-7.9 


-40.7 




— 17.2 


8303 . 760 


+0.9 


-35.9 


-1.1 


38 6 


9659.913 


-18.3 


-68.3 


-28.0 


-28.8 


8304.651 


-17.5 


-42.4 


-22.8 




9745 722 


+0.3 


-29.2 




+ 13.8 


8305.778 


-4.2 


-92.2 


-28.9 




9745.819 


-0.4 


-60.0 




-49.9 



It is immediately apparent that the combination of early 
spectral class, short period, small range and high eccentricity make 
this orbit improbable, to say the least. We must, therefore, consider 
the possibility of the velocity variation arising from some cause 
other than orbital motion. Some sort of pulsation of the shell is 
suggested by the fact that the velocities refer to the hydrogen 
cores which have originated in the shell rather than in the reversing 
layer. 



The Spectrum and the Velocity Variation of II.D. 142926 205 



This pulsation hypothesis would find support if the velocities 
from lines originating wholly in the reversing layer of the star 
tailed to show variation similar to that from the hydrogen cores. 
Accordingly the broad helium lines 4026 and 4471 were measured 
whenever they appeared with sufficient distinctness; these velocities 
are shown in Table 1. At best these lines are difficult to set on, 
and no great reliance may be placed on any of the measures. 
However, unless some blending or other svstematic effect has 



Krn./scc 


1 




! 


! 




1 


i — r— 




+ 10 






o 















- 


o L 


\ 8 










- 


- 10 


o 


/ & 


V 



o\ 


o 




o 





- 


-20 


o 

- /• 






o 









o o 

-^ 






o 

^/ O 

o 


- 


-30 


1 




1 


1 




ao 

o 
o 

1 


o 
o 

r i 


- 



-2 -4 6 -8 

I igure •-' Velocitj Curve for II.D. I 12926. 



HO Day 



affected the measures, it does appear certain that the helium 
velocities are distinctly more negative than those from the hydn 
cores, the average of the 29 helium velocities being — 1 1. 1 km. /sec. 
crimp. iicd with — Hi. 8 km. /see. for t he average of the corresponding 
hydrogen core velocities. With regard to the question of variation 
of the helium velocities the following test may have some signifi- 
cance: ten of the helium velocities ire from observations with 
phases between .10 and <>'. ."!."), namely on the "high" part of the 
velocity curve ; the average ol these is —48.9 km. sec. ; the av< 
ol the others is —12.1 km sec ; the corresponding averages from 



206 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

the hydrogen core velocities are —6.2 and —22.4 km. /sec. respec- 
tively. Although the evidence is inconclusive because of the poor 
quality of the helium lines, this does suggest that the helium lines 
fail to show velocity variation similar to that shown by the hydrogen 
cores. 

In like manner Ca + 3933 and Mg + 4481 have been measured 
where possible. The results, which show very large scatter especially 
for the broader 4481, are given in Table 1. For the 32 calcium 
velocities the mean is —29.8 km. /sec, for the 29 magnesium 
velocities it is —37.0 km. /sec, the corresponding hydrogen core 
velocity means being —17.0 and —15.6 km. /sec respectively. So 
it appears that the calcium and magnesium lines, which have 
breadths intermediate between the sharpest and broadest lines, 
have velocities which are intermediate between the hydrogen core 
velocities and the helium velocities. Tested with reference to 
phase neither the calcium nor magnesium velocities show any 
tendency to vary with the 0.97625-day period. 

The sharp Fe + lines are too weak to measure on most plates; 
from the Process plate of J.D. 2429659.9 the mean velocity from 
ten Fe + lines is —31.0 km. /sec 

The observation of greater negative velocity from the broad 
helium lines than from the sharp hydrogen cores is of particular 
interest aside from the question of variation in either. This, on 
the shell hypothesis, means that material of the reversing layer 
and material of the shell are approaching each other. Cherrington 5 
has recently investigated velocities from sharp and nebulous lines 
for 13 super-shell stars and has found that in each case the opposite 
is true — velocities from sharp lines originating in the shells are 
more negative than velocities from broad lines originating in the 
reversing layers. He puts this down to expansion of the shells and 
points to a relation between these stars and novae. H.D. 142926, 
therefore, would appear to constitute an exception to Cherrington 's 
rule.' 1 For this star either the shell is suffering a net contraction 
or material of the reversing layer is being driven outwards towards 
the shell. 



5 P.A.S.P. vol. 52, p. 116, 1940. 

6 Another super-shell star being investigated by the writer, namely H.D. 
12302, exhibits a similar effect to a greater degree. From five plates the average 
hydrogen core velocity is +39.2 km. /sec. while the average helium velocity is 
— 55.1 km. sec. 



The Spectrum and the Velocity Variation oj H.D. 207 

Although H.D. 142926 had not been recorded as a variable, 
the possibility of minor variations with the 0.97625-day period 
was considered. Dr. CM. Huffer of the Washburn Observatory 
kindly made a series of observations with the photoelectric phot- 
ometer in the summer of 1938 and reported the star as constant 
in light. 

In view of Beals' recent suggestion 7 that a Cygni and P * 
stars develop from stars with spectra showing both broad and 
narrow lines it will be of interest eventually to observe whether 
the sharpening of the hydrogen cores recorded here be periodic or 
secular. 

Summary 

Super-shell characteristics have been detected in the spectrum 
of H.D. 142926 and are found to be present to a greater degree 
now than in 1919-20. The velocity variation from the hydrogen 
cores has a 0.97625-day period, but the velocity curve leads to an 
improbable orbit. Failure to detect similar velocity variation from 
the broad lines suggests that the variation arises from the shell 
alone. Mean velocities from the broad lines are more negative 
than those from the hydrogen cores, indicating that materials from 
reversing layer and shell are approaching each other. 

T.A.S.P. vol. 52, P . 27S, 1940. 



: 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

Volume I Number 10 



THE SPECTRA OF PECULIAR STRONTIUM STARS 



A. F. Bunker 



194] 

THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 

TORONTO, CANADA 



plate xxvii 




Typical Spectra of Peculiar Strontium Stars. 

The enlargements shown are. a) i Cass A5p; b) 3 CorB FOp; c) 7 Equl FOp; 
and d) the normal star a Boot FO. 

The scale of the microphotometer tracing <>!' the spectral region of 1 Cas- near 
H<5 and Sr II 4077 is 3.3 times that of a). It is a 0.4 reduction of the original 
tracing. 



THE SPECTRA OF PECULIAR STRONTIUM STARS* 
By A. F. Bunker 

(With Plate XXVII] 

ABSTRACT 

The equivalent widths of the spectral lines of seven peculiar strontium stars 
(A2p-F0p) and three comparison stars have been measured. Curves of growth 
have been constructed and values of log X, the optical depth, and turbulence 
found. The abundances of Sr II atoms in the lower states have been found. 
The ratio of the log X's of the peculiar stars and comparison stars has been 
plotted against excitation potential to determine the differential excitation 
temperature. In general, the peculiar stars were found to be cooler than the 
comparison stars, while the degrees of ionization were nearly the same. 

THE theory of equivalent widths developed by Menzel 1 and the 
method employed by Goldberg 2 of determining the absolute 
abundances of elements offer a means of studying the spectra of the 
stars with abnormally strong ionized strontium lines. By con- 
structing curves of growth, and fitting these to the theoretically 
determined curves, the optical depth, log X, of any line can be 
found. A study of these values should reveal whether atmospheric 
conditions are abnormal, or if there is simply an abnormal abun- 
dance of strontium atoms. In this paper the condition of temper- 
ature is compared by the method used by Russell. 3 

Observational Material 

In the present program, the seven peculiar strontium stars, 
Boss 3506 A2p, Boss 2443 A3p, i Cassiopeiae Aop, 7EquuK i FOp, 
/3Coronae Borealis FOp, 2 Tauri F0, and rCygni F0, and the com- 
parison stars /STrianguli A5, 7B00US A5, and cxBootis F0, were 
studied. 

The stars chosen for the comparison are as nearly identical to 
the peculiar stars in spectral type, absolute magnitude and line 
width as could be found within convenient reach of the 7 1-inch 
telescope with contrast slow plates. The data concerning these 
stars are given in Table I. 



■per submitted in partial fulfilment 0/ the requirements of the dt 
I rts (it the University of Toronto. 
211 



212 Publications of the David Dnnlap Observatory 







Table 


I 






Line 


Name 


H.D. 


Type 


M, 


M s 


T 


width 


Boss 3506 


118022 


A2p 


1.2 


1.4 


9200 


11 


Boss 2443 


78209 


A3p 




1.8 


7000 


10 


l Cass 


15089 


A5p 


1.3 


1.0 


8100 


15 


7 Equl 


201601 


FOp 


1.5 


1.1 


7000 


10 


j8 CorB 


137909 


FOp 


1.3 


0.9 


7200 


9 


6 2 Taur 


28319 


F0 


0.7 


1.3 


8400 


20 


t Cygn 


202444 


FO 


2.3 


2.4 


6900 


17 


7 Boot 


127762 


A5 


2.0 


2.0 


7800 


20 


j8 Tria 


13161 


A5 


-1.3 


1.4 


8600 


19 



o- Boot 128167 F0 3.5 3.2 8200 9 

The columns give Henry Draper number, the spectral types, 
the trigonometric and spectroscopic magnitudes from Schlesinger, 4 
the colour temperature corrected by Kuiper 5 to represent the effec- 
tive temperature, and a measure of the line width determined by 
averaging the values of AX/(1— r c ) for several unblended lines. 
Here r c is the residual intensity at the centre of the line. 

Plates were taken at the David Dunlap Observatory with the 
one-prism spectrograph attached to the 74-inch telescope. Only the 
25-inch camera was used, giving a dispersion of 33A per millimetre 
at Hy. Most spectra were taken on Eastman process plates, while 
a few were taken on Eastman 33. The 11-spot tube-sensitometer 
of the observatory was used with a blue filter to impress the sensi- 
tization spots on the emulsions. The plates were tray-developed 
for eight minutes in the routine manner of the observatory. 

Methods of Reduction 

Tracings of the spectra were made by the Beals 6 type micro- 
photometer constructed at the David Dunlap Observatory. With 
this machine the galvanometer deflection is recorded on a fogged 
background cut by regularly spaced unfogged lines parallel to the 
length of the paper. The fogging light was extinguished at every 
half-millimetre of the plate, leaving an unfogged reference line. 
Tracings were made using a magnification of 50, at the second 
highest speed, requiring about 15 minutes to record from X3950 to 
X4600. The circuits were left closed for about an hour previous to 
a run to insure constancy of the zero point and sensitivity, thus 
increasing the accuracy and ease of reduction. The characteristic 
curve of each plate was determined in the usual way. Much tedious 



The Spectra oj Peculiar Strontium Stars 213 

reduction was eliminated by replotting the log I of the characteristic 
curve on a strip cut from the tracing. By placing this strip on the 
tracing, being sure that the lines of each were coincident, the log I 
of the continuous background and the centre of a line could be read 
directly. To measure the widths of lines, a scale was made and 
reduced photographically so that the distance between the half- 
millimetre reference lines was divided into fifty equal parts. The 
number of Angstrom units per division for each spectral region was 
computed. 

The equivalent widths of the narrower absorption lines were 
computed by assuming, after other workers, that the lines can be 
considered as triangles. For lines strong enough for damping 
broadening to be effective, several points on the profile had to be 
measured, and the area found by a summation. 

Two problems of equivalent width measures are the drawing 
of the continuous background, and the correction for blending. 
The continuous background can be drawn with a fair degree of 
confidence by following the rule of drawing it tangent to the tops 
of the lines in many-line spectra and through the plate grain in the 
cases of earlier type spectra. 

The problem of blending was not solved in this work. Bad 
blends were either measured as a unit or discarded. In the cases 
of lesser blends the lines were reconstructed by noting the shape of 
other unblended lines. With the small dispersion and resolving 
power available, blending is a serious handicap, as most lines have 
some degree of blending. Lines blended with the hydrogen lines 
are difficult to evaluate, as Thackeray 7 has shown that a weakening 
results if the profile of the blending line is used as the continuous 
background. When it seemed desirable to measure such lines to 
complete the multiplet, a value of the continuous background above 
the blending profile was used. The accuracy of such measurements 
is admittedly low. 

An indication of the consistency of the measurements was 
obtained by applying Peter's formula for probable errors to fifteen 
consecutive lines of Boss 2443. Five measurements of each line 
were available. The probable error of the fifteen determinations 
of AX, the width of the spectral line at the continuous background, 
and r, were averaged to give an average probable error. 



214 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



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The Spectra of Peculiar Strontium Stars 



215 



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216 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

P.E. =0.845 -^-= =0.0762^ 

nyjn 
Av. P.E. for AX =0.1 1A 
Av. P.E. for r c =0.69 of 1 per cent. 
These values do not, of course, give any idea of errors due to blend- 
ing which is the greatest source of error, or any systematic errors. 
It was originally intended that four plates of each star be taken 
and measured. Only one plate each of 7Equulei and rCygni was 
obtained and two of aBootis. In other cases, in which fewer than 
four measurements were made, plates were discarded because expos- 
ures were either too weak or too strong, or characteristic curves too 
poorly determined. In Table II the equivalent widths of the Sr II 
lines and the neutral iron lines used later in the temperature com- 
parison are tabulated. The three columns give: r c , the average 
value of the residual intensity at the centre of the line; W, the 
equivalent width expressed in milli-Angstroms determined by 
W = A\(l—r c )/2, and for the Fe I lines, log X, the optical depth 
determined from the curves of growth. 

For use in constructing the curves of growth, the values of 
log W/\ were computed for all lines. Between 60 and 150 lines 
per star were measured in the region X3900 — X4600. For identifying 
lines, wave-length measurements were made on six plates of different 
stars for about 120 lines. These were averaged to give the wave- 
lengths of the important lines. For other lines, the wave-lengths 
wire found by direct interpolation on the tracing. Identification 
was determined by wave-length, presence of other members of 
multiplets, and multiplet intensities. Much valuable information 
was obtained from Miss Moore's multiplet tables. 8 

( A INSTRUCTION OF CURVES OF GROWTH 

The theoretical relation between the equivalent width of a spec- 
tral line and the number of atoms above the photosphere that are 
producing the line has been developed by Menzel. 1 Assuming a 
definite radiating surface surrounded by an atmosphere transparent 
to all wave-lengths, except those near an absorption line, the expres- 
sion r(v) = 1/(1 +iVa„) is adopted as an approximation of the ratio 
of the spectral intensity at a frequency v inside the line to the inten- 
sity outside the line. The atomic absorption coefficient a„ is 
given by 



The Spectra of Peculiar Strontium Stars 21! 



L e-(>-'.>* «*/**+ Z. 



c LVr vi 



mc LvV Wo 4tt 2 (y — vo) 2 - 

where / is the oscillator strength, v the root mean square kinetic 
velocity and T the damping constant of the atomic transition. The 
first term arises from the Doppler effect, while the second arises 
from the radiational or collisional damping. 

CD 

dv, has 



The expression for the equivalent width, Av = 

o 

been solved for three cases, when Na v is small, intermediate, and 

large. The resulting relations are 

log W/\ = l/2 log x + log » /c+log X 

log W/\ = \og 2+log Vo/c-1/2 log 0.434 + 1/2 log log X 

log W/\ = l/4: log x-log 2+log wo/c + 1/2 log T/v + 1/2 log X 

The X introduced is the optical depth of the line. In quantum 

mechanical terms it is 

6(7") 37r7? mc t> - 5 

e~ xkT /b(T) gives the Boltzmann distribution of electrons in the 
various states of the atom. <f>Ss/1s expresses the spectroscopic 
strength of any line, </> being the square of the radial integral 
divided by 4/ 2 — 1 representing the strength of the transition, 5 the 
relative multiplet strength and s/Zs the strength of a line within 
a multiplet. The v is the kinetic velocity of the atoms and equal to 
1.289 XlOWr/n. N a is the number of atoms of one element in a 
given stage of ionization per square centimeter above the photo- 
sphere. 

To determine the theoretical curve of growth for A2-F0 stars, 
it is necessary only to substitute the proper values in the three 
equations, plot log W/\ against log X and draw a smooth curve 
through the three sets of points. For these stars the assumed 
values are, r = 8000°, and ju=56, since iron lines were used most 
frequently in determining the empirical curve of growth. The 
value r/y = 1.52X10 -8 which Menzel 9 found to give the besl tit in 
the case of the sun, was adopted. Using these values the equations 
reduce to: 

log W/\ = log X -5.04 

log W/\ = \ 2 I \ ,-4.83 

log f*yx = l/21og X -5.73. 
For the construction of the actual curves ol growth of the stars, 



218 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Russell's 10 table of multiplet intensities was used as the main source 
of relative line strengths. The method of construction was that 
used by Allen 11 in making the curve of growth of the sun. It 
consists of plotting the log W/\ of a line as observed in the star 
against the logarithm of the strength of the line within the multiplet. 
After the lines of several multiplets have been plotted, each multi- 
plet was moved horizontally as a unit. Guided by the slope of the 
multiplet and its height, the various multiplets were combined to 
form as smooth a curve as possible. The scatter of the points is 
considerable because of the blending effects, errors in measurement, 
and any irregularities in the multiplet intensities because of the 
failure of the LS coupling. This scatter and the relatively few 
multiplets made it necessary to seek other sources of material. A 
satisfactory source of spectroscopic data is contained in Allen's 12 
tables of the equivalent widths in the solar spectrum. By using 
the curve of growth of the sun computed by Menzel, u the value of 
log X can be read for each value of log W/\ from Allen's work. 
The Xo contains the spectroscopic data of the line, the abundance 
of the element in the sun, and the Boltzmann factor. When the 
lines of one element are used, only the Boltzmann factor need be 
changed when applying the data to stars of different temperatures. 
The change can be effected by putting the desired temperature in 
the factor 

e -x(l/k[l/T-l/T t ])^ 

For the temperature change 4500°— 6500° the correction to log X is 
simply 0.343x- With this material additional lines were utilized 
which were unclassified or in weak multiplets. These lines were 
plotted and moved horizontally as a unit and combined with other 
multiplet lines. 

In view of the small number of plotted points, usually defining 
only a portion of the curve of growth, it seemed inadvisable to draw 
a curve through the mean position of the points and accept that 
curve as the curve of growth of the star. A better method, the one 
finally adopted, is to use the plotted points to define a particular 
theoretical curve of growth and accept this as the true curve of 
growth of the star. 

In a study of B-type stars, Goldberg 14 found that many stars 
had curves of growth whose intermediate sections were higher than 
the theoretical one for a given temperature. Presumably this was 
the result of a turbulent motion of the atoms in the stellar atmos- 
pheres. This effect was introduced into the curve of growth equa- 
tions by the turbulence factor F = log v' — log v , giving 



The Spectra of Peculiar Strontium Stars 



219 



log W/\ = log X - 5.04 +V 

log W/X = 1/2 log log X -4.81 + V 

log W/\ = 1/2 log X -5.73 + F/2. 
The method of selecting the proper curve of growth is, then, to 
plot several curves with different values of V and move the plotted 
observed points horizontally until the best fit is obtained with some 
computed turbulence curve. The curve was traced through the 
points and used as the curve of growth of the star. The curves and 
observed points are reproduced in Figure 1. 



L0G X 










-40 




:^^f^^ 




^.^yr^ 


-5 


- / 


BOSS 3506 


/ ' 


BOSS 24-4.3 


-40 


- 






J^- ~ 


-5 


- ./': 


lCASS 




Y EQyL 


-4 


- • 


.■•-H^— 




■.^^r^-^ 


-50 


-/ 


pCOR- B 


/• 


e 1 TAU ^ 


-40 


- 


.^— — " 




> . - ^ rr - - 


-50 




r CYGN 


/" 


y 600T 


-40 


- 


• •: .,+— 




::^— - 


-50 


I 


1 1 


1 


t BOOT 



o a i o 20 so L06 X 00 l0 2 ° 30 

Figure 1 — Curv* - of growth of peculiar and norma] stars. 



220 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



In choosing the proper curve, the turbulence in the stellar 
atmosphere is determined. In all cases, the values are positive 
and lay between 0.5 and 0.9. These have been plotted against a 
colour temperature corrected by Kuiper 5 to represent the effective 
temperature of the star. A definite correlation between temper- 
ature and turbulence was found, and is shown in Figure 2. The 
turbulence is greater for lower temperatures. It is interesting to 
note that the opposite effect was found for the O and B stars. 



o a - 




6 - 



6000 



7000 8000 

TE. MPEIATUR.E 



9000 10000 



Figure 2 — Correlation between turbulence and 
temperature. 



The Curve of Growth for Sr II 

Goldberg 15 has shown how the absolute abundance of an element 
may be found when the curve of growth of the element and the 
absolute strengths of the lines are known. The same method is 
applied here to determine the abundance of ionized Sr atoms, but 
small changes have been made to meet the varied conditions. 

Thus to determine the abundance of Sr II atoms, two things 
must be found: the value of (j>Ss/~s for the transitions involved, and 
the form of the curve of growth, for which the value of T, the 
damping constant is required. 

It has been possible to compute the absolute strengths and 
damping constants of Sr II lines through the generosity of Dr. 



The Spectra of Peculiar Strontium Stars 221 

Leo Goldberg, who kindly made available values of p, the radial 
quantum integral for the transitions involved. Thus since 

4> = p7(4/ 2 -l), 

S=(2S+1)(2L + 1)(Z)(/-1), 
and s/Zs can be found from Russell's table of multiplet strengths, 
the necessary values can be found easily. 





X 


p 


05 

^5 


5s -5p 


4077 


5.62 


1.62 




4215 


5.62 


1.32 


5p-Qs 


4305 


1.59 


0.53 




4161 


1.59 


0.23 



The damping constant can be found knowing the strength of the 
line. T is equal to the sum of the reciprocal mean lives of the two 
levels involved. For the transition -Si 2 — -P°i 1/2. the reciprocal 
mean life of the term 2 Si 2 is zero, for it is the ground state. For 
the 2 P°i 1 2 term only the transition to the ground state need be 
included in the summation. Thus for the line X4077 

T=3.15X10 8 . 
For use with the curve of growth 

log T/v=-6.37. 
With the value of log V/v, the theoretical curve of growth of Sr II 
can be computed. When p=88 and !T = 8,000°, the equations 
reduce to: 

log I7/X=logX -5.14+7 
log W/\ = l/2 log log X -4.90+ T 
log I7/X = l/2 log X - 6.05 +7/2. 
The factor 7 was added since turbulence is present in the atmos- 
phere. These theoretical curves were plotted, using several dif- 
ferent values of 7. 

It follows from the previously used equation that for Sr II 
log X =-11.452+log NJb(T)-^x-l/2 log T+log <pS : 

T ex --' 

s 50 Id 
or if log X' Q = log <{>S — x and there is turbulence present, 

2s I 

log X" =-H.452+log XJb(T)-\/2 log r-7+log A ' 
since X Is inversely proportional to V. 



222 



Publications of the David Ditnlap Observatory 



In the paper cited the value A =log X — log X ' was introduced, 
which here becomes 

A= -11.452+log NJb(T) -1/2 log T— V. 
This gives the means of determining the absolute abundance of 
atoms in certain states in the atmosphere. 



\ogN = \og<*+\ogN a /b{T) 



5040 



or, by substitution, and letting T = 8,000° 

log iV = log (2S-H)(2L + 1) + 13.40+A+J/- 



5040 
T 

- 1 ex 



To evaluate this equation A and V must be found by a comparison 
of the theoretical and observed curves of growth. The observed 
curve is constructed by plotting the observed log W/\ of the Sr II 
lines against log X Q '. 

The values of log X '=log 4> S x 

^5 T ex 

for the different lines can now be found since $Ss/-shas been com- 
puted. The value T ex = 7,000° has been assumed as the excitation 



LOOW 




' 


I 








-JO 


- 


CUR-Vti 


OF GR.OVTH 


OF SR- 1 


" 












•^-^^ 










v . a 








-4-0 














-5 O 


-/ 




V . O 




O <r ftoOT 
A - C4SS 


- 






1 




: 


• 6O4& 2*»3 





LOG X„ 



Fig. 3. 



temperature which is lower than the effective or kinetic temper- 
ature. The values used are then 

X log X ' 

4077 1.62 

4215 1.32 

4305 -1.60 

4161 -1.90 

The observed curves are moved horizontally until the best fit is 



The Spectra of Peculiar Strontium Stars 223 

obtained with some theoretical turbulence curve. The values A 
and V become known immediately as the best fit is found. With 
these evaluated, the log N for any state can be found. The deter- 
mined values of the logarithm of the number of Sr II atoms per 
square centimetre above the photosphere are tabulated. 







Table III 








Star 


Sp 


A 


Vst li 


log N(*S) 


log N(*P°) 


1 get 


Boss 3506 


A2p 


2.4 


0.5 


16.6 


14.9 


0.5 


Boss 2443 


A3p 


2.2 


0.8 


16.7 


15.0 


0.8 


l Cass 


A5p 


3.0 


0.5 


17.2 


15.5 


0.5 


7 Equl 


FOp 


3.0 


0.7 


17.4 


15.7 


0.7 


CorB 


FOp 


2.3 


0.8 


16.8 


15.1 


0.8 


2 Taur 


F0 


2.1 


0.6 


16.4 


14.7 


0.8 


T Cygn 


F0 


2.3 


0.6 


16.6 


14.9 


0.9 


13 Tria 


A6 


2.1 


0.5 


16.3 


14.6 


0.6 


7 Boot 


A5 


2.1 


0.5 


16.3 


14.6 


0.8 



a Boot F0 2.0 0.4 16.1 14.4 0.7 

The tabulated abundances of the Sr II atoms in the 2 P° states 
are not independent of the temperature, and have been evaluated 
on the assumption of T ex =7,000°. The temperatures of the indi- 
vidual stars differ from this value, making the -P° column only an 
approximation. 

Better fits between the observed equivalent widths and theo- 
retical curves of growth would have been obtained had individual 
t< mperatures been used, but these values were not available. In 
Figure 3 the values of log W/\ of the Sr II lines of Boss 2443, tCass 
and aBoot are shown plotted on theoretical curves. 

Comparison of Excitation Temperature and Ionization 

Having determined the numbers of Sr II atoms in the normal 
and peculiar stars, and the Optical depths of lines of other elements, 
hi attempt has been made to find out whether abnormal conditions 
exist in the atmospheres of the peculiar stars or whether one is forced 
to accept a difference in chemical composition. Two conditions, 
excitation temperature and electron pressure, can be compared bj 
a comparison of the intensities of spectral lines in the two kinds of 
stars. 

The excitation temperature may be compared by the method 



224 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



used by Russell, 
factor: 



The fundamental relation used is the Boltzmann 



N = < 



N n _ 



x/kt 



b(T) 



or logarithmically, 



log iV = log co+log 



N a 



5040 



b{T) T 

If similar equations are written for two stars and the differences 
taken, the following equation is obtained: 

log— =c+5040 x Q/r-l/r). 

N' 

The values of log N/N' can be found from the ratios of the log 
XqS of the two stars determined from the curves of growth, since 
the log Xq contains the abundance, N. When the ratios of one 
element in the same state of ionization are plotted against the 
excitation potential of the lower level, the slope of the resulting line 
is a measure of the difference in temperature of the two stars. In 
this way, the peculiar stars were compared with the normal stars. 
Figure 4 shows four typical comparisons. 



20 
1-0 

-loo 

2 
10 
00 



L0GI1 





i 
60S& 2.4"42> 


i 

- fl, T«UA 


1 
c CASS 


1 
y BOOT 




io 


~ 


. 








10 


r 




• • 




- 





1* 


• 


* 


• 


- 


- N 






• 






. ./ 












N 


y equL - 


«- BOOT 


(i COK. t> - 


<r BOOT 




2 


- 




• 


• 


- 


I 


t 


" 


•• 


• 


- 




„ • 


. 


'. 


» 







i 


i 


i 


i 





IO IO 30 EXCIT. POTU. 2 30 4 O 

Figure 4 — Comparison of excitation temperatures. 

Unfortunately the number of suitable lines for comparison is 
very small. Only the neutral iron lines were sufficiently abundant 
to make a comparison profitable. Since only 20 iron lines were 



The Spectra of Peculiar Strontium Stars 225 

used, after blends were excluded, the determined slopes are subject 
to some uncertainty. The slopes were used in view of this uncer- 
tainty, to tell which of two stars is the hotter and not to determine 
the exact difference in temperature. In this way, by numerous 
inter-comparisons, the stars used have been arranged in order of 
decreasing temperature, as follows: 7Boot, iCass, Boss 3506, crBoot, 
/3Tria, j3CorB, rCygn, 2 Taur, 7Equl, and Boss 2443 being the cool- 
est. The most noticeable characteristic of the order is that the 
peculiar stars are cooler than the comparison stars of the same 
spectral class. Thus iCass, A5p, is cooler than 7Boot, A5, and 
TEqul, FOp, and /3CorB, FOp, are cooler than o-Boot, F0. One 
exception is /3Tria, which is cooler than crBoot. This phenomenon 
of a temperature decrease in passing from normal stars to peculiar 
stars of the same spectral class might be a clue to the explanation 
of the abnormal abundance of Sr II atoms. Since the second stage 
of ionization is small, in A2-F0 stars, the rise in intensity of X4077 
with advancing spectral type is due mainly to the change in electron 
concentration from the higher states to the ground level. The lower 
temperatures of the peculiar stars would then produce an increase 
in the strength of the Sr II lines of lower excitation potential. 

For normal stars a decrease in temperature would infer a simple 
change to a later spectral type. For a star to have a lower temper- 
ature than the average for a spectral class, there must be some 
difference in the electron pressure so that the degree of ionization 
remains nearly the same. To test this, the electron pressures have 
been computed for as many stars as measurements of the K line of 
calcium 1 1 are available. Only on plates of /3Tria, iCass, and 2 Taur 
were the K lines exposed strongly enough to be measured. Values 
for 7Boot, /3CorB, and <rBoot were used from Hynek's 16 paper on 
F-type spectra. The equivalent widths of Cal 4227 were measured 
for all stars. 

Adapting the Saha formula for use with the curve of growth, the 
equation becomes for Ca II, the primes referring to the ionized 
states: 

log P,=log A'o-log AV -5.92^12/ +5/2 log T 

since 

. x . N' . AY b'T <f>Ss/Zs . „, . v ftOQ 

log— =log - =log— — - ; , = log A o' -log Xo-0.28 

1 — x N A b(T) <f>S's/ls 



226 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

which is believed to be a close approximation. The log X's were 
found from the curves of growth and substituted in the equation. 
The values derived by this equation are: 

T Pe 

j8 Tria 7,000 2.5X10" 3 

8,000 1 . 2 X 10" 2 

9,000 5.0X10" 2 

t Cass 7,000 6.3X10" 4 

8,000 3 . 2 X lO" 3 

9,000 1. 2X10- 2 

7 Boot 8,000 4.4X10" 3 

9,000 4.0X10- 2 

10,000 9.5X10-2 

02 Taur 7,000 2.0X10" 4 

8,000 1.0X10" 3 

9,000 4.0X10" 3 

a Boot 6,000 2.4X10- 

7,000 1.9X10- 3 

CorB 6,000 2.1X10-" 

7,000 1.7X10" 3 

From these values and assuming temperatures in accordance 
with the results of the temperature comparisons, the most likely 
conditions in the atmospheres of tCass and 7Boot are: iCass, T = 
8,000°, Pe=3.2XlO- 3 , T Boot, T =9,000°, Pe=4XlO" 2 . If now, the 
temperature of 7Boot were reduced to 8,000° while holding the 
degree of ionization constant, an electron pressure of 4.4 X10 -3 
would result, which is approximately the pressure in tCass. This 
indicates the same degree of ionization in each star. In a similar 
manner, aBoot and /3CorB can be shown to have the same degree 
of ionization, yet a difference in temperature. Thus peculiar Sr II 
stars of a given spectral class have a lower temperature than normal 
stars but approximately the same degree of ionization. 

|3Tria, A6, which was noted previously to be an exception in that 
it was cooler than aBoot, F0, has an electron pressure and degree 
of ionization characteristic of F0 stars. 

It is regretted that a quantitative value of the thermal differ- 
ences could not be extracted, for it would show definitely whether 
the difference is the sole cause of the peculiarity or merely a contri- 
buting cause. In a plot of temperature order against abundance 
of Sr II, most of the stars fall in a roughly defined curve, while 
tCass and 7Equl are much displaced toward greater abundances. 
This suggests that some peculiar stars might be produced by a lower 



The Spectra of Peculiar Strontium Stars 227 

temperature, or an absolute magnitude effect, while others require 
some further explanation. 

In determining the abundances of Sr II atoms, it was noted that 
for normal stars and a few peculiar ones of somewhat lower abun- 
dance, the turbulence value found by the Sr II atoms was less than 
the turbulence found by the general curve of growth. Since little 
is known of the cause of turbulence, it is difficult to see the real 
significance of this difference. It might be suggested that it is the 
result of a stratification of Sr II atoms at different layers in the 
atmosphere. This scheme, however, leads to many serious 
objections. 

It is a pleasure to acknowledge my indebtness to Dr. Leo Goldberg 
of Harvard College Observatory for making available quantum 
mechanical evaluations invaluable to the present work. 

David Dun lap Observatory, 
Richmond Hill, Ontario, 
February, 1941. 

References 

1. Ap. J., v. 84, p. 462, 1936. 

2. Ap. J., v. 89, p. 623, 1939. 

3. Ap. J., v. 68, p. 9, 1928. 

4. Schlesinger, General Catalogue of Stellar Parallaxes, 1935. 

5. Ap. J., v. 88, p. 469, 1938. 

6. M. X., v. 96, p. 730, 1936. 

7. Ap. J., v. 84, p. 433, 1936. 

8. Moore, A Multiplet Table of Astronomical Interest. 

9. Ap. J., v. 84, p. 466, 1936. 

10. Ap. J., v. 83, p. 129, 1936. 

11. Mem. Commonwealth Solar Obs., v. 1, mem. 5, 1934. 

12. Mem. Commonwealth Solar Obs., v. 2, mem. 6, 1939. 

13. Op. cit. 

1 I Ap. J., v. 89, p. 623, 1939. 

15. Op. cit. 

Hi. A P . J., v. 82, p. 338, 1935. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume I Number 11 



THE LIGHT CURVES OF FOUR 

VARIABLE STARS IN THE 

HERCULES CLUSTER 

MESSIER 13 



by 
HELEN B. SAWYER 



1942 

THE UNIVERS1 I Y OF ["ORON H> PR] SS 

TORONTO, CANADA 



THE LIGHT CURVES OF FOUR VARIABLE STARS 
IN THE HERCULES CLUSTER MESSIER 13 

by Helen B. Sawyer 

HpHE globular cluster Messier 13 (NGC 6205) in Hercules is 
one of the best known objects in the sky, and is frequently 
shown in telescopes, both big and little, and frequently photo- 
graphed. But for all our familiarity with this rich cluster as a 
beautiful object, our knowledge of the variable stars in it has been 
amazingly scanty. 

Bailey 1 in 1902 published the discovery of two bright variables. 
Barnard 2 in 1900, hearing of Bailey's discovery before publication, 
independently found Variable No. 2, and made a series of 36 visual 
observations of this star, from which he determined that the period 
was 5.1 days. In 1909 3 he commented that he had determined a 
period of 0.0 days for Bailey's Variable No. 1, and had also found 
,i third variable. In 1915, Shapley 4 announced the discoverv of 
four additional variables, and gave the magnitudes 5 of all seven 
variables as measured on seven plates. For twenty-five years the 
sum total of all our knowledge of the variables in the Hercules 
cluster was that there were seven; of these, one had a period of 5.1 
days as deduced from the series of published ol serrations, and one 
a period of 9.0 days, but with no published observations. 

A recent paper 6 from this observatory increased the number i t 
known variables to 11, and a preliminary report 7 on the periods 
was presented to the American Astronomical Society in 19 10. 

Eleven years ago al the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory 
the writer began accumulating large scale plates on this cluster. 
Although the variables are quite bright all of them as brighl 
as 15.0 at minimum, a large telescope is necessary for the investi- 
gation because of the crowding in the cluster. The program has 
been continued at the David Dunlap Observatory, and a total 
of 150 plates is now available. For assistance in taking the plates 

I am indebted to 1 )r. F. S. I logg, Mr. T. T. I lutcliison, Mr. ( Jerald 
Longworl h, and ol hers. 

Of the eleven variables, lighl curves are given in this paper for 
four. Of thoe tour periods now determined, three are long period 
Cepheids, and one is a cluster type variable. Series of plates from 
several seasons showed al once thai Barnard's period of 5.1 d 

23 1 



232 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



for No. 2 is correct. The period derived by the writer is 5.11003 
days. But the present series of observations showed also that 
Barnard's period of 6.0 days for No. 1 is quite erroneous. Figure 1 
shows Barnard's observations as computed from his period for 
No. 2; and shows for No. 1 several years of the writer's obser- 
vations with phases computed from Barnard's period of G.O days. 



-1 



• ••• 







• 














_ 










• 






— 


• 


• 


• 


• 




•• 


• 


• 




• 












• 






— 


• 


• 


• 








• 


— 


•• 












•• 






• • 










• 


• 






•• 












• 
• 






• • 


• 


C 
• 
• 


! 

• 
• 


• 
• 

• 


•• 




• 
• 




" 1 


| 




i 




1 




i 


- 



■4 .Cl^j o 



Figure 1 



Upper: Barnard's visual observations of Variable No. 2 with phases 

computed from his period of 5.1 days. 
Lower: Recent series of observations of Variable No. 1 with phases 

computed from Barnard's period of 6.0 days. 



Obviously this period is quite untenable, and all attempts to 
correct it by a small refinement failed. \\ hen sufficient observa- 
tions had accumulated in series over large hour angles, the true 
period for No. 1 was determined to be almost exactly one quarter 
of that given by Barnard, namely 1.45899 days. 

A third long period Cepheid is now added to the other two 
as Variable No. 6 has a period of 2.11283 days. Variable No. 8, 



The Light Curves of Four Variable Stars 



233 



found by the writer, is a cluster type variable with good range and 
period of three quarters of a day. 

Considerable work has been done to determine the periods of 
the other variables. For Variable Xo. 7 a period of 0.428024 day 
or 0.299724 day fits practically all the measures, and it appears 
impossible on the basis of existing data to decide which is the true 
and which is the fictitious period. Since the effective range is 
only about 0.3 magnitude, the star is a difficult one for period 
determination. Variables 3 and 4 are faint stars with small 
ranges, and rather near the limiting magnitude of many of the 
plates. Variables 5 and 9 are the components of a close double 
which is resolved only under very good seeing conditions. Both 
of these are probably cluster type variables. Variables 10 and 11 
are bright stars with small ranges. It is possible that they belong 
to the bright irregular class. It is planned to keep the cluster on 
the observing list until more of the cluster type periods have been 
determined. 

The sequence used was that given in a previous paper, with 
the magnitudes determined earlier by Shapley. 5 This sequence 
has now been checked by two sequence plates of 2 and 6 minutes' 
exposure time on Selected Area 01. The values of the comparison 
stars as estimated on these plates corroborate Shapley's values. 

Table I gives the elements of the variables, with maximum, 

TABLE I 
Elements of Foir Variable Stars in Messier 13 



Y.ir. 


Max. 


Min. 


Med. 


Epoch 


Period 










2,400,000+ 




1 


13.2 


15 


14 1 


27<;s;> 763 


1 l.->N<l<) 


2 


12.6 


14 1 


13.3 


27308 SG8 


5 11003 


6 


13 :> 


I I 8 


14 1 


27271 867 


2.11283 


8 


14.2 


1.-, 6 


1 1 '.) 


28038 <■..">» 


(i 750306 



minimum, and median magnitudes. Table II gives the observa- 
tions of the variables with phases computed <>n the 1um> «>f the 
elements derived. The plates through Julian l).i\ 2427728 were 
taken at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory; although there 
.it.- 51 plates, only 27 observations are published. < >n dates on 



234 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE II 
Observations of Variable Stars in Messier 13 





Julian 


Var. 


No. 1 


Var. 


No. 2 


Var. 


No. 6 


Var. 


No. S 


Plate 


Day 


Mag. 


Phase 


Mag. 


Phase 


Mag. 


Phase 


Mag. 


Phase 


20573 


6923.83 


13.9 


1.12 


13.6 


3.33 


14.4 


1.80 


14.6 


.13 


20599 


25.84 


14.1 


0.22 


12.6 


0.23 


14.4 


1.70 


14.5 


.64 


20612 


30.745 


14.7 


0.74 


12.8 


0.02 


13.6 


0.26 


14.9 


.243 


20648 


44.81 


14.0 


0.21 


13.2 


3.86 


14.4 


1.65 


14.5 


.10 


20678 


46.79 


14.8 


0.74 


12.9 


0.74 


14.7 


1.52 


15.2 


.58 


21388 


7273 . 83 


14.3 


0.96 


12.9 


0.74 


14.1 


1.08 


15.1 


.49 


21403 


74.87 


11.:, 


0.54 


13.0 


1.77 


13.6 


0.00 


14.3 


.02 


21418 


75.89 


13.6 


0.11 


13.6 


2.80 


14.3 


1.03 


14.9 


.30 


21516 


306.80 


14.3 


0.37 


14.0 


3.04 


13.8 


0.24 


15.0 


.44 


21530 


07.71 


13.5 


1.28 


13.3 


3.95 


14.4 


1.15 


15.1 


.60 


21559 


08.86 


14.2 


0.98 


12.6 


5.11 


13.6 


0.19 


14.7 


.26 


21575 


09.858 


14.5 


0.51 


12.8 


0.99 


14.2 


1.19 


15.1 


.502 


23075 


597.924 


14.0 


1.16 


13.6 


2.89 


14.4 


1.91 


15.1 


.450 


23173 


638.917 


13.4 


1.30 


13.8 


3.01 


13.6 


0.64 


14.8 


.176 


23179 


39.805 


14.6 


0.73 


13.2 


3.90 


15.0 


1.53 


15.0 


.314 


23221 


52.861 


14. 6 


0.65 


12.9 


1.32 


14.2 


1.91 


15.0 


.615 


23222 


.867 


14.7 


0.66 


12.9 


1.63 


14.4 


1.92 


15.0 


.621 


23243 


:.s.S67 


1 1 6 


0.82 


13.5 


2.52 


1 1 8 


1.58 


15.0 


.618 


23257 


59.853 


14.3 


0.35 


13.8 


3.50 


13.7 


0.45 


14.6 


.104 


23311 


64 . S53 


14.4 


0.97 


13.7 


2.39 


14.4 


1.23 


15.2 


.602 


23401 


85.763 


13.1 


0.00 


13.5 


3.86 


14.4 


1.01 


15.0 


.503 


23402 


.772 


13 2 


0.01 


13.3 


3.87 


14.0 


1.02 




.512 


23403 


.780 


13.2 


0.02 


13.2 


3.88 




1.04 




.520 


23524 


713.692 


14.0 


0.21 


12.9 


1.13 


14.5 


1.47 


14.5 


.671 


23527 


14.619 


13.9 


1.14 


13.7 


2.06 


13.7 


0.28 


14.7 


.097 


23536 


15.628 


14.7 


0.69 


13.7 


3.07 


14.8 


1.30 


15.0 


.356 


23598 


28.603 


14.6 


0.53 


12.9 


0.71 


14.8 


1.59 


15.1 


.576 


190 


8038 . 654 


13.7 


1.27 


13.0 


4.16 


14.1 


1.06 


14.1 


.000 


193 


.719 


13.2 


1.34 


12.8 


4.23 


14.4 


1.12 


14.6 


.065 


222 


43 . 656 


14.6 


0.44 


13.6 


4.05 


14.2 


1.83 


14.9 


.500 


225 


44 . 699 


13.6 


0.02 


12.7 


5.10 


14.1 


0.76 


14.5 


.043 


826 


309.603 


14.9 


0.85 


13.0 


4.28 


14.8 


1.56 


14.6 


.089 


832 


.705 


14.7 


0.95 


13.0 


4.38 


14.4 


1.66 


14.9 


.191 


1116 


65.781 


14.0 


0.13 


13.1 


4.25 


14.1 


0.69 


14.3 


.744 


1129 


66.781 


14.0 


1.13 


12.7 


0.14 


14.3 


1.69 


14.9 


.243 


1231 


91.715 


13.7 


1.26 


12.7 


4.63 


14.5 


1.27 


15.0 


.417 


1246 


92 . 735 


15.0 


0.82 


12.6 


0.54 


13.8 


0.18 


14.6 


.687 


1270 


98.632 


14.5 


0.88 


13.0 


1.33 


14.2 


1.85 


15.1 


.581 


1277 


.794 


14.0 


1.04 


13.0 


1.49 


14.0 


2.01 


14.3 


.743 


1289 


99.669 


14.6 


0.46 


13.3 


2.36 


14.2 


0.78 


14.6 


.118 


1975 


688.615 


14.7 


. 53 


12.8 


0.04 


13.6 


0.26 


14.8 


.196 


1979 


t,s:-; 


14.5 


0.59 


12.7 


0.11 


13.5 


0.33 


14.9 


.264 



The Light Curves of Four Variable Stars 



235 



TABLE II— Continued 
Observations of Variable Stars in Messier 13 





Julian 


Var. 


No. 1 


Var. 


No. 2 


Var. 


No. 6 


Var. 


No. 8 


Plate 


Dav 


Mag. 


Phase 


Mag. 


Phase 


Mag. 


Phase 


Mag. 


Phase 


1987 


8688 . 856 


14.7 


0.77 


12.9 


0.28 


13.6 


0.51 




.437 


1988 


89.612 


13.8 


0.06 


13.0 


1.04 


14.7 


1.26 


15.5 


.443 


1992 


.676 


14.0 


0.13 


12.9 


1.10 


14.7 


1.33 


15.3 


.507 


2004 


92.612 


14.1 


0.15 


13.9 


4.04 


13.8 


0.04 


15.4 


.441 


2008 


.664 


14.0 


0.20 


13.2 


4.09 


13.8 


0.09 


15.5 


.493 


2017 


93.836 


13.4 


1.37 


12.6 


0.15 


14.6 


1.26 


14 7 


.165 


2027 


96 . 605 


13.9 


1 . 22 


14.1 


2.92 


14.6 


1.92 


14.6 


.683 


2030 


.636 


13.7 


1 . 25 


14.0 


2.95 


14.2 


1.95 


14.2 


.714 


2042 


.849 


13.6 


0.00 


14.1 


3.16 


13.6 


0.05 


14.7 


.177 


2107 


715.626 


13.6 


1.28 


13.1 


1.50 


14.4 


1.92 


14.9 


.196 


2118 


.819 


13.1 


0.02 


13.0 


1.69 


13.6 


0.00 


14.9 


.389 


3245 


9071.614 


13.8 


1.27 


12.7 


4.90 


14.2 


0.84 


15.1 


.539 


3255 


.841 


14.0 


0.04 


12.8 


0.11 


14.2 


1.07 


14.3 


.016 


3267 


72 . 847 


14.4 


1.04 


13.2 


1.02 


14.4 


2.07 


14.9 


.271 


3268 


73.594 


14.4 


0.33 


13.2 


1.77 


14.2 


0.71 


14.8 


.268 


3272 


.628 


14.5 


0.37 


13.3 


1.80 


14.0 


0.74 


14.8 


.302 


3282 


.847 


14.6 


0.58 


13.6 


2.02 




0.96 


14.9 


.521 


3283 


76.593 


14.6 


0.41 


12.9 


4.76 




1.59 


14.7 


.266 


3286 


.622 


14.6 


0.44 


12.9 


4.79 


14.5 


1 .62 


14.9 


.295 


3295 


845 


14.9 


0.66 


13.0 


5.02 


14.1 


1.85 


15.3 


.51S 


3297 


77.601 


L3 6 


1.42 


12.9 


0.66 


14.0 


0.49 


15.6 


523 


3299 


.633 


13.5 


1.45 


12.9 


0.69 


13.6 


0.52 


15.2 


.555 


330S 


.837 


14.3 


0.20 


12.9 


0.90 


14.0 


0.73 


14.5 


.009 


3311 


78.603 


15.0 


0.96 


13.3 


1.66 


14.4 


1.49 


14.4 


.025 


3313 


.633 


1 1 ti 


0.99 


13.1 


1.69 


14.3 


1.52 


1 1 6 


.055 


3323 


.822 


13.8 


1.18 


13.1 


1.88 


1 1 5 


1.71 


15.0 


.244 


3326 


79. till 


L5 i) 


0.51 


13.9 


2.67 


1 1 ii 


0.39 


15.2 


.' S3 


3329 


M 830 


13.9 


1.27 


12.7 


4.89 


13.8 


0.49 


14.9 


.251 


1576 


429 . 607 


14.2 


0.35 


12.8 


0.08 


1 1 5 


1 .77 


14 7 


.636 


1579 


30.603 


L3 6 


1 35 


L3 1 


1 H7 


1 1 


n 65 


1 1 ii 


.131 


H'.'.H 


63.606 


1 17 


0.79 


14. 


3 12 


1 1 2 


1 96 


1 1 ti 


.121 


1701 


64 599 


1 I 6 


13 


13 


1 U 


1 1 2 


ii 84 


L5 2 


364 


1799 


s7 746 


1 1 


o i:-; 


13 6 


2 oi 


1 1 1 


7.". 


14 7 


251 


1803 


89 569 


1 1 7 


ii 19 


l 1 ii 


3 S3 


1 1 ii 


16 


15 1 


571 


1804 


583 


L5 (• 


51 


l 1 :, 


3 84 


i:; '.i 


n 17 


1.-, r> 


588 


1809 


735 


l 1 6 


tit, 


L3 6 


3 99 


1 1 2 


(I 62 


1 1 3 


710 


1816 


90 583 


13 9 


ii 05 


L2.9 


l M 


1 1 7 


1 17 


l i 3 


us: 


1817 


597 


l I l 


(i 06 


L3 


i 86 


1 1 7 


1 Is 


1 1 r, 


1 01 


1826 


91 569 


1 1 7 


I ut 


L3 


ii 72 


L3 9 


ii :;i 


i;. ii 




1969 


518 572 


1 I 6 


n 32 


13 3 


2 17 


1 1 3 


1 99 


1 1 '.i 


315 


1976 


mi 599 


L3 5 


l 34 


1 I ii 


3 20 


l I ii 


ii '.n 


i:, :; 


.-.'.11 


1981 


20 685 


14.3 


97 


13 




l i 2 


1 '.»'.i 


14 6 


177 



236 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE II— Continued 
Observations of Variable Stars in Messier 13 





Julian 


Var. 


No. 1 


Var. 


No. 2 


Var. 


No. 6 


Var. 


No. 8 


Plate 


Day 


Mag. 


Phase 


Mag. 


Phase 


Mag. 


Phase 


Mag. 


Phase 


5698 


9785.692 


14.5 


0.44 


14.1 


3.57 


14.1 


0.78 


15.3 


.326 


5708 


86 . 637 


13.7 


1.39 


13.1 


4.51 


14.4 


1.73 


14.9 


.520 


5719 


.846 


14.0 


0.14 


13.0 


4.72 


14.0 


1.94 


14.1 


.729 


5722 


87.635 


14.8 


0.93 


12.9 


0.40 


13.9 


0.61 


14.5 


.018 


5723 


.642 


14.8 


0.93 


12.9 


0.41 


13.9 


0.62 


14.3 


.025 


5724 


.689 


14.7 


0.98 


12.9 


0.46 


13.9 


0.67 


14.5 


.072 


5805 


813.615 


14.6 


0.64 


12.9 


0.83 


14.3 


1.24 


15.1 


.487 


5807 


.647 


14.7 


0.68 


12.9 


0.86 


14 3 


1.27 


15.1 


.519 


5813 


.801 


14.6 


0.83 


12.8 


1.02 


14.4 


1.43 


14.6 


.673 


5816 


14.600 


14.2 


0.17 


13.1 


1.82 


13.8 


0.17 


14.4 


.722 


5819 


.644 


14.2 


0.21 


13.1 


1.86 


13.5 


0.16 


14.2 


.016 


5828 


.824 


14.2 


0.39 


13.1 


2.04 


14.0 


0.34 


14.7 


.196 


5831 


15.600 


14.0 


1.17 


13.8 


2.82 


14.4 


1.11 


14.7 


.221 


5834 


.642 


13.6 


1.21 


13.6 


2.86 


14.5 


1.15 


14.8 


.263 


5838 


16.598 


14.7 


0.71 


13.8 


3.82 


13.9 


2.11 


15.1 


.469 


5841 


.645 


14.7 


0.76 


13.8 


3.86 


13.8 


0.04 


15.1 


.516 


5851 


.826 


14.6 


0.94 


13.2 


4.04 


13.9 


0.22 


14.5 


.697 


5938 


40.586 


13.2 


1.35 


13.3 


2.25 


14.2 


0.74 


15.0 


.447 


5942 


41.593 


14.6 


0.90 


13.4 


3.26 


14.4 


1.75 


14.5 


.704 


5953 


.810 


13.8 


1.12 


13.8 


3.48 


14.2 


1.97 


14.6 


.171 


5957 


42.581 


14.8 


0.43 


13.5 


4.25 


14.1 


0.63 


14.6 


.191 


5965 


.722 


14.6 


0.57 


13.4 


4.39 


14 3 


0.77 


14.9 


.332 


5972 


43.579 


13.7 


1.43 


13.0 


0.14 


14.4 


1.62 


15.0 


.439 


5981 


.747 


13.7 


0.14 


12.7 


0.30 


14.2 


1.79 


15.1 


.607 


6832 


0169.603 


14.7 


0.64 


13.6 


4.23 


13.5 


0.16 


14.4 


.080 


6835 


.665 


14.6 


0.70 


13.3 


4.29 


13.5 


0.22 


14.5 


.142 


6841 


.825 


14.6 


0.86 


13.2 


4.45 


13.9 


0.38 


14.8 


.302 


6843 


70.610 


14.1 


0.19 


12.8 


0.13 


14.2 


1.17 


15.2 


.337 


6846 


.673 


14.0 


0.25 


12.7 


0.19 


14.4 


1.23 


14. S 


.400 


6852 


.818 


14.4 


0.39 


12.8 


0.33 


14.6 


1.37 


15.0 


.545 


6854 


71.606 


14.0 


1.18 


13.0 


1.12 


13.8 


0.05 


15.0 


.582 


6857 


.643 


13.6 


1.22 


12.9 


1.16 


13.8 


0.09 


15.1 


.619 


6858 


.661 


13.7 


1.24 


12.9 


1.18 


13.7 


0.10 


14.9 


.637 


6867 


72.603 


14.8 


0.72 


13.2 


2.12 


14.4 


1.05 


14.5 


.079 


6871 


.653 


14.6 


0.77 


13.2 


2.17 


14.3 


1.10 


14.5 


.129 


6879 


.838 


14.8 


0.96 


13.5 


2.35 


14.6 


1.28 


14.9 


.314 


6924 


97.588 


14.6 


0.90 


13.1 


1 .55 


14.3 


0.68 


15.0 


.304 


6932 


.764 


14 1 


1.08 


13.0 


1.73 


14.3 


0.85 


15.0 


4S0 


6934 


99.597 


13.4 


1.45 


13.7 


3.56 


14.2 


0.57 


14.3 


.062 


6941 


.806 


14.2 


0.20 


14.0 


3.77 


14.2 


0.78 


14.7 


.271 


6945 


200.590 


14.6 


0.99 


12.9 


4.56 


14.6 


1.57 


14.9 


.304 


6955 


.786 


13.8 


1.18 


12.8 


4.75 


14.4 


1.76 




.500 



The Light Curves of Four Variable Stars 



23: 



which the Julian Day is given only to the second decimal a mean of 
several plates taken in quick succession is given. The 99 plates 
later than J.D. 2427728 were taken at this observatory. 

Figure 2 shows the light curves of the four variables. For 



A . 






A/a Z. 






No (. 
l'i/J.35 



♦— • •/* — 

.**. .'-U.A . * r 1*41*. .* »* *" . 

' I .*.*"* . *l . *.** . 

V *V V «> 





/I: ; 




. 1 


/ vrjjf 


• J 


fba 




— . 


•6?-. 




.\.. 




♦~ 


r ■ • 




V* 


*.r * 


• 


**_ 


•> • 


■ «, 




te*. 


.'•K4*> 


- 




1 • .• . 


- 



/VO 


Ao 9 




• o*7J'i'J04 • 




*<.- a~ 






WJ" 


.. . —».- — . - 




4. .~*\. „ *. . 


/* f 


* * t.t. . 








• 4k . 






/r.J 






• 1 | • • 

.V i 



Figure 2 

The light curves of four variable stars in Messier 13; three are long 
period Cepheids, and one a cluster type variable. Earl} observations 
bj Shapley arc indicated l>y open circles. 



Variables L, 2 and 6, Shapley 's observations are indicated by open 

circles. The scatter of the points for No. 6 is probably increased 

by the presence <>l a moderately brighl star close to the variable. 
The four periods so far determined outline a good period- 



238 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



luminosity relation in this cluster, as shown in Figure 3. The 
correct determination of the period of No. 1 removes a discrepancy 
which existed in the period-luminosity relation when, according 
to Barnard's work, a Cepheid with period of 6 days had a bright- 
ness fainter by one magnitude than a Cepheid of 5 day period. 






b^P '0 2 2 4- Ob 8 

Figure 3 
The period-luminosity relation in Messier 13. 

Messier 13 is now the seventh globular cluster in which both 
long period and cluster type Cepheids are found, and in which a 
good period-luminosity relation is defined. Table III summarizes 
these clusters. It is important to note that no cluster so far in- 
vestigated has afforded evidence against the validity of the period- 

TABLE III 
Clusters in Which a Period Luminosity Relation is Established 







No. 


Name 


XGC 


Long Period 
Cepheids 


Omega Centauri. . 


5139 


6 


Messier 3 


5272 


1 


Messier 5 


590-1 


2 


Messier 13 


6205 


3 


Messier 14 


6402 


3 


Messier 15 


TOTS 


1 


Messier 2 


T089 


4 



the references can be found in Pub. D.D.O. Vol. I, no. 4, 1939. 



The Light Curves of Four Variable Stars 239 

luminosity relation. In the one case, NGC 362, in which long 
period Cepheids were found by the writer 8 to be of the same bright- 
ness as cluster type variables, the evidence indicates that the long 
period Cepheids are actually members of the Small Magellanic 
Cloud, rather than of the cluster. Most of the clusters listed are 
very rich in cluster type Cepheids; Messier 13 is the only one in 
which there are so few. 

Although in no cluster does the period-luminosity relation rest 
on an abundance of evidence, the corroboration from globular 
clusters, one by one, may be considered important because two 
effects which increase the scatter of the relation in the Magellanic 
Clouds and in extragalactic nebulae are reduced to a minimum in 
globular clusters; namely, a great depth of the system itself, and 
large amounts of obscuring nebulosity in the system. 

The distance of the Hercules cluster as determined from this 
study of the variables is somewhat smaller than that determined 
earlier. 9 A mean modulus of the cluster from these four variables 
is 14.8, corresponding to 9.2 kiloparsecs, to be compared with the 
previous modulus of 15.07 or 10.3 kiloparsecs (both uncorrected for 
absorption, which is probably small at galactic latitude +40°). To 
include the other variables which are almost certainly cluster type, 
but whose periods are not yet definitive would not change tin 
modulus appreciably. At this distance the cluster has an absolute 
photographic magnitude of —8.0 independent of absorption, as 
computed from Christie's schramerkassette magnitude 10 of 6.78. 
This is bright for a globular cluster, but not in a class with 47 
Tucanae, determined recently by Shapley 11 to be of absolute 
magnitude —10.2. 

REFERENCES 

1. Bailey, H. A., v. 38, 1902. 

2. Barnard, Ap. J., v. 12, p. 183, 1900. 

3. Barnard, Ap. J., v. 40, p. 179, 191 1. 

4. Shapley, P.A.S.P., v. 27. p. 131, p. 238, 1915. 

5. Shapley, Mt. \V. Cont., no. 116, L915. 

6. Sawyer, Pub. D.D.O., v. 1. no. •"., L940. 

7. Sawyer, Pub. A.A.S., v. in. p. 66, 1940. 

8. Sawyer, I I.e., ..... 374, 1932. 

9. Shaplej .ni.l Sawyer, H.B., ..... 869, 1929. 

10. Christie, Mt. W. Cont., ..... 620, 1940 

11. Shapley, P.N.A.S., \. 27, p. 1 in, p»n. 

Richmond 1 (ill, ( mtario. 
Man h 31, 1942. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume I Number 12 



VARIABLE STARS 

IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER 

MESSIER 80 



by 
HELEN B. SAWYER 



1942 

THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 

TORONTO, CANADA 



PLATE XXVIII 



N 



* 






The globular cluster Messier 80, XGC 6093, showing six variable stars. 
Variable Xo. 1, a long period Cepheid, is at maximum. 

Scale, 1 mm = 8."l. Enlarged from Steward plate 4444, taken 1939. June 23. 






VARIABLE STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER 
MESSIER 80 

By Helen B. Sawyer 

(With Plate XXVIII) 

HP H IS is the first paper in a series of short reports on variable stars 
in southern globular clusters. The material for these investi- 
gations consists of 279 direct photographs. These were taken by the 
writer in 1939 with the 36-inch Steward reflector of the University of 
Arizona at Tucson, through the kindness of the Director, Dr. E. F. 
Carpenter. The expedition was made possible by a grant from the 
National Academy of Sciences. The writer wishes to express her 
appreciation to those who made this study of southern globular 
clusters possible. Useful material was obtained on fourteen clusters. 
This material is intended as a preliminary survey only, to show the 
number of variables a cluster may contain, with special attention to 
long period Cepheids. For no cluster are the plates sufficient for 
an exhaustive investigation of the light curves of the variables. 
Imperial Eclipse plates were used. 

Messier 80 (NGC 6093) is already well known as being the only 
globular cluster in which a nova has been seen. This cluster is 
situated in a rich region in Scorpio, R.A. 16 h 14 m .l, Dec. -22°52' 
(1950), galactic latitude + 18°, on the edge of a region of obscuring 
nebulosity. It was in 1860 that a nova flared forth in the very 
centre of the cluster, reaching apparent magnitude 6.8. It is still 
not known whether the nova was definitely associated with the 
cluster, and no identification of it exists to-day. Its position as 
determined visually in 1860 does not correspond to that of any of 
the variables in the cluster. If it was in the cluster, it was an 
unusually bright nova. 1 

Only two variable stars, besides the nova, have been known in 
this cluster. These were announced by Bailey 2 in his compre- 
hensive work in 1902. The cluster is an exceedingly compact and 
congested object, of concentration class 3 II, so that the search for 
variables is difficult. From a search <>t the 26 available plates with 
a blink microscope recently constructed by Dr. R. K. Young at this 
observatory, tin writer has found four additional variables. With 
one exception, these have small ranges. It is possible that other 

243 



244 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

variables of small range have escaped detection, but it is unlikely 
that any other variables with range as large as one magnitude exist 
in the cluster. The positions of these variables have been measured 
on a suitable plate by means of a reseau, oriented by a trail in declin- 
ation, and referred to the same centre used by Bailey. The scale of 
the plates taken with the 36-inch reflector using the zero-power 
Ross corrector, as determined by Dr. E. F. Carpenter from measures 
of a Pleiades plate is 44".42±0".06 per millimetre. 

Magnitude values for the comparison stars selected by Bailey 
were determined from two sequence plates, both of sixteen minutes 
exposure, on Kapteyn Selected Area 132. The magnitudes of the 
stars used in the selected area are those given by Seares, Kapteyn, 
and van Rhijn. 4 The values obtained for the comparison stars are 
as follows: a, 12.5; b, 12.5; c, 13.2; d, 13.5; e, 13.9; f, 14.1 ; g, 14.5; 
h, 14.7; k, 15.2; 1, 15.3; m, 15.5; n, 15.6; o, 15.9; p, 16.3; q, 16.7. 

Table I gives the positions of the variables, including the two 
found by Bailey, and their maximum, minimum, and median magni- 
tudes. The variables are marked on Plate XXVIII. Variable No. 
6, which is 9' from the cluster centre, is probably a field variable. 
The angular diameter of this cluster as measured by Shapley and 
Sayer 5 is 14'.3. 

The variables have been estimated on all the 26 plates available 
to the writer. The average exposure time of each plate is sixteen 
minutes, and the limiting magnitude of the better plates is about 
16.8. From the small ranges and day to day changes it may be 
inferred that Variables 3, 4, and 5 are cluster type, though the 
plates, taken of necessity near the meridian at the same hour angle 
do not suffice for period determination. No information can be 









TABLE I 










Variable Stars in Messier 


80 










-Magnitu 


des — 




,'ar. 


X 


y 


Max. 


Min. 


Med. 


Remarks 


1 


-137" 


+79" 


13.1 


14.5 


13.8 


Long period Cepheid 


2 


+22 


-19 


14.7 


15.3 


15.0 


Type unknown 


3 


+ 104 


+56 


15.6 


16.3 


16.0 


Probably cluster type 


4 


-85 


+61 


15.6 


16.2 


15.9 


" " 


5 


+14 


-67 


15 .7 


16.2 


16.0 


" " " 


6 


+520 


+296 


14.1 


15.8 


— 


Long period variable, 
probably field star. 



Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster Messier 80 245 

gleaned as to the type of variability of Bailey's Variable No. 2, 
because of small range and congestion. No. 6 is shown to be a long 
period variable. Starting at magnitude 14.1 on the earliest plate 
in the series, taken on May 18, 1939, it drops steadily to magnitude 
15.8 on the last plate, taken June 24, 1939. Probably these values 
do not represent the real maximum or minimum of this star. 

For Variable No. 1 the plates suffice to indicate that the star is 
a long period Cepheid with period of about 16 days. Table II gives 
the observations of this star. Since there is no series taken through- 
out one night, these observations cannot prove that this is not a 
short period star; but in view of the large range and great brightness, 







TABLE 


II 








Observations 


of Variable 


XO. 1 IN 


Messier 80 






Julian Day 






Julian Day 




Plate 


2,420,000. + 


Mag. 


Plate 


2,420,000.+ 


Mag. 


4180 


9402.820 


14.1 


4305 


9425.728 


13.3 


4181 


.847 


14.1 


4308 


.779 


13 3 


4191 


03.840 


13.8 


4318 


26.728 


13.4 


4192 


.854 


13.8 


4323 


27.801 


13.8 


4204 


05.824 


13.2 


4340 


29.821 


1 1 5 


4205 


.840 


13.2 


4351 


30.799 


14.5 


4220 


06.817 


13.1 


4383 


33 835 


14.3 


4232 


07.817 


13.2 


4392 


34.728 


14.3 


4246 


08.805 


13.3 


4406 


35.724 


13 9 


4262 


09 833 


13.4 


1 109 


.840 


13.8 


4274 


1 1 849 


13.7 


4430 


37.726 


13 


4285 


22 790 


13.2 


mi 


38.755 


13.0 


4294 


24.790 


13.3 


4454 


39.703 


13.0 



the writer considers such a circumstance unlikely. The observations 
are perfectly represented by a sixteen day period. The star reaches 
maximum three times during the interval covered by the observa- 
tions. Figure 1 shows the light curve of this variable as computed 
from the formula 

Maximum = J. D. 2429406.8 + 16 <i .O E. 
The presence of tin's Cepheid along with that <>f the three vari- 
ables assumed to be cluster type gives a period-luminosity relation 
in this cluster, from which the distance of the cluster may be de- 
rived. As a Cepheid of 16 day period has a median absolute mag- 
nil ude of — 2.3 6 , the modulus of the cluster from this variable is 16.1; 



246 



Publications of the David Dun lap Observatory 



while the modulus from the three variables assumed to be cluster 
type is 16.0. Both of these values are in good agreement with the 
previous value 7 of the modulus determined from the brightest stars, 
16.22. Assuming a modulus of 16.05 from this study of the vari- 
ables, the distance uncorrected for absorption is 16 kiloparsecs. 
Doubtless this must be substantially corrected for absorption, be- 
cause Stebbins and Whitford 8 find a colour excess of +0.10 magni- 
tude for this cluster. The actual correction to be applied seems in 
doubt, as the cluster falls in an intermediate group of clusters show- 



«yo 



IV5 



140 



14-5 



• • • 

• •• • 



VAR NO. I 

P 16-0 DA«<4 






• • • 
••• • 



V 






-4 



4- 6 

Figure 1. 



12 



»6 



ing small obscuration. Baade's counts 8 show the number of nebulae 
to be less than normal, though the number of stars in the field is 
normal. 

Messier 80 is therefore a distant cluster, poor in variable stars. 
The few that it contains support the period-luminosity relation ; and 
it contributes another long period Cepheid to the rather scanty 
number known in globular clusters. 



Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster Messier 80 24" 

REFERENCES 

1. Sawyer, D.D.O. Comm., no. 1, 1938. 

2. Bailey, H.A., v. 38, 1902. 

3. Shapley and Sawyer, H.C.O. Bull., no. 849, 1927. 

4. Seares, Kapteyn, and Van Rhijn, Carnegie Inst., Pub., no. 402, 1930. 

5. Shapley and Sayer, P.N.A.S., v. 21, p. 593, 1935. 

6. Shapley, Star Clusters, p. 135, 1930. 

7. Shapley and Sawyer, H.C.O. Bull., no. 869, 1929. 

8. Stebbins and Whitford, Ap. J., v. 84, p. 144, 1936. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario, 
June 2, 1942. 






PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume I Number 13 



THE RADIAL VELOCITIES 
OF 374 STARS 



R. K. YOUNG 
Director 



1942 
i DIVERSITY OF rORl IN TO PRESS 

roRON n >. c \\ \n.\ 



THE RADIAL VELOCITIES OF 374 STARS 

THE stars contained in this publication complete the observa- 
tion of all stars in regions 6x6 degrees square whose centres 
are the Kapteyn regions in the northern hemisphere. The 
photographic magnitude limit was set at 7.59. In an earlier publi- 
cation from this observatory velocities were furnished for areas 
4x4 degrees square and the present list extends this area to 6x6 
degrees. With very lew exceptions the spectrograms have been 
secured with the 12^-inch camera which gives a dispersion of 
about 66 A per mm. at H7. Observation was begun about March 
1939 and completed in May 1942. No changes in the methods of 
observation or measurement and reduction have been made and 
systematic errors should be the same for the present list of stars 
as for the first list of 500. 

Between the two lists there are now 122 stars which have been 
observed at other observatories. A comparison of these yields the 
results in Table I. The various columns in this table are: 

1. Type. 

2. Xo. of stars available for comparison when list of 500 was 
published. 

3. Algebraic residual of these. 

4. Probable error. 

5. No. of stars now available. 

6. Algebraic residual based on the new more extensive com- 
parison. 

TABLE I 

Type Xo. Stars Alg. Residual p.e. No. Stars Alg. Residual 

B 5 -2.9 0.8 13 -2.0 

A 9 - 0.4 1 :; +0.1 

I 14 +0 3 0.5 23 +0.4 

G 10 + 2.3 I) 7 13 + 2 2 

K 17 +0 2 0.3 24 +0 3 

M 4 +2 :, 0.2 1 +2 5 

All types 59 +0 ID 122 + 

Tin' observation and measurement, as in the last programme, 
have been undertaken by the members <>t the staff conjointly. 
( hying to war conditions th<- staff has been changing quite frequently 
and main- have contributed t<> the final results — F. S. Hogg, P. M. 
Millman, J. F. Heard, < '.. II. Tidy, A. F. Bunker. YY. F. M. Bus- 
combe, W. S. Armstrong, G. F. Longworth, K. M. Cunningham, 



252 Publications oj the David Dunlap Observatory 

Miss R. J. Northcott, Miss E. M. Fuller. My thanks are especially 
due to Miss R. J. Northcott who has watched over the measurement 
and broken in so many new hands to the task of measuring and to 
Mr. G. F. Longworth who has taken a major part in the observa- 
tions and kept the telescope in good running order. 

The results for all the stars are included in Table II in which 
the columns have the following meanings. 

1. The serial number in the Henry Draper catalogue. 

2-3. The right ascension and declination for the epoch 1900.0. 

4. The visual magnitude from the H.D. catalogue. 

5. The H.D. type. 

6. The type as estimated from our spectra. The criteria for 
estimating the type has been made as simple as possible and 
agree in general with the Harvard system and more particularly 
with the system adopted at Victoria as given in the Trans- 
actions of the International Astronomical Union, Vol. 5. 

For the A-type— A0, K 0.1 times H5; A2, K 0.4 times H5; 
A5, K 1.2 times HS; A9, K 2.0 times H5. In the F-type 
attention was centered on the line 4227; F3, 4227, 0.1 times 
H 7 ; F7, 4227, 0.8 times H 7 ; F8, 4227 = H 7 ; GO, 4227, 3 times 
H 7 . For the later types the absolute intensity of 4227 was 
compared with typical spectra from GO — K8 and for the M- 
type the strength of the titanium oxide bands was used as 
a criterion. 

7. The velocity of the star, i.e., the weighted mean velocity from 
all the plates if the velocity seemed constant or the variation 
small or not reasonably certain. Those stars in which the 
variation was fairly definitely established are marked "Var." 

8. The probable error of the mean computed by the formula 

2V 
P.E. = 0.845 -^— 

nVn 

9. The number of plates. 

10. The minimum and maximum number of lines measured. 

11. The average probable error of a plate. The probable error of 
each measure was computed from the agreement of the lines 
when the plate was measured, e is the mean of these for the 
various measures. 

12. Published velocities at other observatories. W refers to the 
Mount Wilson lists in Ap. J., Vol. 87, p. 51G and Vol. 88, p. 35; 



The Radial J'clocitics of 374 Stars 253 

V, the Victoria lists. D.A.O. Publications, Vol. VI, No. 10 and 
Vol. VII, No. 1; P, the Pulkova list, Pub. Pulkova Obs., 
Ser. II, Vol. XLIII. 
13. References. R indicates that there is a note to this star at 
the end of the table. Ill indicates that the velocities as 
determined from the individual plates will be found in Table 
III. In this column also reference is made to a number of 
stars which show a considerable range. Such stars are indi- 
cated either by * or by a number. In the former case the 
velocity is uncertain, the range being judged due to the poor 
character of the spectrum for measurement. In the latter 
case the velocity range is indicated by the number and the 
star is judged to have a greater range than the character of the 
lines would lead one to expect. 

The velocities for the stars which are variable are shown in 
Table III. There are 37 of these stars; 1 in 10 was judged to be 
variable. With the low dispersion employed, the velocity variation 
is not established unless it is about 30 km. or more. Column 1 gives 
the H.I), number, right ascension and declination for 1900, visual 
magnitude and type; Column 2, the Julian date and fractional part 
of the day; Column 3, the measured velocity and repeat measures; 
Column 4, the number of lines measured; Column 5, the probable 
error of the plate as indicated by the agreement of the various lines; 
Column 6, the measurer, X— Miss R. J. Xorthcott, F— Miss E. M. 
Fuller, T-G. H. Tidy, B-A. F. Bunker, C-R. M. Cunningham, 
Bs— W. F. M. Buscombe, Y— R. K. Young, L— G. F. Longworth, 
A — \Y. S. Armstrong. 



254 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 





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The Radial Velocities of 374 Stars 



255 





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The Radial Velocities of 374 Stars 



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The Radial J 'clarities of 374 Stars 



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The Radial Velocities oj 374 Stars 



273 



Notes to Table II 
H.D. 

2888 - Wide faint X3933, poor hydrogen and \4481 are all the lines measur- 
able on our spectra. Announced as a binary by Victoria, range 
— 8.5 to — 44.3 km. /sec. with a mean — 19.9. Our plates show 
almost the same range but have a mean — 23.8. The velocity of 
the system, if the variation is real, might be taken as — 22 km. /sec. 

18040 - X3933 is strong but fairly good for measurement; hydrogen lines are 
fair; X4481 faint. Victoria results range from + 28.1 to —6.7. 
Mean of all plates, Victoria and Toronto, is + 10.5 km. /sec. 

21641 - Extremely wide diffuse hydrogen; very faint K line; 4471, 4481 faint 
and diffuse; H/8 has an emission core; agreement of plates better than 
to be expected and velocity is probably uncertain to 10 km. sec. 

21700 - This and the following star form a wide double, separation about 
44". They are given in the A.G. catalogue as nos. 1713-14 but 
are not listed in Aitken*s catalogue. Boss' catalogue of proper 
motions does not note the two stars. The spectra of the two stars 
are not identical, the s.p. star having sharper lines. 

21743 - This is the fainter component of a double star, separation 11". The 
two spectra are identical. Victoria publishes velocities + 0.5 and 
+ 7.8 for the two components. 

51418 - On three of the plates the lines are diffuse and look doubled but not 
resolved; on other two plates the lines are fairly sharp but give 
discordant results. 

68332 Numerous but rather fuzzy lines. Victoria has 3 plates showing 
range — 15 to +8. 

71150 - This star and the next form a wide double. The stars have a common 
proper motion. 
1 00054 p - This and the following star is Ait ken no. SI 91 with a common proper 
motion. The following star seems to be variable. The average 
velocity of five plates is — 10.5 km. /sec. for the following star. 
103483 - 3 plates taken at Victoria give a range — 28 to — 7. Our own plates 
extend this range to + 4. Possibly variable. The lines .ire rather 
poor. 
124587-8 This star is A9174, separation 1".S. Thje spectrum in general looks 
like F0 but on well exposed plates K is sharp and about the strength 
of A2 type. 
181119 - Poor spectrum for measurement. Victoria for four plates obtains 
range — 8 to — 47 with a mean of — 27.7. Our own plates range 
from - 9 to 
192951 - Spectrum is peculiar. It is listed in H.D. as B9. Our spectra do 
not show any helium lines. Spectrum l<»'k- like a Cygni type. 



274 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE III 



Star 


J.D.242.... 


Vel. 










H.D. 


or 243.... 


Km. /sec. 


Lines 


P.E. 


M 


Remarks 


3264 


9508 . 848 


- 05.0 


6 


3.4 


L 


Sharp H and K, hydrogen 


00 h 30"'.7 




- 02.2 


9 


2.9 


T 


and helium. 


48° 00' 


9878.802 


- 26.7 


11 


2.7 


N 




7.42 B2 




- 25.3 


14 


2.8 


B 






9905.697 


- 35 . 6 


7 


3 


N 








- 30.7 


5 


4.8 


A 








- 35 1 


10 


3.9 


C 






0249.772 


- 00.9 


7 


3.7 


L 








- 01 2 


6 


3.3 


C 




3881 


9539.766 


+ 57.8 


8 


4.1 


N 


Numerous metallic lines 


00 h 36"'.3 


9852.851 


+ 87.2 


23 


1.9 


A 


which are of only fair 


59° 23' 




+ 80.6 


11 


2.3 


N 


quality. The last plate 


7.35 A6 


9s;,S SI 5 


+ 00 6 


21 


2.9 


B 


is weak. 




9899 747 


+ 52.9 


IS 


3 3 


B 






9934 647 


- 08.6 


18 


2.6 


N 






0018.512 


+ 111 


7 


4.0 


N 




5638 


9503.803 


+ 51.2 


7 


2.4 


N 


Sharp K line which does 


00 h 53'".0 




+ 52.2 


6 


1.8 


B 


not seem to be inter- 


46° 31' 


9517.778 


- 15 3 


10 


1.6 


T 


stellar. Numerous good 


6.75 B2 


9635 153 


- 46 6 


12 


4.6 


Bs 


lini's of helium and good 




9883.822 


- 56.8 


10 


2.4 


N 


hydrogen. 






- 54 5 


12 


1.1 


A 






9901.766 


+ 19.2 


10 




A 






9919.670 


+ 67.1 


8 


I 5 


L 








+ 52 . 1 


8 


8.1 


L 






9929.667 


+ 35.1 


11 


2.9 


B 




8862 


9501.837 


+ 12.5 


5 


2.2 


B 


Sharp K line and good 


01 h 22 m .3 


9571.652 


+ 09.5 


4 


3.0 


B 


hydrogen. Helium lines 


43° 32' 


9867.863 


- 33.3 


5 


2.3 


N 


and 4481 arc weak. 


6.56 B9 




- 19.8 


9 


1.7 


B 






9905.737 


- 00.2 


7 


2.6 


Bs 






0008.507 


-00.4 


4 


5.0 


Y 






0327 649 


- 14 2 


7 


3.6 


C 





The Radial Velocities of 374 Stars 



275 



TABLE III— Continued 



Star 
H.D. 



J.D.242. 
or 243. 



Vel. 

Km. sec. 



Lines 



P.E. 



M 



Remarks 



15814 

02 h 27' ..-» 
14 c 36' 
6.07 F8 



16855 
02 h 37™. 1 
43° 07' 
6.66 A2 



36484 

Of)'' 26 m .9 
32° 44' 
6.50 A2 



36859 
05 h 29 m .6 
27° 36' 
6.47 K5 



37366 
05' 33 m .O 
30 50' 

7.52 B3 



9146.851 
9507.885 
9867.896 
9916.744 
0282 7.". \ 



9224 . 660 
9550.807 
9883.871 
0036.487 
0261.781 
0323 . 627 

9525.918 

0029 . 624 
0060.528 
0258.920 
0289.875 



9311.578 

9556 851 
9918.895 

0072.540 
0388 585 

9571.778 
9583 75 1 
9952.837 
0316.843 
0388 604 



+ 16.2 
4- 11.8 
4-06.4 
+ 21.5 
+ 08.6 



+ 13.8 
+ 26.5 
+ 29.9 
+ 09.2 
+ 15.0 
+ 16.1 

+ 38.6 
+ 37.8 
+ 17.4 
+ 47.4 
+ 11.3 
+ 12.7 

- 30 7 

- 26 . 6 

- 10.4 
-02.2 

- 01.3 

- 14 . ] 
+ 10.6 

+ 34.9 

• :,.-, s 

+ 81.2 

• 35 5 
38 8 
28 3 



15 

15 
19 
L6 



16 

26 
25 
12 
20 
13 

9 

14 

4 
M 
11 

9 

11 
13 

23 
20 
25 
19 

11 

7 
6 
6 
8 
9 
7 



2.3 
1.9 
7 
1.3 
1.5 



2.3 
1.7 
1.8 
1.7 

2.2 
1.8 

2 9 

3 1 

1.7 
1.8 
1.2 

2.8 
1 7 

1 7 
2.3 
2.1 
3.3 
3.2 

3.2 

3 
1.7 

6 2 

2 7 



B 
B 
L 

Bs 

N 
N 

B 
Bs 

B 
Y 
A 
Y 

Bs 

T 

B 

N 

Bs 

N 

N 

Bs 
T 
Bs 

C 
N 
C 



Usual sharp lines. Mr. 
Wilson velocity is —3.3 
± 0.2. Pulkova pub- 
lishes as a binary, range 
- 12 to + 15. Our 
observations seem to 
confirm variabilitx . 

Many very fine lines 

Range is rather small to 
be >nre cf variable 
character. The mean 
velocity is + 19.2 ±2.6. 



Many fine lines. The 
third plate is very weak. 



Good hydrogen and heli 
um. K is interstellar. 



276 



Publications of the David Dunlap Obsei-vatory 







TABLE III- 


-Continued 




Star 


J.D. 242.... 


Vel. 










H.D. 


or 243.... 


Km. /sec. 


Lines 


P.E. 


M 


Remarks 


37646 


9620.681 


+ 31.1 


5 


3.6 


T 


Only fair hydrogen and 


05 h 35 m .O 


0061.542 


+ 7.3 


3 


13. 


B 


faint K. 4026 is seen. 


29° 26' 


0064.549 


+ 14.8 


3 


14. 


B 


Published as varial lie 1 >y 


6.75 B8 


0066.521 


-01.7 


4 


5.2 


B 


Victoria + 23 to + 57. 




0282 . 947 


- 19.5 


3 


1.3 


N 


Our observations con- 




0402 . 590 


+ 27.9 


3 


3 3 


N 


firm the variability. 


46148 


0368 744 


- 1 2 


18 


2.2 


Y 


Many fine lines. Range 


06 h 26' D .6 


0402 . 647 


- 18.3 


8 


1 .1 


C 


rather small. The mean 


15° 47' 


0410.603 


- 02 1 


13 


3 3 


N 


velocity is — 13.4 ± 4.3. 


7.13 F8 


0415.590 


- 29.0 


20 


2.0 


N 




54901 


9584.903 


+ 35.0 


13 


3.0 


T 




07 b 05 m .6 


01)21 .800 


- 13.1 


18 


2.1 


B 




15° 30' 


0323.876 


+ 59 . 5 


13 


2.5 


C 




7.26 F2 


0365 . 726 


+ 61 t 


1 1 


1.7 


Y 






0388.697 


- 09 2 


18 


2 1 


Y 




61295 


9212.956 


+ 30.4 


16 


1.9 


T 


Main line lines. Pulkova 


07 h 33">.5 


0060 662 


+ 10.0 


21 


2.5 


B 


publishes velocity +31.4 


32° i r 


0095 5 1 1 


+ 14.2 


24 


2.0 


B 


±0.4 which combined 


6.14 F2 


0340.827 


+ 15 7 


22 


1.8 


N 


with our results leaves 




0373 751 


+ 20.5 


16 


1 1 


N 


little doubt of the vari- 
able character. Our 
mean velocity is + 18.2 
±2.2. 


63887 


0359.828 


- 116.0 


1 




Y 


Double lines which are 


07M6'".l 




+ 66.0 


1 






hard to separate with 


71° 57' 


0376 739 


- 84.6 


1 




Y 


our dispersion. Lines 


7.52 A0 




+ 11.5 


1 






are sharp. 




0442.581 


+ 06.7 


4 


4.9 


Y 






0443 565 


+ 116.0 
- 83.0 


3 
3 


2.6 
3.1 


Y 





The Radial I r elocities of 374 Stars 



277 







TABLE III- 


-Continued 




Star 


J.D.242.... 


Vel. 










H.D. 


or 243.... 


Km. /sec. 


Lines 


P.E. 


M 


Remark- 


79929 


8950 . 682 


+ 02.6 


16 


3.6 


P 


Many fine lines. 


09 h ll m .8 


9363 5 1 1 


+ 19.0 


9 


1.8 


T 




27° 5 ! ' 


9370.583 


- 03.6 


11 


1.9 


T 




6.53 F5 


9685.714 


+ 18.3 


10 


3.5 


A 








+ ISO 


14 


1.2 


Bs 






9726 . 585 


+ 16.7 


16 


1.9 


A 








+ 18.0 


16 


1.7 


Bs 






9734 635 


+ 17.0 


9 


4.1 


B 




81995 


9290.796 


- 05.2 


11 


1 .6 


T 


Good lines. 


09 h 24"'.l 


9637.833 


+ 53 7 


8 


3.3 


L 




»5" 12' 




+ 51.7 


10 


1 .0 


Bs 




7.12 A5 


0002 943 


- 09 . 6 


17 


3.1 


N 






0102.602 


+ 18.8 


12 




B 






0367.806 


+ 20.5 


12 


3.3 


Y 




82191 


9341.699 


-17.8 


8 


7.5 


T 


Undoubtedly double line 


09 h 25'". 4 


9385 . 570 


- 06.8 


6 


4 7 


T 


binary, though the lines 


27° 50' 


0029 776 


+ 34 . 3 


5 


5.9 


Bs 


are hardly resolved on 


6.59 An 


0073.618 


+ 03.0 


14 


2.4 


B 


our plates. Lines are 




0087.583 


+ 10.9 


14 


2 7 


B 


sharp on 1th and 5th 




0367 821 


- 30 


5 


1 2 


\ 


plates, almost ic- 
on last plate. 


93286 


9035 621 


- 20 


19 


2.9 


P 


Main fine lines. 


10 11'". 2 


9361 650 


- 00 2 


13 


2.8 


P 




60 38 


9393 592 


+ 12 7 


17 


3 2 


A 




7 22 \8 




+ 06 . 2 


13 


1 1 


P 






9400 580 


- 17.9 


17 


1 s 


T 






'.t77D 601 


- 20.0 


22 


1.8 


B 








- 18.3 


28 


1 6 


A 






0055 782 


- 02 (i 


17 


1 5 


N 





278 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE III— Continued 



Star 


J.D.242.... 


Vel. 










H.D. 


or 243.... 


Km. /sec. 


Lines 


P.E. 


M 


Remarks 


99302 


9278.897 


4- 11.6 


18 


2.4 


T 


Many very fine lines. 


ll h 20 m .5 


9289.893 


4-27.2 


29 


2.0 


Bs 




27° 19' 




4-21.6 


21 


1.9 


T 




7.15 A2 


9303.868 


4-07.7 


20 


1.9 


T 






9403 . 578 


+ 07 5 


10 


5 1 


T 






9625.912 


4-00.7 


19 


2.2 


B 






0438 725 


- 02 


14 


1.5 


Y 






0444 623 


- 03.8 


17 


2 5 


C 




100054 f 


9729.736 


- 00.9 


10 


2.8 


N 


Main fine lines. 


ll h 25 m .7 


0114.617 


- 24 3 


18 


2 


C 




60° 15' 


0376.859 


- 20.9 


13 


1.7 


Y 




8.0 A2 


0383 Ml 


- 22.8 


10 


2.7 


Y 






0429 721 


- 02 4 


17 


1.6 


N 






0431.667 


+ 11.9 


17 


3.3 


C 








4-04 1 


21 


1.3 


A 




138406 


8994.809 


- 18.4 


22 


2 4 


MR 


Main very fine lines. 


15 h 26 m .8 




— 14 3 


23 


1 1 


N 




62° 05' 


9396.728 


+ 06 1 


16 


1.6 


T 




6.79 A2 


9441.609 


- 02 4 


14 


2.0 


T 






9676.976 


4-01.6 


18 


2.1 


N 






9684.912 


-05.6 


16 


2.3 


N 






9784 CO} 


+ 09 1 


19 


1.5 


N 




152224 


9041.738 


- 10.5 


25 


1.9 


P 




16 h 47 m .O 




- 14 2 


14 


1.7 


T 




32° 44' 


9048 771 


- 30.0 


18 


2.5 


P 




6.26 K0 


9391.816 


- 19.0 


19 


2.3 


T 






9748.804 


- 19.5 


22 


1.4 


Bs 






9812 647 


- 74 2 


11 


2.8 


L 






0113.788 


- 24 1 


29 


0.9 


A 






0493 780 


- 25 . 2 


8 


2.2 


Y 





The Radial Velocities of 374 Stars 



279 



TABLE III— Continued 



Star 


J.D.242.... 


Vel. 










H.D. 


or 243.... 


Km. /sec. 


Lines 


P.E. 


M 


Remarks 


153720 


9386.860 


- 12.0 


8 


3 7 


T 


Lines are double on last 


16 h 56 m .O 


9400 817 


- 15.1 


19 


1.8 


T 


plate. 


75 D 34' 


9414 773 


- 03.4 


13 


5.0 


T 




6.S4 F0 




+ 02 . 5 


11 


2.4 


Bs 






0055 942 


- 12.8 


17 


3 7 


N 






0114.785 


- 74.9 
+ 70.0 


17 
13 


2.3 

4.5 


A 




154099 


9408 735 


- 18.3 


6 


3 1 


T 


Victoria has 3 plates — 5 


16 b 58 m .3 


9447 597 


- 12.6 


7 


4 3 


T 


to — 25. This makes 


73° 17' 


9799.631 


- 10.6 


9 


5.6 


B 


total range 42 km. but 


6.24 A3 


9808.649 


+ 15.4 


4 


8.4 


B 


velocity variation is not 




0134.828 


+ 16.8 


3 


8.8 


L 


certain. Lines are rather 
fuzzy. 


154528 


9362.879 


+ 39.8 


5 


4 2 


T 


Good K lint' and fair 


17 b 00 m .9 


9742 843 


- 33.9 


5 


3.0 


T 


hydrogen. 


77 48' 


9799.679 


+ 70.6 


7 


5.2 


B 




6.66 AO 


0067 910 


- 34 5 


5 


4.1 


B 






0507 771 


- 63 


6 


3.7 


Y 




158013 


9382 834 


-40.3 


14 


2 9 


T 


Many fine lines. 


17 h 21'".7 


9759.823 


+ 07.0 


21 


1.7 


Bs 




57° 05' 


9817.669 


- 15.0 


33 


1.2 


Bs 




6.55 A2 


9824.658 


+ 12.0 


20 


1 .2 


B 








+ 18.7 


17 


1 .3 


Y 






0132.822 


- 09 5 


22 


1.6 


C 




180316 


9383 874 


+ 10 3 


7 


1.8 


T 


Fair hydrogen and helium. 


19 h 11 "\0 


9777 839 


- 48 


6 


5.2 


B 




27 16' 


9820.738 


- 50 4 


1 


7.8 


Y 




9 Bo 


0226 583 


+ 00 1 


8 


5 3 


C 






0257 528 


+ 32 5 


5 


0.8 


\ 





280 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 







TABLE III 


— Continued 




Star 


J.D.242.... 


Vel. 










H.D. 


or 243.... 


Km. /sec. 


Lines 


P.E. 


M 


Remarks 


196133 


9595 . 439 


+ 02.8 


5 


4.2 


N 


Sharp faint lines. 


20 h 30 m .3 


9827.753 


-40.5 


3 


2.6 


Y 


K very sharp. 


44° 50' 


9874.637 


- 08.6 


13 


1.8 


B 




6.62 A2 


9906 . 556 


- 22 


4 


2.9 


Y 






0292 . 532 


- 08.5 


11 


3.2 


Y 




201032 


9858.729 


+ 30.9 


19 


14 


B 


Many fine lines. 


21 h 02 m .O 


9947.469 


+ 13.7 


18 


1.6 


B 




62° 59' 


0239.749 


+ 47.5 


21 


1.8 


F 




7.26 A5 




+ 54 . 3 


22 


1 5 


C 






0287.558 


+ 03.7 


24 


2.1 


N 






0324.510 


+ 17.8 


21 


1.7 


N 




201269 


9460.820 


+ 00.1 


6 


0.9 


T 


Good K line, hydrogen. 


21 h 03'".3 


9838.777 


- 17.5 


6 


4.8 


Bs 


good 4481. 


47° 47' 




- 11.5 


4 


2.6 


A 




7.50 A0 


9877.698 


+ 03 . 6 


4 


5.6 


B 






0316.503 


+ 03.7 


6 


4.1 


N 






0333 535 


- 30 3 


6 


5.5 


N 




201908 


9509 712 


- 11.2 


4 


4.1 


T 


Fair K, hydrogen and 


21 h 07 m .5 


0227 . 649 


- 39.2 


3 


6.0 


A 


4481. 


77° 43' 




- 34.7 


4 


0.6 


X 




5.90 B9 


0323 165 


- 22 3 


4 


3.6 


N 






0327 135 


- 11.7 


5 


4 1 


N 






0359.441 


- 04.9 


3 


5.7 


N 




202313 


9468.782 


+ 04.1 


6 


3.9 


T 


Fair K and hydrogen. 


21 h 09 m .9 


9512.650 


- 17.6 


5 


6.3 


B 


Silicon 4128-30 are pres- 


30° 33' 


9937.597 


+ 10.2 


5 


2.6 


N 


ent. 


7.56 AO 




+ 15.3 


5 


4.3 


B 






0282 . 565 


- 02.1 


11 


3.1 


N 






0349.501 


- 14 6 


3 


1.3 


N 





The Radial Velocities oj 374 Stars 



281 







TABLE 


Ill- 


-Conti 


nued 




Star 


J.D.242.... 


Yel. 










H.D. 


or243.... 


Km. /sec. 


Lines 


P.E. 


M 


Remark? 


210170 


9507.735 


- 04 . 5 


5 


4.6 


N 


Lines only fair but range 


22 h 03 ffi .4 


9524.683 


- 07.8 


4 


8.5 


X 


seems too large for con- 


17° 04' 


9607.451 


- 05.4 


4 


3.5 


B 


stant velocity. 


6.98 A0 


9828.824 


- 24.8 


3 


4.1 


A 








- 36.5 


6 


6.8 


N 






9883 . 696 


- 36.3 


5 


6.0 


N 








- 40.8 


4 


10.2 


A 




210208 


9508.674 


- 20 2 


2 


4.8 


T 


Lines are poor and while 


22 h 03 m .7 


9853 . 795 


+ 50.5 


3 


6.4 


N 


range is large, velocity 


42° 27' 


0208.819 


- 12.3 


3 


6.5 


C 


variation is not well es- 


7.52 B9 


022:i 7 " 


- 01.8 


6 


14.8 


C 


tablished. 




0280.602 


+ 22.1 


5 


7.2 


Y 




214946 


9527.683 


- 95.2 


11 


3.8 


N 


Double line binary ; rather 


22 h 36 m .7 




+ 104.6 


4 


2.3 




difficult with our dis- 


44° 29' 


9528.721 


- 29.5 


1 1 


2 3 


B 


persion. 


7.12 A2 


9537 '.77 


- 35 . 5 


9 


1 1 


B 






9612 510 


- 95 7 
+ 43.8 


11 
3 


2.8 
4.9 


X 






9817.847 


+ 25.9 


10 


6 1 


F 






9824.848 


- 97.1 
+ 80.8 


12 
10 


1.9 

8.7 


X 






9862.748 


-113.3 
+ 55.8 


11 
11 


4.0 
1.6 


X 






990:; 


- 92.1 
+ 107, 2 


11 
5 


2.6 

s s 


N 






9921.560 


- 40.1 


17 


3.9 


F 





282 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE \U— Continued 



Star 


J.D.242.... 


Vel. 










H.D. 


or 243.... 


Km. /sec. 


Lines 


P.E. 


M 


Remarks 


222207 


9481.798 


+ 19.4 


4 


7 1 


N 


Fair K and 4481. 


23 h 33 m .5 




+ 28.2 


3 


1.6 


B 


Hydrogen rather poor. 


41° 57' 


9501.796 


- 39 3 


3 


1.6 


B 




6.79 B9 


0256.697 


- 15 4 


5 


6 4 


C 






0326.571 


- 40.3 


4 


5.1 


Y 






0315 536 


-08.6 


5 


2.1 


N 




225093 


9981.521 


+ 90.8 


6 


3.6 


N 


Double lines, intensities 


23 h 58 m .3 




- 117.6 


6 


3.9 




nearly equal and the 


72° 36' 


0284.700 


-132 


7 


2.3 


N 


components cannot be 


7.52 A2 




+ 121.5 


4 


3.0 




distinguished on spec- 




0293.685 


- 19.4 


14 


2.6 


N 


trum. Velocity of sys- 




0314 619 


- 20.2 


16 


1.8 


N 


tem seems to be about 




0316 574 


- 19 9 


13 


3.1 


N 


— 18 km./cec. 




0323.592 


- 132.4 
+ 98.6 


5 
6 


10. 
5.3 


N 






0324 557 


+ 95.0 
- 133.1 


6 

8 


8.3 
6.2 


N 






0349 544 


+ 135.8 
- 153.9 


6 

7 


7.0 
7 5 


Y 





Richmond Hill, Ontario. 
September, 1942. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUXLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume I Number 1-4 



NEW VARIABLE STARS IN FOUR 

GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN 

OPHIUCHUS 



BY 
HELEN B. SAWYER 



1943 

THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 

TORONTO, CANADA 



Plate XXIX 




Upper left, XGC 6273 Upper right, XGC 6284 

Lower left, XGC 6287 Lower right, XGC 6293 

Scale, 13" per mm. 3.5 X enlargement from Steward Observatory photo- 
graphs of _'i> min. exposure on 6273 and 6293, 30 min. on 6284 and 6287. NGC 
6273 is the most elliptical globular cluster; XGC 6287 very heavily obscured. 



NEW VARIABLE STARS IN FOUR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS 

IN OPHIUCHUS 

by Helen B. Sawyer 

THIS is the second 1 in a series of papers from plates taken by 
the writer at the Steward Observatory with the 36-inch re- 
flector in 1939. This paper deals with four difficult objects 
which have previously been studied very little. These are the 
highly elliptical cluster NGC 6273 (Messier 19) and three ex- 
ceedingly faint objects, NGC 6284, 6287 and 6293. These comprise 
a group of consecutive clusters in Shapley's catalogue 2 of globular 
clusters. In spite of their faintness they have been known for 
many years, since they were noted originally by Sir William 
Herschel. Only one of these clusters, NGC 6293, has been searched 
for variables; 3 and in none of them is there a record of the magni- 
tudes of the bright stars. 

All four of these clusters are very difficult objects for a scale as 
small as that of the 36-inch, that is, about 45" to the millimetre. 
Furthermore, the high southern declinations of the objects, all 
of which lie between —22° and —26°, make them hard objects 
to photograph from the United States and render magnitude de- 
termination uncertain. Nevertheless the writer felt that a little 
knowledge might be gleaned where none existed before. At least 
half a dozen plates, and one sequence plate, were obtained on each 
cluster. These have been studied carefully in the blink microscope. 
Twenty-seven new variables have been found, of which fifteen are 
within the cluster boundaries and twelve in the surrounding field. 

The magnitudes of the 25 brightest stars, including the 6th and 
30th, have also been determined. It must be emphasized that since 
the magnitudes depend on only one sequence plate for each cluster, 
with a second exposure on Selected Area 132, the magnitudes must 
be considered as preliminary. 

1. NGC 6273 = Messier 19, R.A. If." 59 m .5, Dec. -26° 11' 
(1950). This cluster is noteworthy as having the greatesl degree 
of ellipticity (6 on a scale of 10) of any globular cluster so far 
estimated. 4 Even on small scale photographs it is strikingly elon- 
gated. It is much the brightest of this group of four clusters and 
shows main more stars than the others on photographs of comp.n - 

12851 



286 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

able exposure time. Twelve plates with average exposure of twenty 
minutes were available for a survey. There is no previous record 
of a variable search in this object. 

Six variables were found, of which four are fairly close to the 
cluster centre and two are some distance from it. The positions 
and magnitudes of the variables and the comparison stars are given 
in Table I. For this cluster and the subsequent three, the positions 

TABLE I 

New Variable Stars in NGC 6273 
No. x" y" Max. Min. Remarks 

1 +4 +48 14.1 15.1 

2 + 14 + 123 13.4 14.7 

3 - 28 — 6 14 2 15.2 

4 - 2 — 24 15.1 15.7 

Fi 4- 347 + 421 15.2 16.0 16 h 55 m 20 s .5 -25°58'.0* 

F 2 + 546 +1119 15.3 [16.0 16 55 35 .2 -25 46.4 

Comparison Stars 

x" y" m 

a +50 +40 12.6 f 

b - 36 +34 13.0 g 

c +16 +28 13.7 h 

d - 153 - 8 14.1 k 

e - 12 - 127 14.4 



x" 


y" 


m 


38 


- 179 


14.5 


62 


- 181 


15.1 


95 


- 173 


15.3 


83 


- 208 


15.7 



*R.A., Dec, epoch 1875. 

of those variables which are so far from the cluster centre that they 
are probably field stars have been measured from the nearest 
C.P.D. star and right ascensions and declinations derived. In 
Figure 1 will be found sketches of the regions sufficient to identify 
these field variables. Plate XXIX shows the cluster with the 
cluster variables marked. 

Variables 1 and 2 should prove rather interesting objects since 
at maximum they are among the four brightest stars in the cluster 
region and their variations change the entire appearance of the 
cluster. Naturally the twelve available observations are insufficient 
to determine the nature of variation but these variables are possibly 
long-period Cepheids. Since there is a good series of observations 
which will help in future period work, these are published in Table 
II, which gives the magnitude estimates of the variables on all 



New Variable Stars 



287 



these plates. The sequence plate was of twenty minutes' exposure 
on the cluster, and twenty minutes on S.A. 132. 

Because of the importance of the ellipticity of the cluster, the 
stars in the cluster region were counted on the best plate. Shapley, 5 
in 1919, published a diagram of the ellipticity, but without the 




6284 




• 


0*-F2 





6284 



F4.-* O • 
• * 





62 87 

0«- F3 



€>2.93 



F3 



Figure 1 

Charts to aid in identification of new field variables. 

Positions are given in tables. 



numbers of stars. The writer has counted a total of 910 stars 
within a rectangular reseau placed centrally on the cluster, in 
squares of 20".156 to the side These stars were then recounted 
according to sector by a circular protractor, a method followed in 
other clusters by Pease and Shaplev.'' \ imi.iI ,,t so,") stars Ml 

within the circle of radius 200". The plate was counted twice. 



288 



Publications of the David Dnnlap Observatory 



reversed by 180° between the two counts. The means of the two 
counts are given in Table III; and Figure 2 shows the frequency 
of stars per 30° sector in the squares counted (20". 156 to a side). 
The position angle of the major axis is 15°, which is the value 
previously determined by Shapley. 

2. NGC 628^, R.A. 17 h 01 m .5, Dec. -24° 41' (1950). This is 
an inconspicuous cluster in a heavy background of stars. Only 
about a hundred cluster stars show on plates of half-hour exposure. 
Eight such plates were available. 

In a search of these plates ten new variable stars have been 
found, of which five are so far from the cluster centre that they are 
probably not members of it. All of these variables are faint. 
Table IV gives the position of the variables and their maximum 




ISO 

Figure 2 
Diagrams of number of stars counted in thirty degree sectors in 
NGC 6273, the most elliptical of globular clusters. Numbers on the 
circles indicate numbers of stars. The position angle of the major 
axis is 15°. 



New Variable Stars 



289 



TABLE II 
Magnitudes of New Variables in XGC 6273 



Plate J 


ulian Day 


No. 1 


No. 2 


No. 3 


No. 4 


No. 5 


No. 6 


4193 


9403.882 


14.2 


14.3 


14.3 




15.9 


15.5 


4194 


.899 


14.2 


14.2 


14.3 




16.0 


15.4 


4208 


05.888 


14.1 


14.5 






15.7 


15.5 


4224 


06.876 


14.2 


14.5 


1 \ 2 




15.8 


15 .5 


4236 


07.886 


14.5 


14.7 


14.5 




16.0 


[16.0 


4249 


08.876 


14.5 


14.6 


14.5 


15.2 


15.5 


15.4 


4264 


09.865 


14.5 


14.1 


15.2 


15.4 


15 7 


15.9 


4275 


11.868 


15.0 


13.4 


14.5 


15.1 


15.2 


15 3 


4287 


22.827 


14.4 


14.6 


14.5 


15.7 


15.9 


15.4 


4324 


27.821 


15.1 


13.5 


15.1 


15.6 


15.2 


15.5 


4420 


36.833 


14.1 


14.6 


14.5 


15.6 


15.6 


15.5 


4456 


39.739 


14.2 


13.7 


14.5 


15.7 


15.4 


15.5 








TABLE III 










Table of . 


3TAR COU 


nts in XGC 6273 






Pos. Ang. 


No. Stars Stars/Sq. 


Pos. Ang. 


No. St. 


irs 


Stars Sq. 


15° 


76 


3 


20 


195° 


85 




3.32 


45 


74 


2 


.93 


225 


69 




2.95 


75 


55 


2 


20 


255 


75 




3.00 


105 


48 


1 


98 


285 


56 




2.26 


135 


67 


2 


58 


315 


58 




2.50 


165 


66 


2 


68 


345 


76 




2.81 



and minimum magnitudes. The variables are marked on Plate 
XXIX for identification. The plates are too few in number to 
give any indication as to the nature of variability. 

3. NGC6287, R.A. 17 h 02 m .l, Dec. -22° 38' (1950). This is 
one of the most heavily obscured of all visible globular clusters. 
It lies on the edge of a region in Ophiuchus where the total photo- 
graphic absorption as determined by Baker and Kiefer 7 is at least 
three magnitudes. The cloud which hangs over this region is 
apparently one end of the streamers from the Rho Ophiuchi region. 
Seven plates were available, of thirty minutes' exposure time, but 
fewer than fifty cluster stars show on any plate, even though stars 
to magnitude 17.5 are visible. A very large telescope is certainly 
needed to penetrate the obscuration in front of this cluster. 

Six variable stars have been found, of which three are so far 
from the centre of the cluster that they arc doubtless field stars. 



290 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 









TABLE 


: iv 














Positions 


of Variable Stars 


: in NGC 6284 






Xo. 


x" 


y" 


Max. 


Min. 




Remarks 




1 


- 24 


+ 36 


15.6 


16.1 










2 


- 47 


- 17 


16.1 


17.0 










3 


- 28 


- 13 


15.3 


15.7 










4 


+ 22 


- 18 


15.4 


16.3 


Following comp. of double 


5 


+ 109 


- 205 


16.4 


17.0 










6 


+ 139 


+ 221 


15.9 


16.4 










F, 


+ 553 


+ 151 


15.7 


16.5 


16 h 57 m 


30 s . 8 


-24° 


32'. 5 ! 


F 2 


- 149 


- 560 


16.1 


16.6 


16 56 


39 .9 


-24 


44 .6 


F 3 


+ 300 


+ 926 


15.4 


16.4 


16 57 


11 .5 


-24 


19 .6 


F 4 


+ 356 


+ 723 


16.0 


16.4 


16 57 


15 .8 


-24 


23 .0 








Comparison Stars 












x" 


v" 


m 




x" 




y" 


m 


a 


+ 93 


+~ 21 


13 5 


f 


- 54 


- 


14 


15.7 


b 


+ 111 


+ 76 


14.4 


g 


- 89 


- 


52 


16.2 



+ 46 - 26 14.6 h - 131 - 15 16.4 

-96 +90 15 .2 k - 117 - 13 16.9 

- 104 + 66 15.5 1 - 112 - 4 17.2 



*R.A., Dec, epoch 1875 







TABLE V 






Xew Variable Stars in 


Xo. 

1 

2 


x" 
- 152 
+ 46 


y" Max. Min. 

- 40 16.2 17.1 

- 26 15.7 15.9 



Remarks 

Although small, variation 
3 +26 +44 16.1 16.8 appears genuine. 

S +32 +4 16.2 17.1 Bright on only one plate.. 

F, + 38 +641 15.7 16.1 16 h 57 m 41 3 .2 -22°21'.l* 

F 2 -1027 - 10 15.1 15.8 16 56 24 .3 -22 31 .8 

F 3 +446 -573 16.1 17.1 16 58 10.0 -22 41.5 

Comparison Stars 





x 


y" 


m 


a 


+ 30 


+ 113 


15.4 


b 


- 73 


- 72 


15.7 


c 


- 99 


- 20 


15.9 


d 


- 71 


- 40 


16.4 


e 


- 62 


- 48 


17.1 



*R.A., Dec, epoch 1875. 



New Variable Stars 291 

A seventh possible variable is indicated, a star which has been 
found to be bright on only one plate, and is put down as a suspected 
variable. The magnitudes and positions of the variables and com- 
parison stars are given in Table V, and the variables are marked 
on Plate XXIX. Xo clue as to the type of variation can be ob- 
tained from the few available plates. 

4. NGC 6293, R.A. 17 h 07 m .l, Dec. -26° 30' (1950). This 
cluster is similar in brightness and appearance to XGC 0284. About 
two hundred stars are visible in it on the best Arizona photographs 
of twenty-five minutes' exposure. A careful search of the eight 
available photographs has shown only five more variables, in ad- 
dition to the three previously announced by Shapley. Three of 
these new variables are so far from the cluster centre that they are 
doubtless field stars and are numbered as such. The positions of 
the variables, measured to conform as nearly as possible to the 
published positions of Shapley's three, are given in Table VI, 

TABLE VI 
Variable Stars in NGC 6293 

Nc. x" y" Max. Min. Remarks 

1 +81.0 + 49.5 15.9 16.6 Found by Shaplev 

2 - 135.6 + 64.5 15.8 16.7 

3 + 48.6 + 18.6 15.5 15.8 



4 


+ 92 


- 81 


16.1 


17.1 


5 


+ 78 


- 83 


15.7 


16.5 


F! 


- 390 


- 349 


16.2 


16.9 


F 2 


- 395 


+ 463 


15.8 


16.9 



17 h 2 m 57 s . 4 -26° 31'. 1* 

17 2 55 .5 -26 17 .6 

■1142 -413 15.5 16.2 17 59.0 -26 32.1 

Comparison Stars 





X" 


y 


m 




x" 


V 


m 


a 


- 110 


- 96 


15.0 


e 


+ 162 


- 15 


16 .2 


b 


+ 52 


- 161 


15.1 


f 


+ 70 


- 108 


16.6 


c 


+ 24 


- 101 


15.5 


g 


+ 68 


- 72 


17 1 


d 


+ 47 


- 124 


15.7 











•R.A., Dec, epoch 1875. 

together with the observed maximum and minimum magnitudes. 
The magnitudes are determined from one sequence plate, exposed 
for twenty minutes on the cluster, and twenty minutes on S.A. 132. 
I he variables are identified in Plate XXIX. No conspicuous vari- 
ation was found in Shapley's Variable No. 3, but the object blurs 



292 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

with a nearby star. The number of plates is insufficient to tell the 
nature of the variability of these stars but the similarity of magni- 
tudes and small ranges suggest cluster type. 

5. The Moduli of the Four Clusters. The distance moduli of 
these four clusters have previously depended entirely on measures 
of the integrated magnitudes and diameters 8 as no indication has 
been given of the brightness of the cluster stars themselves. It was 
hoped that the discovery of variable stars in these clusters would 
be of use in determining a modulus; but the variables are too few 
to be of help until their periods are determined. Measures of the 
bright stars have been made for all four clusters and these have 
been reduced by the method previously adopted 8 to give a distance 
modulus. Table VII gives the observed magnitudes for the mean 

TABLE VII 
Moduli of the Four Clusters 
Gal. No. Obs. Mag. Modu- D 



NGC 


Lat. 


Vars. 


Max. 


Min. 


25 Br. 


6th 


30th 


lus 


kpc* 


6273 


9° 


4 


13.4 


15.7 


14.80 


14.4 


15.1 


15.93 


15.3 


6284 


9 


6 


15.3 


17.0 


16.06 


15.7 


16.4 


17.17 


27.2 


6287 


10 


3 


15.7 


17.1 


16.08 


15.9 


16.4 


17.33 


29.2 


6293 


9 


5 


15.5 


17.1 


15.39 


15.1 


15.6 


16.67 


21.6 



""Uncorrected for absorption. 

of the 25 brightest stars, and the 6th and the 30th. The magnitudes 
of the variables in the cluster are given merely for comparison 
purposes. In each case, the maximum is that observed for the 
brightest variable; and the minimum is the faintest minimum 
observed for any variable. 

It will be noted that the variables are much more comparable in 
brightness with the bright stars than is usual for most clusters. In 
most clusters, the median magnitude of the variables, which are 
preponderantly cluster type, is at least a magnitude fainter than 
the mean of the 25 brightest stars. The explanation may be that 
only the brightest variables, possibly long-period Cepheids or field 
stars, have been found in these objects; and that the cluster type 
variables still lie beyond the reach of these plates. One would 
expect that NGC 6273 is bright enough so that the cluster type 
variables would have been found; but it may not have many. 



New Variable Stars 293 

The moduli of the clusters are large, especially for NGC 6284 
and 6287. They are all remarkably similar to the moduli previously 
determined from the integrated magnitudes and diameters. The 
distances corresponding to these moduli are given in the last column 
of the table, but these are almost certainly far from the true dis- 
tances as these clusters are all in a region of absorption. 7 That 
the clusters are all in an obscured region is shown by the colour ex- 
cesses of Stebbins and Whitford 9 , which range from -f-0.12 for 
NGC 6293 to +0.34 for NGC 6287. The absorption varies ra- 
pidly from spot to spot in this region and may amount to as much 
as three magnitudes. Indeed, NGC 6287, the cluster farthest from 
the galactic plane of this group of four, is certainly the one with 
the greatest obscuration. 

References 

1. Sawyer, Pub. D.D.O., v. 1, no. 12, 1942. 

2. Shapley, Star Clusters, App. A., 1930. 

3. Shapley, ML W. Cont., no. 190, 1920. 

4. Shapley and Sawyer, H.C.O. Bull, no. 852, 1927. 

5. Shapley, H. and Shapley, M. B., ML W. Cont., no. 160, p. 4, 1919. 

6. Pease and Shapley, ML W. Cont., no. 129, 1917. 

7. Baker and Kiefer, Ap. J., v. 96, p. 224, 1942. 

8. Shapley and Sawyer, H.C.O. Bull., no. 869, 1929. 

9. Stebbins and Whitford, Ap. J., v. 84, p. 141, 1936. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario 
May 7, 1943. 



Plate XXX 



N 



14 

e— 2> IS 



25 



L3 • 



-19, 17 > 



.24- 



• 11 ' ■ > » . 



10 — ►- * — 



10 



The globular cluster Messier 22. with variable stars identified. Enlargement 
4X from Steward Observatory plate 441n. June 20, 1939. exp. 10 min. Scale, 
1 mm= 10 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

Volume I Number 15 



VARIABLE STARS IN THE GLOBULAR 
CLUSTER MESSIER 22 



BY 



HELEN B. SAWYER 



I'.M I 

Mil UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 
TORONTO, CANADA 






VARIABLE STARS IX THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER 

MESSIER 22 

By Helen B. Sawyer 

(with Plate XXX i 

One of the clusters placed on the observing list at the Steward 
Observatory in 1939 was the large, bright globular cluster Messier 
11. XGC 6656. This is the third of a series of papers 1 presenting 
results derived from plates on southern globular clusters taken by the 
writer with the 36-inch reflector. 

Messier 22, R.A. 18 h 33 m , Dec. -23° 58' (1950). is well known 
among the globular clusters. The cluster was one of the first in which 
variable stars were noted. Bailey 2 announced the discovery of 16 
variables in 1902. Bailey and his assistants did considerable work on 
the determination of periods in this cluster, but the only paper he 
published on them was a brief general summary 3 in which he 
stated that most of the variables had periods of two-thirds of a day. 
Exceptions to this rule were No. 3 with a period of about one-third 
of a day, and Xo. 14, of which the period is 200. days. 

In 1927 Shapley 4 published a paper on the distance of Messier 
22, with a summary of information about the variables as determined 
by Miss Swope, who had added a seventeenth variable. Seven periods 
were given to a considerable accuracy, five were dubious, one was 
irregular and four unknown. < )ne period was suggested as possibly 
7.097 days, thus making the star a possible long-period Cepheid. 

The writer's principal interest in the cluster was in searching for 
additional variable stars and in investigating any long-period Cepheid- 
which the cluster might contain. Considerable spread in the maximum 
magnitudes of the known variables suggested that the cluster might 
be a good one in which to test once more the period-luminosity 
relationship. A series of plates for this purpose was taken at the 
Steward Observatory, 19 plate- i one of them red) on 14 nights. 
However, when the writer came to work over these plates, it wa< 
found that such a compact series afforded an excellent starl for period 
determination of the cluster type variables and. with the hel] 
Harvard material, this determination has now been completed. 

I am greatly indebted to Dr. Edwin Carpenter for the use ^i\ the 

Steward tele-cope and to Dr. Harlow Shapley who placed at my 
di-po-al the existing Harvard plate- on this cluster and the unpub- 

297 



298 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

lished measures of several observers, including Bailey. Gould and 
Miss Swope. With the help of this material I have been able to make 
a rather thorough investigation of the periods in this cluster, except 
for the determination of the actual size of the period changes of the 
c-type variables. 

From a survey with a blink microscope of the Steward plates by 
the writer, eight new variables have been found, bringing to a total 
of 25 the number within the boundaries of the cluster. All the 
variables, both old and new. are identified in Plate XXX. 

Two sequence plates of ten minutes' exposure time on both the 
cluster and Selected Area 134 were taken to check the sequence 
previously published 4 . In general the magnitudes determined 
from these plates agree with those previously given, but there is a 
deviation around magnitude 14.0. When the Arizona plates were 
measured with the new sequence they gave light curves in which the 
magnitude progression was more regular. For the measures published 
in this paper the new sequence was used as given in Table I. The 
letters of the comparison stars are those assigned by Bailey and 
identified in H.A. 3S. 

T VBLE I 

Magnitude Sequence ix Messier 22 
Mag. Sawyer — Mag. Sawyer — 



Star 


Sawyer 


Swope 


Star 


Sawyer 


Swope 


a 


11.1 


0.0 


f 


13.6 


+0.4 


b 


11.2 


0.0 


<T 


14.0 


+0.2 


c 


12.2 


+0.1 


h 


14.4 


+0.1 


d 


12.9 


+0.1 


k 


14.5 


0.0 


e 


13.2 


+0.3 


1 


15.n: 


+0.4 



The period determination for most of the variables has been based 
on measures from 132 plates as follows: 73 X and 21 A plates from 
Harvard, 19 early Mount Wilson plates and 19 Steward plates. 

Table II gives the data on the variables, arranged according to 
number. The second column of the table gives the number of the 
variable when included in Chevalier's catalogue 5 . The x and y 
co-ordinates, however, are those derived by Bailey and already pub- 
lished several times for the variables first discovered. For the new 
variables, co-ordinates were measured by the writer on this same 
system. More accurate co-ordinates may be found in Chevalier's 
catalogue, which uses a different centre. 



Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster Messier 22 299 

The fifth and sixth columns give the maximum and minimum 
magnitudes indicated by all the plates. In the next column is given 
the mean, which is the mean of maximum and minimum magnitudes. 
For comparison, the following column gives a median magnitude, 
taken as the brightness which the star is above half the time. An 
epoch of maximum is given for most variables from the Steward 
plates. The last column gives the period. In most cases, a period 
given only to the fourth decimal place indicates a change of period. 
Xotes on the individual stars accompany the table. 

For three stars, Nos. 5. 12. and 17, no period is listed. The pos- 
sible period of 7 days suggested by Miss Swope for Xo. 5 does not 
appear to be confirmed by the series of 16 nights of Arizona plates. 
which show only a small range for this star. The existing measures 
suggest a period longer than this, but the star may belong to the 
bright irregular class. The variability of Xo. 12. which Bailey himself 
doubted, is not confirmed by the Arizona plates. The star is one 
component of a double. Variable Xo. 17. classified as irregular by 
Miss Swope, is left in this classification. The observational material 
is much scantier for it than for the other stars because at maximum 
it is about the same brightness as the other variables at minimum. 

Of the twenty-two periods listed, eighteen are of cluster type- 
variables, one (Xo. 14) is a long-period variable, one (Xo. 11) is a 
typical Cepheid, and two (Xos. 8 and 9) appear to be a semi-regular 
type with periods of two and three months. Several of these stars 
require special comment. 

Variable Xo. 11, previously noted as "short-period" would appear 
to be a long-period Cepheid, but since this star is located at almost 
the exact centre of the cluster it is an exceedingly difficult object on 
which to get reliable magnitude estimates. The scatter from any de- 
rived period is bound to be large, making it rather difficult to disting- 
uish between true and fictitious periods. Of all the periods tested, the 
period 1.69050 days best represents all the observations. The star 
is 0.8 magnitude brighter in the mean than the cluster type variables 
and thus seems to afford additional evidence for the validity of the 
period-luminosity relation. 

The three variables Nos. 5, 8, and 9 are conspicuous by reason 
of their brightness, averaging a magnitude and a half brighter than the 
cluster types. Their range is less than a magnitude and. since they 



300 



Publications oj the David Dunkif) Observatory 



tend to be overexposed, the magnitude estimates are not very reliable. 
Unfortunately the Arizona series contributes little information on these 
stars, except to show that the period of variation is long or irregular. 
For No. 9, an RV Tauri type of curve is suggested when a period of 
87.71 days is used to compute the phases. This is represented in 
Figure 1. This type of variable is not shown to best advantage by 
combining observations from many different epochs but, in this case, 
the observations are too scattered to be treated in any other way. 
For No. 8, a period of 61.1 days represents many of the observations 
but a period as long as 73 days cannot be ruled out. For No. 5, no 
period is suggested. All three of these star.- would merit further and 
more accurate observations. 

TABLE II 
Variable Stars in Messier 22 





Che\ 














Epoch 




No. 


No. 


x" 


y" 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean 


Median 


Max. 


Period 


1 


348 


— 54.0 


— 10.0 


13.9 


14.9 


14.4 


14.5 


2 l 425.892 


0.615543 


2 


857 


+158.6 


4- 69.2 


13.1 


14.3 


13.7 


13.85 


29436.917 


0.6418 


3 




+214.7 


4-420.2 


14.6 


[15.2 


15.0: 


15.0 


29434.918 


0.340 


4 


465 


— 4.0 


— 68.0 


13.6 


14.6 


14.1 


14.3 


29438.96 


0.716391 


5 


158 


178.2 


— 33.8 


12.0 


12.8 


12.4 








6 


299 


— 74.4 


—100.0 


13.6 


14.5 


14.05 


14.25 


2' '429.938 


0.638547 


7 


82 


—342.4 


4-411.2 


13.5 


14.5 


14.0 


14.2 


29424.947 


0.6495191 


8 


382 


— 39.5 


— 64.8 


12.(1 


12.7 


12.35 




13373.6 


61: 


9 


135 


—211.2 


— 35.0 


12.7 


13.3 


13.0 




16761.5 


87.71 


10 


389 


— 39.0 


—125.0 


13.5 


14.6 


14.05 


14.3 


29438.919 


0.646020 


11 


461 


— 14.4 


4- 14.0 


12.9 


13.8 


13.35 


13.35 


29436.917 


1.69050 


12 


531 


+ 0.8 
+ 76.4 


— 77.8 


14.2 


14.5 


Var ? 








13 


719 


4-158.9 


13.5 


14.5 


14.0 


14.25 


29439.920 


0.6725217 


14 




4-250.8 


+486.4 


13.8 


[15.5 






18160.6 


200.2 


15 


804 


4-115.3 


— 83.2 


14.0 


14.5 


14.25 


14.2 


29439.844 


0.3721 


16 


877 


4-185.0 


— 17.8 


14.0 


14.5 


14.25 


14.25 


2' 429.938 


0.3237 


17 




438.0 


4-126.0 

4-433 


14.6 


[15 

14.4 










18 


25 ( ) 


— 86 


13.7 


14.0 


14.15 


29425.892 


0.3249 


19 


381 


— 33 


+ 130 


13.9 


14.5 


14.2 


14.25 


29424.947 


0.384010 


20 


221 


—120 


—123 


13.7 


14.5 


14.1 


14.1 


29429.938 


0.430061 


21 


601 


4- 36 


+ 88 


13.8 


14.8 


14.3 


14.1 


29425.892 


0.3265 


22 




—1089 


4-213 


13.7 


14.9 


14.3 


14.5 


29424.947 


0.624538 


23 


505 


— 5 


— 14 


14.1 


14.9 


14.5 


14.5 


29432.919 


0.3557 


24 


427 


— 26 


4- 10 


13.8 


14.2 


14.0 


14.1 


29425.892 


0.415: 


25 


952 


4-326 


4-375 


13.9 


14.4 


14.15 


14.25 


29425.892 


0.4023595 



Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster Messier 22 301 

Remarks to Table II 

1. Miss Swope's period of 0.615542 is virtually unchanged. 

2 One of the brightest regular variables in the cluster, because a companion 
star contributes some of the light. This is the only variable with period 
greater than 0.4 day which shows a possible period change. The period 
0.641789 satisfies almost all the observations. 

3. The scarcity of measures on this very faint star leaves the period uncertain. 
Probably not a cluster member. 

4. This star has the longest cluster type period in the cluster. 

5. Miss Swope's suggestion of possible 7-day period is not confirmed. A longer 
period, or irregularity, is indicated. 

6. A close companion makes magnitude estimates inaccurate. 

7. Miss Swope's period is unchanged. 

8. Existing observations do not permit a rigorous period determination, but a 
period between 61 and 73 days seems indicated. 

9. Semi-regular variable, with RV Tauri characteristics. 

10. Another variable which has a close companion. 

11. Apparently a long period Cepheid, though, since it is the central star in 
the cluster, estimates are difficult, with a large error. The related reciprocal 
period 0.6283 gives a curve with larger scatter. 

12. No evidence of variation from Arizona measures. 

13. Only slight refinement of Miss Swope's period. 

14. Definitely long period variable. 

15. Period change. Period 0.372054 satisfies interval of several thousand days. 

16. Period change. Period 0.323736 satisfies all but earliest observations. 

17. Arizona observations contribute no further information to Miss Swope's 
'Probably irregular." 

18. Period change. Period 0.324863 satisfies a large number of observations. 

19. The shortest period in the cluster which gives no evidence of period change. 

20. The longest period of the c-type variables. 

21. Period change. Period 0.326579 satisfies many observations. 

22. No Arizona maximum, but period well determined. 

23. Period change. Large scatter, because the star is in centre of cluster and 
one of most difficult variables to estimate. 

24. Period determination based on Arizona plates only, so that the possibility 
of a fictitious period is not ruled out. This new variable was first supposed 
to be identical with Bailey's No. 1. When it was discovered that there 
really are two variables side by side in the centre of the cluster, it was too 
late to measure the star on the Harvard plates. 

25. Curve shows great regularity despite the short period. 



Table III gives the observations of all the variables from the 
Steward plates since they are a uniform series of measures on many 
consecutive night-. Figures 2 and 3 give the plot of the Steward 
measures on the basis of the adopted sequence and period, showing 
the light curves arranged according to increasing period length. The 
curve drawn is that obtained from the means of tin- measures on 
Harvard and Mount Wilson plates, representing over a hundred 
points. These point- are not individually plotted because of inhomo- 
geneity in the measures due to different series of plates and different 
observers. For mosl of the variable-, the estimates from the Steward 
plates satisfactorily represent the course of light variation and the 
scatter indicates the difficulty of estimating the -tar in question. 

Bailey's early statemenl in regard to the variables that "the 

majority of these have a period < ► I about two-thirds <il a day" hold- 
true for the variables known at that time. The variables found latei' 



302 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



^^•rf-rt'rt-rir-^f-^r-rt-^-^t-^r^t^t^t^t'^^'^t'^' 






2 T J :,: ' : '^ :r ^ c *' ,s:,: i"" ;i:r,: ' r,: " ;,: ' ri: ' r,: " i: '^ :e ^^ ,: '^ : 






^h^h^-icsJOnCMOOOO'-;0\OCnCvOCnOn 



N'tn'tinoo^'-'NOv^'^tooO'tfOoq 



[/) \C^^^^rO''t->3 : cO'*t : Tl : -'3 : '"3 : '*-3 : -*J : rO'' , t : Tf 

f 1 w 

W < ^cvirMc>i<>4<Nic\icNif>4C^c\ic^icMcJcNJ(^OvicNit>-i 

^ w 









'^^Tj ; -r} ; 'rt : ^t-'r) : Tt'^ ; T(--«j : TtTl ; '^ : -^ : ^rJ : Tj : ^J- 



Cttio r^o\o ° .— < rN <r> ^f ' ui vd ts od O 

.2 C*J CM (M M ^ to r^, t»: f^ ro CO c*5 CO <*3 



~ co co co co cq co co co co co co -y tT -a ■ ^r ^T -^ ■q- 



Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster Messier 22 



303 



"W 




<u 


as 


~ 


<■ 




1- 


43 


r/1 










o 


u 








- 




< 








K 






I— < 


-■* 


w 


U 


- 


— 


pa 


H 


< 


~ 


H 


O 



?Tf(«5Tf^1 : rfcO'*^^ : 't'trlTt^n : 't1 : 

*^1 1— ■ l— I ■— I <-* t-H rt ^_ , ^ ,_ ,_| ,_ I ^- ,— I ^- — . -- — 

<>i o ^1 c^ — « p>i rg evi cv) ** •— i<vj(\ioo~^o 
_o>-;^^HoqoNO;^c\Oso«<Njoc — ^ooo 

OvOOqMTff'OtOronN'HtooNOC'- 

N TfinTtinvq«^pvq>ON\q^qqooNNONN 

'-•^•^•'^ : -^ : ^Tj : Tj : Tt : Tj : Trrt : '»l : -^-^ : T» : '^ : TrTt : 






Tfioi^iovqNoqqKKOcoqooNNNMM 



•t CC -- -- X -T ><■; C *T ^T ". ir, — (*3 in ~r «3- in 

-r cj -f -r rrj -r -r <^i -r t»j -r -r -r -r cj -f -^ f»j 



' ui id n od oi 



fj ro fi ^O fO 



- ON 



O — — "I -t if, ifl O N S a O - « 

__ ro i*j r»j rn ••. "-, p<5 "-. •<-. m "■. -r - r -t -t- -r -r t 
2H-r-T-r-r-r-r-r-r-r-r-r-r-r-r-r-r-r-r 



304 



Publications oj the David Dunlap Observatory 



bv the writer, however, are mostly c-type variables with periods of a 
third of a day. A selection effect operates here as the variables with 
smaller ranges were missed by the early observers. 

Two important facts stand out from a study of these eighteen 
cluster type variables. The first is the remarkable distribution of 
their periods. Ten variables have periods which fall between 0.37 
day and 0.43 day and eight periods lie between 0.61 and 0.71 day. 
But no periods were found between 0.43 and 0.61 day. This 
cluster is comparable with Messier 15. investigated by Bailey; 1 ' 
in which he found the same phenomenon. It should be pointed out 
that this interval in which there are no periods in Messier 22 is the 



No. 9 




P= 87*71 


• 


• 


• - 




• 


*• 


•• ••• 


, • 


• 


• 


• • • 


•;••..• *• • 


• • 

. •• • • • • 

•• • • •• «. 


i • * • 


•• •• 


^ ••••*•• 


: : . . ml - 


C:. i 




• <M» 


• 


M» 4 • 


•M 


1 1 


• 
1 1 



I30 - 



' ~0 <io>sS 25 5C 7.5 tOO 

Fig. 1. — Ligiht curve of a semi-regular variable in Messier 22. 

easiest one in which to determine periods from plates taken on con- 
secutive nights, so that any selection effect does not operate in the 
right direction to explain this gap. The subject of the frequency ot 
cluster type periods in globular clusters will be summarized in a 
separate paper 7 appearing shortly. 

The second important fact is that the cluster type variables with 
long periods show no evidence of period change while those with the 
shortest periods all give such evidence. All the variables whose 
periods lie between 0.32 day and 0.38 day inclusive are apparently 
shifting their periods. The periods are derived from so many sporadic 
observations rather than well-determined series, however, that the 
writer has not attempted to determine the amount of the period change. 
The earliest observations were in 1893 (J.D. 2412656) and the latest 
in 1939. A change of around one ten -thousandth of a day may be 
indicated in these intervening 46 years. 



1 '(triable Stars in the Globular Cluster Messier 22 305 





- 14-5 - 



h 


No. 23 


/v\ 




- 






••- 


1 


• 

1 




• 








No. 19 




14 


f 


^ t 


A; 


14} 




X4 












No. 24 






v 


A 






« 


• 


14-0 




• • t 


• • - 




• 


• 


s -v» • •/ 




» • 


• 


• «•• • • • 

• 


14-5 











Fig. 2. — Light curves of cluster type Cepheids with periods less than halt 
a da> ; and one long | pheid. 



306 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 










os o o-s 

Fig. 3. — Light curves of cluster type Cepheids with periods greater than 
0.6 day. 



Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster Messier 22 307 

Only one variable not of the c-type shows a period change, namely 
No. 2, with period 0.6418 day, whose magnitudes are somewhat 
brighter than those of the other variables because a second component 
contributes light to the system. This period change is not so well 
confirmed as those of the c-type variables because a fixed period of 
0.641789 days fits almost all the observations. 

The value of the modulus of the cluster, uncorrected for absorp- 
tion, as determined from the average mean magnitude of the cluster 
type variables (excluding Xos. 2 and 3) is 14.17. This agrees 
excellently with the modulus of 14.1 determined by Shapley 17 years 
ago. In computing the distance, however, there will be an absorp- 
tion correction for this cluster as it is on the edge of a region of 
obscuration. The colour excess of Stebbins and Whitford 8 is 0.19; 
there are no nebulae in the field but the star count is normal. 

Summary 

1. From a study of plates taken at the Steward Observatory, eight new 
variables have been found in Messier 22. 

2. Periods have been checked and determined for 12 variables. One is a 
long-period Cepheid which falls on the period luminosity relationship. One is 
a long-period variable, two are semi-regular variables and eighteen are cluster 
type. 

3. The cluster type Cepheids show a remarkable frequency distribution of 
periods. No periods fall between 0.43 and 0.61 day. 

4. The short-period cluster type Cepheids. whose periods lie between 0.32 
and 0.38 day, all give evidence of period change, while, with one exception, the 
variables whose periods are longer than this show no such change. 

5. The modulus of the cluster, 14.17, derived from the mean magnitude of 
the cluster type variables, confirms Shapley's modulus, giving a distance of 
6800 parsecs, uncorrected for absorption. 

References 

(1) Sawyer, Pub, D.D.O., v. 1, no. 12. 1942. 

(2) Bailey, //../.. v. 38, 1902. 

(3) Bailey, Pop. Astr., v. 28, p. 518, 1920. 

(4) Shapley, II. B., no. 848, 1927. 

(5) Chevalier, Ann. Zo-Si Obs., 10 C, 1918. 

(6) Bailey, //../.. v. 78, pt. 3, 1919. 

(7) Sawyer, J.R.A.S.C., v. 37. pp. _><>5 -^1, {Coram. D.D.O. no. in, 1944. 

(8) Stebbins and Whitford, ,//>./.. v. 84. p. 141. 1936. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario 
June 16, 1944 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume I Number 16 



THE RADIAL VELOCITIES 
OF 681 STARS 



R. K. YOUNG 

Director 



1945 

THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 
TORONTO, CANAD \ 



THE RADIAL VELOCITIES OF 081 STARS 

THE radial velocities of the 681 stars contained in this publi- 
cation are of stars selected from Schlesinger's catalogue of 
bright stars and include all stars of types AO-M, north of 
the equator and of photographic magnitude brighter than 8.0, 
whose velocities have not been published. The observations were 
nearly all made with a one-prism spectrograph and a 25-inch 
camera, giving a dispersion at H7 of about 33 A per mm. The 
velocities show a very marked gain in accuracy over those con- 
tained in Publications 3 and 13, which were made with a 123^-inch 
camera and the same prism. Owing to the fact that we have been 
able to aluminize the surface of both mirrors and have had all 
optical surfaces coated with a low-reflecting film, the speed of the 
present arrangement is somewhat greater than with the 123^-inch 
camera; this represents a remarkable gain in speed. 

For none of the stars have we been able to find observations at 
other observatories and an investigation of the systematic errors 
cannot be made at the present time. Scattered observations of a 
few standard velocity stars indicate that the errors are small. 
While the same wave-lengths for the reduction tables have been 
used as in the former publications, namely, those recommended in 
the I.A.l". Transactions 1932, it is by no means likely that the 
systematic errors for the present list will be the same as for the 
former two lists. In the first place, we have introduced a change 
in the slit mechanism, bringing the comparison spectra closer to 
the star spectrum and reducing the curvature corrections to less 
than one km. per second and, in the second place, errors of measure- 
ment with the larger dispersion will probably be systematically a 
little different. 

As in the previous lists of velocities main observers have helped 
in securing the spectrograms. The observers with the number of 
exposures are— Hogg, 760; Young, 674; Norris, 435; Longworth, 
428; Miss Northcott, 237; others, 338. In all, 2872 measurable 
plates were secured, 192 of which were taken with the 12^-inch 
camera. An average of between four and five plates was obtained 
for each star with a minimum of four for each st.ir. The measure- 
ment of the plates was also carried out as a joint programme. 
Those who have contributed to the measurement of the spectro- 
grams are — Young, 1055; Miss Northcott, 60S; Miss Fuller, 5S5; 

Norris, 474; others, 263. 

13111 



312 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

The main results of all the stars are included in Table I, in 
which the headings of the various columns have the following 
meanings. 

1. The serial number in the Henry Draper Catalogue. 

2-3. The right ascension and declination for the epoch 1900.0. 

4. The visual magnitude from the Henry Draper Catalogue. 

5. The Harvard type. 

6. The type as estimated from our spectra. The criteria for 
estimating the type have been the same as used at the Dominion 
Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, and as given in the I.A.I*. 
Transactions. 

7. The velocity of the star. This is the mean of all the plates 
taken if the velocity seemed constant or if the velocity variation 
was not certainly established. Those stars showing a definite 
variation are indicated by "Var." in this column. 

8. The probable error as indicated from the agreement of the 
various plates and computed from the formula 

2v 
P.E. = 0.845 — 7= 
nvn 

9. The number of measurable plates taken. 

10. The minimum and maximum number of lines measured on 
the plates. In the case of late type stars, if the minimum number 
is less than 17, it means that at least one plate was somewhat weak. 
In the case of the early types, the number of lines measured gives 
some idea of the spectrum. The letter n placed after the type in 
column 6 indicates that the lines are nebulous. 

11. The average probable error of each plate as judged from 
the agreement of the lines measured. When some of the plates 
were taken with the 12^-inch camera the e refers to the mean 
from the 25-inch camera plates only. 

12. In this column * means that the velocity is more uncertain 
than for the general run of stars, due to the character and number 
of the lines. A number following the * indicates the total range. 
We judge in these cases that the variation is somewhat greater 
than would be expected from the character of the lines. R means 
that there is a remark on this star in the notes at the end of Table I . 
II means that the individual velocities will be found in Table II. 
S means that for this star all the plates were taken with the 12J^- 
inch camera. 



The Radial I 'elocities of 681 Stars 313 

Those stars for which the velocity seems to be definitely vari- 
able are given in Table 1 1 . This table gives the individual velocities 
for 36 stars — a very small number to be found variable in the 
observation of 681 stars. It is probably due to the fact that nearly 
all the stars of late type have orbital velocities which are often 
below detection with a small number of plates of one-prism dis- 
persion. Many of those stars listed with an * (when followed by 
a number) in the last column of Table 1 are probably binary. 

In Table 11 the various columns have the following meanings. 

1. Identification of the star in Table I. 

2. The Julian day of the observation. Most of the plates were 
taken after the epoch J.D. 2430000 but a few were taken between 
the epochs J.D. 2420000 and 2430000, hence the double heading. 

3. The measured velocity. In some cases there is a repeat 
measure. 

4. The probable error as judged from the agreement of the lines. 

5. The number of lines. 

6. The initial of the measurer of the plate — X, Miss Xorthcott; 
Y, Young; F, Miss Fuller; Xo, Xorris; Ma, Matthews; B, 
Bunker; K, Mrs. Krotkov; T, Tidy. 

7. Fxplanations which refer either to the character of the 
spectrum or to the nature of the variation. 



314 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 











TABLE 


I 












Star 


a 


s 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


SCm. sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref 


1075 


h m 

00 09.9 


o / 

+ 30 59 


6.61 


K5 


K4 


+ 03.3 


0.5 


4 


18-21 


0.9 




1419 


13.2 


+ 10 39 


6.20 


K0 


G8 


+ 09.6 


0.2 


5 


16-23 


0.7 




1527 


14.4 


+ 40 10 


6.41 


K0 


KO 


- 36.5 


0.6 


4 


20-24 


0.6 




2904 


27.3 


+ 70 26 


6.36 


AO 


AOn 


- 11.4 


4.1 


4 


3 


6.3 


* 


2913 


27.3 


+ 06 25 


5.66 


AO 


AOn 


+ 17.6 


2.8 


5 


2-5 


6.7 


* 


2924 


00 27.4 


+ 27 01 


6.54 


AO 


A2 


+ 00.9 


0.4 


4 


7-17 


0.9 




2952 


27.7 


+ 54 21 


6.14 


KO 


G8 


- 34.5 


0.5 


5 


20-23 


0.6 




3411 


31.9 


+ 23 28 


6.44 


KO 


Kl 


+ 00.4 


0.2 


4 


16-23 


0.7 




3856 


36.1 


+ 65 36 


5.92 


G5 


G7 


- 01.0 


1.0 


4 


14-22 


0.7 




4295 


40.3 


+ 68 47 


6.42 


F2 


F2 


- 14.5 


0.5 


4 


18-22 


0.8 




4321 


00 40.6 


4- 54 15 


6.52 


A2 


A3 


- 09.3 


0.6 


4 


14-18 


0.9 




4440 


41.6 


+ 72 08 


6.04 


KO 


G8 


+ 00.9 


ii. 1 


4 


19-22 


0.6 




4881 


45.8 


+ 51 02 


6.24 


AO 


AO 


- 14.7 


0.9 


4 


3-5 


2.0 




5273 


49.4 


+ 48 09 6.60 


Ma 


Ml 


- 50.4 


0.3 


4 


17-22 


1.0 




5357 


50.4 


+ 68 1 •") 


6.38 


FO 


F2 


- 08.9 


0.6 


4 


11-24 


0.8 




6028 


00 56.5 


+ 50 30 


6.62 


A3 


A2n 


+ 05.4 


1.2 


4 


5 


1.6 




6211 


58.1 


+ 51 58 


6.27 


K2 


K2 


- 06.0 


1.0 


4 


20-23 


0.7 




6480 


01 00.7 


+ 04 22 


7.64 


F2 


F5 


-07.8 


0.4 


4 


17-26 


0.7 


R 


6497 


00.9 


+ 56 24 


6.58 


KO 


Kl 


- 94.5 


0.8 


4 


17-23 


0.7 




6540 


01.2 


+ 52 58 


6.49 


KO 


KO 


+ 07.8 


0.2 


4 


15-21 


0.7 




6953 


01 04.9 


+ 24 56 


6.06 


K5 


K6 


+ 06.4 


0.6 


4 


9-21 


1.0 




7229 


07.5 


+ 29 33 


6.40 


KO 


G6 


+ 36.6 


0.4 


4 


21-24 


0.6 




7351 


08.6 


+ 28 01 


6.63 


Ma 


Ml 


+ 05.8 


1.4 


4 


18-20 


1.3 


*1 


7389 


09.0 


+ 71 13 


6.38 


KO 


K4 


- 16.0 


0.3 


4 


15-20 


1.0 




7578 


10.7 


+ 32 36 


6.31 


KO 


KO 


+ 06.8 


0.8 


4 


19-21 


0.6 




7647 


01 11.3 


+ 44 23 


6.48 


K5 


K5 


- 50.0 


0.1 


4 


17-20 


1.0 




7724 


11.9 


+ 31 14 


6.86 


KO 


KO 


- 32.7 


0.6 


4 


20-24 


0.6 




7732 


12.0 


+ 77 02 


6.38 


G5 


G3 


- 75.6 


0.4 


4 


16-23 


0.7 




7758 


12.2 


+ 46 53 


6.41 


KO 


KO 


- 00.3 


0.8 


5 


14-22 


0.9 




7925 


13.8 


+ 75 43 


6.45 


A3 


A3n 


- 16.5 


1.7 


5 


3-5 


6.5 


* 


8375 


01 17.9 


+ 33 43 


6.34 


G5 


G5 


+ 03.8 


0.6 


4 


17-22 


0.6 




8388 


18.0 


+ 19 57 


6.30 


K5 


K7 


- 09.8 


0.4 


4 


14-23 


1.1 




8424 


18.4 


+ 70 27 


6.52 


AO 


AOn 


+ 09.9 


1.1 


5 


3 


6.0 




8949 


23.1 


+ 07 27 


6.44 


KO 


KO 


+ 02.6 


0.4 


4 


15-23 


0.6 


R 


9712 


30.0 


+ 40 34 


6.39 


KO 


G8 


+ 66.2 | 0.4 


4 


18-22 


0.7 





The Radial Velocities of 681 Stars 



315 



TABLE I — Continued 



Star 


a 


6 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 










H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. /sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


10110 


b m 

01 33.8 


+ 53 22 


6.64 


K2 


K5 


- 60.4 


1.0 


4 


20-22 


0.8 




11037 


43.3 


+ 03 11 


6.00 


G5 


G8 


+ 04.0 


1.2 


5 


19-24 


0.8 


R 


11613 


48.9 


+ 40 12 


6.50 


K2 


K2 


+ 32.6 


1.0 


4 


18-21 


0.6 




11624 


49.0 


+ 36 37 


6.39 


K0 


KO 


- 00.6 


0.3 


4 


19-24 


0.7 




11928 


52.0 


+ 27 18 


6.02 


Mb 


M2 


+ 00.5 


0.6 


4 


12-22 


1.2 




12005 


01 52.8 


+ 77 26 


6.35 


KO 


G2 


- 02.6 


0.4 


4 


15-22 


0.9 




12479 


57.2 


+ 13 00 


6.28 


Mb 


M2 


- 04.7 


0.4 


4 


20-24 


0.9 




12872 


02 01.0 


+ 07 46 


6.66 


Mb 


M2 


- 24.0 


0.6 


4 


17-22 


0.8 




13013 


02.3 


+ 43 58 


6.50 


G5 


G5 


+ 25.4 


0.8 


4 


7-23 


1.2 




13522 


06.9 


+ 23 43 


6.19 


KO 


K2 


+ 00.2 


1.1 


4 


16-23 


0.8 




13818 


02 09.5 


+ 47 21 


6.44 


KO 


G8 


+ 16.7 


0.5 


4 


17-22 


0.6 




14067 


11.5 


+ 23 19 


6.50 


G5 


G5 


- 12.0 


0.4 


4 


13-22 


1.0 




14221 


12.9 


+ 48 29 


6.40 


FO 


F2 


- 19.2 


0.7 


4 


13-24 


0.9 




14373 


14.2 


+ 29 45 


6.60 


KO 


KO 


- 00.1 


0.2 


4 


16-24 


0.8 




15138 


21.2 


+ 50 07 


6.27 


FO 


F2 


Yar. 




4 


5-17 




II 


15152 


02 21.3 


+ 26 33 


6.18 


K5 


K6 


- 46.6 


0.4 


4 


13-22 


1.1 




15253 


22.3 


+ 55 05 


6.56 


A2 


AO 


+ 00.5 


1.1 


5 


4-6 


1.5 


R 


15328 


22.9 


+ 01 31 


6.49 


KO 


G8 


+ 18.7 


1.1 


4 


11-21 


1.0 




15453 


24.2 


+ 09 07 


6.30 


KO 


KO 


- 10.2 


0.5 


4 


18-21 


0.6 




15464 


24.3 


+ 33 23 


6.25 


KO 


KO 


+ 08.4 


0.4 


4 


16-25 


0.6 

• 




16024 


02 29.4 


+ 65 19 


6.07 


KO 


K3 


+ 41.6 


0.4 


4 


17-24 


0.8 




16458 


33.4 


+ 81 01 


5.92 


KO 


KOp 


+ 23.5 


1.5 


4 


15-20 


1.1 


R 


16467 


33.4 


+ 03 01 


6.37 


G5 


G8 


+ 03.4 


0.4 


4 


14-20 


0.7 




17228 


40.8 


+ 35 35 


6.38 


G5 


G5 


+ 21.7 


0.3 


4 


18-21 


0.6 




17378 


42.2 


+ 56 40 


6.53 


F5p 


A8p 


- 37.0 


0.6 


4 


14-19 


0.9 


R 


17958 


02 48.1 


+ 63 55 


6.57 


K5 


K3 


- 20.8 


0.3 


4 


15-21 


0.9 




18153 


49.8 


+ 50 51 


6.52 


K5 


K5 


+ 06.1 


0.5 


4 


20-24 


l)S 




18339 


51.7 


+ 38 13 


6.08 


KO 


K2 


- 41.6 


0.3 


4 


16-21 


0.7 




18345 


51.8 


+ 04 05 


6.31 


Ma 


M2 


+ 53.5 


0.6 


4 


18-20 


1.0 




18482 


53.2 


+ 40 38 


6.07 


K2 


K2 


+ 32.9 


0.5 


4 


17-21 


7 




18700 


02 55.3 


+ 10 29 


6.20 


K5 


K6 


+ 19.8 


0.3 


5 


15-21 


1.0 




18832 


56.7 


+ 04 57 


6.38 


KO 


G8 


- 58.4 


0.4 


1 


13-21 


0.8 




18991 


58.2 


+ 55 41 


6.50 


KO 


G8 


- 09.9 


0.3 


4 


17-21 


0.6 




19066 


58.9 


+ 40 12 


6.18 


KO 


KO 


- 33.1 


1 


4 


17-22 


0.6 




19080 


59.1 


4 15 29 


ti 59 


KO 


K2 


- 30.6 


07 


1 


16 23 


It 9 





316 Publications of the David Ditnlap Observatory 

TABLE I — Continued 



Star 


a 


5 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 










H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. /sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


19121 


b tn 

02 59.5 


o / 

+ 01 30 


6.05 


K0 


KO 


+ 00.3 


0.4 


4 


15-21 


0.6 




19525 


03 03.3 


4-08 05 


6.44 


G5 


G8 


+ 39.2 


0.8 


4 


17-23 


0.7 




20063 


08.4 


+ 42 08 


6.16 


G5 


KO 


+ 22.8 


0.5 


4 


17-25 


0.7 




20104 


08.8 


+ 65 17 


6.35 


A2 


A2n 


- 07.5 


0.9 


4 


4 


3.5 




20162 


09.3 


+ 44 58 


6.42 


Ma 


MO 


- 00.9 


0.9 


4 


20-21 


0.8 




21004 


03 18.3 


+ 53 35 


6.39 


F0 


FOn 


- 04.6 


0.7 


4 


6-12 


3.7 




21018 


18.4 


+ 04 31 


6.47 


GO 


F8 


Var. 




5 


17-23 


0.8 


II 


21179 


20.0 


+ 71 31 


6.83 


Ma 


Ml 


- 21.8 


0.9 


4 


14-22 


0.9 




21335 


21.4 


+ 18 25 


6.45 


A2 


A2n 


+ 30.3 


1.8 


4 


2-5 


4.9 




21794 


25.7 


+ 57 32 


6.41 


F5 


F6 


- 71.6 


0.2 


4 


15-20 


0.8 




22211 


03 29.5 


+ 06 05 


6.52 


GO 


F5n 


- 10.6 


1.3 


4 


8-16 


1.6 




23526 


40.8 


+ 06 30 


6.12 


KO 


KO 


- 24.5 


0.6 


4 


18-22 


0.7 




23626 


41.5 


+ 31 54 


6.23 


GO 


F6 


Var. 




4 


17-21 


0.8 


II 


23887 


43.5 


- 00 04 


6.10 


KO 


Kl 


+ 68.5 


0.7 


4 


17-22 


0.8 




24141 


45.6 


+ 57 40 


5.79 


AO 


A2 


- 05.9 


0.8 


4 


17-20 


1.2 




24154 


03 45.7 


+ 21 44 


6.82 


G5 


G8 


+ 63.9 


0.9 


4 


11-22 


0.7 




24164 


45.8 


+ 71 31 


6.39 


FO 


FO 


-02.4 


1.0 


4 


14-22 


1.1 




24802 


51.5 


+ 24 12 


6.38 


KO 


KO 


- 12.4 


0.6 


4 


21-24 


0.6 




25274 


55.9 


+ 68 24 


6.14 


K2 


K5 


- 45.5 


0.7 


4 


19-23 


0.9 




25602 


, 58.8 


+ 53 45 


6.42 


KO 


G6 


- 07.0 


0.6 


4 


18-22 


0.6 




25877 


04 00.9 


+ 59 40 


6.46 


KO 


G5 


- 13.3 


0.4 


4 


19-21 


0.7 




25948 


01.5 


+ 54 34 


6.28 


F5 


F2 


- 05.5 


0.3 


4 


13-19 


1.0 




26076 


02.6 


+ 71 52 


6.15 


G5 


G8 


- 03.1 


0.3 


4 


16-24 


0.8 




26101 


02.8 


+ 68 16 


6.41 


KO 


KO 


- 22.5 


1.8 


4 


18-23 


0.6 


♦12 


26311 


04.6 


+ 33 19 


5.91 


KO 


Kl 


+ 19.9 


0.5 


4 


18-24 


0.8 




26605 


04 07.4 


+ 37 43 


6.55 


G5 


G5 


+ 30.2 


0.4 


4 


18-21 


0.7 




26913 


10.1 


+ 05 57 


7.16 


GO 


G3 


- 07.6 


0.2 


4 


18-21 


0.6 




26923 


10.2 


+ 05 57 


6.54 


GO 


GO 


- 08.1 


0.4 


4 


19-22 


0.6 


R 


27386 


14.2 


+ 09 53 


6.62 


KO 


K2 


- 26.2 


0.3 


4 


15-23 


0.9 




28191 


21.8 


+ 01 52 


6.37 


KO 


KO 


+ 22.4 


0.4 


4 


20-23 


0.6 




28322 


04 22.9 


+ 01 38 


6.12 


KO 


G8 


+ 31.1 


0.5 


4 


20-22 


0.6 




28505 


24.6 


+ 10 01 


6.55 


G5 


G8 


- 62.0 


0.3 


4 


12-18 


1.0 




28736 


26.7 


+ 05 11 


6.43 


F2 


F2 


+ 38.9 


1.2 


4 


12-22 


1.4 


R 


28930 


28.4 


+ 09 12 


6.20 


KO 


G8 


- 25.4 


0.4 


4 


21-22 


0.6 




29104 


29.8 


+ 19 41 


6.56 


F8 


F8 


Var. 










II 



The Radial Velocities of 6S1 Stars 

TABLE I — Continued 



317 



Star 


a 


s 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ret. 


29606 


h in 

04 34.7 


o / 

+ 59 20 


6.53 


A3 


A5n 


+ 09.7 


1.4 


4 


4-14 


2.4 




30138 


39.8 


+ 40 08 


6.12 


G5 


G5 


+ 35.9 


0.5 


4 


20-24 


0.6 




30144 


39.9 


+ 55 26 


6.34 


F0 


FO 


+ 21.4 


0.8 


4 


13-19 


1.1 




30545 


43.5 


+ 03 25 


6.20 


K0 


KO 


- 18.4 


0.3 


4 


20-24 


0.7 




31411 


50.6 


+ 05 15 


6.59 


A0 


AOn 


+ 20.6 


1.8 


4 


3-5 


6.4 




31563 


04 51.8 


+ 73 37 


6.76 


KO 


K2 


+ 23.2 


0.7 


4 


14-24 


1.0 




32039 


55.3 


+ 03 28 


6.95 


AO 


AOn 


+ 29.7 


3.3 


4 


3 


2.9 


R 


32040 


55.3 


+ 03 28 


6.63 


An 


AOn 


+ 41.4 


6.1 


4 


2-4 


3.4 


*29 


32263 


56.7 + 00 34 


6.18 


KO 


Kl 


+ 21.9 


0.3 


4 


20-25 


0.8 




32406 


57.9 4- 30 22 


6.39 


KO 


G7 


+ 18.9 


0.6 


4 


19-22 


0.7 




32482 


04 58.4 + 21 09 


6.34 


KO 


K2 


+ 48.8 


0.4 


4 


15-21 


1.0 




32518 


58.7 


+ 69 30 


6.58 


KO 


KO 


- 06.1 


0.2 


4 


19-22 


0.6 




32655 


59.7 


+ 43 02 


6.21 


F2 


F2 


- 12.7 


0.2 


4 


13-20 


0.8 




33541 


05 05.9 


+ 73 09 


5.76 


AO 


AO 


Var. 




4 


4-7 


2.8 


II 


33946 


08.7 


+ 00 26 


6.54 


K2 


K3 


- 10.4 


1.2 


5 


9-22 


1.3 




34053 


05 09.5 


+ 22 10 


6.16 


AO 


A2 


Var. 




4 


4-6 


3.2 


II 


34332 


11.6 


+ 40 21 


6.32 


KO 


K2 


- 16.2 


0.3 


4 


13-22 


0.9 




34498 


12.8 


+ 11 11) 


6.72 


KO 


K2 


+ 14.4 


1.2 


4 


13-23 0.9 




34499 


12.8 


+ 33 53 


6.52 


A 5 


A5n 


+ 06.8 


0.6 


4 


4-21 


3.6 




34533 


13.1 


+ 46 52 


6.48 


FO-A 


F2-A 


+ 16.5 


0.9 


4 


18-20 


1.1 


R 


34653 


05 14.0 


+ 77 53 


6.54 


A5 


A5n 


- 19.0 


1.2 


4 


14-17 


1.4 




34810 


15.0 


+ 19 43 


0,11 


KO 


KO 


+ 01.1 


0.7 


4 


20-21 


0.6 




34904 


15.7 


+ 10 56 


5.57 


A3 


A2n 


- 14.7 


3.0 


1 


i-:, 


5.5 




35295 


18.6 


+ 34 15 


6.48 


KO 


KO 


- 14.4 


0.4 


4 


18-22 


0.7 


k 


35519 


20.2 


+ 35 23 


6.30 


K2 


K3 


- 20.0 


0.4 


4 


8-23 


1.3 




35521 


05 20.2 


+ 33 11 


6.30 


KO 


KO 


- 07.7 


1.0 


4 


20 22 


o.s 




36040 


23.8 


+ 11 23 


6.09 


KO 


KO 


f 1 1.5 


0.7 


4 


20-23 


0.6 




36041 


23.8 


+ 39 46 


6.52 


KO 


G8 


+ 12.5 


0.0 


4 


19-25 


04 


R 


36160 


24.7 


+ 22 23 


6.49 


KO 


Kl 


+ 02.7 


0.1 


1 


19-21 


07 




36891 


29.8 


+ 40 07 


6.18 


KO 




- 17.2 


0.5 


4 


17-23 


0.7 




37138 


05 31.2 


+ 33 30 


6. 13 


KO 


K2 


+ 30.1 


0.2 


4 


18-22 


0.7 




37329 


32.7 


, 26 34 


6.47 


KO 


G8 


+ 15.7 


0.4 


4 


20-23 


0.7 




37536 


34.2 


+ 31 52 


6.72 


Ma 


MO 


* 06.3 


1.0 


4 


i :. •_' i 


1.4 




37784 


36.0 


+ 22 37 


6.47 


K2 


K2 


- 20.2 


0.4 


4 


18-25 


0.7 




3K527 


41.4 


4-09 29 


5.89 


G5 


G5 


- 25.4 


0.5 


4 


1 7 •_':< 


0.7 





318 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE I— Continued 



Star 




s 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


38529 


h m 

05 41.4 


o / 

+ 01 09 


6.14 


G5 


G2 


+ 30.1 


0.2 


4 


19-22 


0.7 




38545 


41.5 


+ 14 28 


5.67 


A2 


AOn 


+ 21.7 


1.9 


4 


3-4 


4.0 




38618 


42.0 


+ 56 53 


6.38 


A2 


A2n 


+ 02.9 


1.6 


4 


6-13 


1.9 




38645 


42.2 


+ 68 26 


6.40 


K0 


G7 


-00.1 


1.1 


4 


16-23 


0.7 




38765 


43.0 


+ 51 29 


6.40 


G5 


KO 


+ 26.9 


0.6 


4 


16-24 


0.7 




39045 


05 44.9 


+ 32 06 


6.41 


Ma 


M2 


+ 104.7 


1.1 


4 


13-23 


1.0 




39051 


44.9 


+ 04 24 


6.12 


K0 


K2 


+ 29.6 


0.2 


4 


9-22 


1.3 




39225 


46.0 


+ 33 53 


6.38 


Ma 


MO 


+ 101.4 


0.8 


4 


16-22 


0.8 




39429 


47.5 


+ 66 05 


6.59 


KO 


K2 


- 21.2 


0.3 


4 


21-23 0.6 




39632 


48.7 


+ 10 34 


6.50 


KO 


KO 


+ 14.3 


0.4 


4 


19-22 


0.6 




39685 


05 49.0 


+ 03 13 


6.55 


KO 


Kl 


- 03.2 


0.5 


4 


15-23 


0.6 




39743 


49.4 


+ 49 01 


6.44 


G5 


G3 


- 01.6 


1.6 


4 


18-23 


0.7 


*11 


39775 


49.6 


+ 00 57 


6.23 


KO 


Kl 


+ 22.7 


0.6 


4 


12-24 


0.9 




40055 


51.4 


+ 75 35 


6.52 


K5 


K:» 


+ 05.2 


0.1 


4 


20-25 


0.6 




40083 


51.6 


+ 54 33 


6.26 


KO 


Kl 


- 04.6 


0.5 


4 


19-25 


0.6 




40084 


05 51.6 


+ 49 55 


6.07 


G5 


G5 


Var. 




4 


13-21 


0.9 


II 


40282 


52.7 


+ 01 13 


6.49 


K2 


K5 


+ 38.2 


0.7 


4 


7-20 


1.0 




40372 


53.2 


+ 01 49 


6.06 


A5 


A 5 


Var. 




4 


16-24 


1.3 


II 


40394 


53.4 


+ 47 54 


5.68 


AO 


AO 


+ 15.4 


0.8 


4 


6-9 


1.8 




40486 


54.0 


+ 48 58 


6.24 


KO 


KO 


+ 11.7 


0.3 


4 


21-24 


0.6 




40626 


05 55.0 


+ 49 55 


5.98 


AO 


AO 


+ 21.2 


0.7 


4 


3-5 


2.6 




40722 


55.6 


+ 43 22 


6.52 


KO 


Kl 


- 18.2 


0.9 


4 


20-26 


0.6 




40827 


56.3 


+ 59 24 


7.07 


KO 


G8 


+ 32.4 


0.4 


4 


18-25 


0.6 




40956 


57.1 


+ 63 27 


6.49 


KO 


KO 


- 14.0 


0.6 


4 


19-25 


0.5 




41429 


06 00.0 


+ 29 31 


6.32 


Ma 


M4 


- 34.0 


0.7 


4 


10-20 


1.4 




41467 


06 00.3 


+ 41 52 


6.32 


KO 


KO 


+ 06.5 


0.5 


4 


19-23 


0.7 




41636 


01.3 


+ 41 04 


6.42 


KO 


KO 


- 86.1 


0.2 


4 


20-23 


0.5 




42049 


03.5 


+ 22 13 


6.04 


K2 


K6 


+ 10.3 


1.6 


4 


9-20 


1.4 


*11 


42111 


03.8 


+ 02 31 


5.58 


AO 


AO 


+ 33.2 


1.1 


4 


2-3 


1.6 




42351 


05.1 


+ 18 09 


6.44 


KO 


Kl 


- 01.9 


0.4 


4 


15-26 


0.7 




42466 


06 05.8 


+ 51 12 


6.28 


KO 


G8 


+ 11.8 


0.3 


4 


21-23 


0.7 




42471 


05.8 


+ 32 43 


5.96 


K2 


K5 


- 51.4 


0.5 


4 


15-22 


1.0 




42807 


07.7 


+ 10 40 


6.46 


G5 


G4 


+ 06.7 


0.4 


4 


20-23 


0.7 




43358 


10.7 


+ 01 12 


6.34 


F5 


F5 


+ 02.6 


0.9 


4 


9-14 


1.5 




45357 


21.8 


+ 00 54 


6.51 


AO 


AOn 


+ 08.5 


2.3 


5 


3-4 


8.2 


* 



The Radial I r elocities oj 681 Stars 
TABLE I — Continued 



319 



Star 


a 


a 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


45394 


h m 

06 22.0 


O 1 

4-20 34 


6.11 


A0 


AO 


+ 38.3 


0.6 


4 


10-14 


1.8 




45512 


22.8 


+ 10 23 


6.19 


KO 


Kl 


- 19.3 


0.5 


4 


17-23 


0.7 




45560 


23.1 


4-79 40 


6.52 


AO 


AOn 


- 07.9 


1.4 


4 


4-5 


4.4 




45638 


23.5 


+ 11 05 


6.43 


FO 


FO 


+ 40.6 


0.9 


4 


9-21 


1.3 




45724 


24.0 


+ 02 43 


6.39 


Ma 


MO 


+ 10.7 


0.6 


4 


4-19 


1.6 




45947 


06 25.4 


+ 73 46 


6.22 


F2 


F2 


+ 05.0 


0.7 


4 


13-21 


0.8 




46101 


26.3 


+ 55 26 


6.53 


KO 


K4 


- 18.5 


1.8 


4 


20-24 0.9 


*10 


46178 


26.8 


+ 11 45 


6.15 


KO 


KO 


- 19.9 


0.7 


4 


18-25 


Us 




46509 


28.8 


+ 71 50 


6.07 


G5 


KO 


- 23.6 


0.5 


4 


17-25 


0.7 




46642 


29.4 


+ 07 39 


6.42 


AO 


AO 


+ 36.5 


0.6 


4 


2-9 


4.0 




46709 


06 29.8 


+ 10 04 


6.06 


K5 


K5 


+ 38.7 


0.4 


4 


8-20 


1.5 




47156 


32.1 


+ 10 56 


6.60 


KO 


K2 


+ 02.5 


0.6 


1 


12-21 


0.9 




47220 


32.4 


+ 02 48 


6.42 


KO 


KO 


- 06.6 


0.1 


4 


18-24 0.6 




47358 


33.1 


+ 22 07 


6.28 K0 


G8 


- 09.7 


0.3 


4 


20-25 


0.5 




47415 


33.4 


+ 24 41 


6.48 


F5 


F8 


Var. 




1 


2-24 


1.7 


II 


47886 


06 35.7 


+ 11 06 


6.43 


Ma 


MO 


+ 17.4 


1.1 


4 


13-22 


12 




47979 


36.1 


+ 53 24 


6.38 


KO 


KO 


+ 19.8 


0.3 


4 


7-23 


1.1 




48073 


36.5 


+ 37 15 


6.24 


KO 


G6 


- 40.2 


0.5 


1 


21-22 


0.5 




18348 


37.9 


+ 03 08 


6. 1 1 


KO 


K2 


+ 31.9 


0.5 


4 


17-22 


0.9 




48843 


lo.:; 


+ 12 40 


6.43 


10 


A8 


+ 08.2 


1.2 


4 


2i i 25 


0.0 




50204 


06 47.1 


+ 38 38 


6.23 


\o 


AO 


+ 25.0 


0.6 


4 


6-8 


2.2 




50277 


17.1 


+ 08 30 


5.76 


A5 


A.'.n 


+ 26.3 


1.0 


1 


4 


2.6 




50371 


47.8 


+ 11 07 


6.30 


G5 


G8 


- 33.3 


0.2 


1 


L 8-24 


0.7 




50885 


50.0 


+ 70 57 


5.83 


KO 


K2 


- 15.S 


0.6 


1 


20-21 


0.8 




51000 


50.5 


+ 33 50 


6.01 


GO 


GO 


- 10.1 


0.7 


4 


18-22 


0.7 




51814 


06 53.7 


+ 03 45 


6.02 


KO 


KO 


+ 17.4 


0.2 


4 


17 2:; 


0.6 




52030 


54.6 


+ 7o 54 


6.61 


KO 


K5 


+ 21.1 


0.5 


4 


20 21 0.8 




52100 


54.8 


+ 32 32 


6.46 


FO 


FOn 


28. l 


0.7 


4 


4-16 2.5 




5255 ! 


56.6 


+ 17 53 


6.20 


Ma 


M3 


+ 24.2 


1.9 


4 


11-20 1.2 




52556 


56.6 


+ 15 28 


5.89 


KO 


KO 


- 13.1 


0.3 


5 


20 2:: 


0.6 




52609 06 56 8 


\ 16 lo 


6.01 


K5 


K5 


| 36.9 


0.6 


1 


lo 21 


1.1 




52913 


57.9 


■\ 00 17 


5.93 


\2 


A2n 


Yar. 




1 


6-11 


2.8 


II 


52976 




+ 12 11 


o 17 


K5 


KO 


1 1 2 


0.5 


4 


8-23 


1.4 




53257 


.v.- 3 


+ 22 47 


5.91 


AO 


AOn 


09 l 


3.6 


1 


3-4 


5.2 


* 


53510 


ii7 (id 2 


+ 00 is 


6.02 


KO 


K5 


+ 48.7 


0.5 


4 


I.". 17 


((0 





320 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE I— Continued 



Star 


a 


6 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. /sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


53899 


h m 

07 01.7 


+ 33 58 


6.47 


K0 


Kl 


- 01.9 


0.4 


4 


21-23 


0.7 




53925 


01.8 


+ 37 36 


6.32 


K0 


KO 


+ 10.6 


0.9 


4 


13-23 


0.6 




54070 


02.4 


+ 71 59 


6.45 


KO 


KO 


- 66.5 


0.5 


4 


19-23 


0.5 




54801 


05.2 


+ 27 02 


5.60 


A2 


A2n 


+ 38.2 


2.8 


5 


2-6 


4.3 


* 


55184 


06.8 


+ 05 39 


6.22 


G5 


KO 


+ 20.6 


0.1 


4 


20-21 


0.6 




56031 


07 10.3 


+ 08 10 


5.97 


Mb 


All 


- 06.6 


0.4 


4 


17-19 


0.8 




56941 


14.0 


+ 42 50 


6.57 


KO 


KO 


+ 46.8 


0.4 


4 


15-22 


0.7 




56989 


14.2 


+ 02 54 


6.06 


G5 


G6 


+ 23.9 


0.5 


4 


15-22 


0.9 




57263 


15.4 


+ 39 11 


6.48 


KO 


Kl 


+ 03.9 


0.8 


4 


21-24 


0.6 




57646 


17.1 


+ 52 05 


5.91 


K2 


K5 


+ 18.0 


0.4 


4 


18-24 


0.8 




57744 


07 17.5 


+ 23 09 


6.02 


AO 


AOn 


+ 17.0 


2.4 


4 


3-5 


4.5 




59878 


26.9 


+ 23 07 


6.44 


G5 


G7 


+ 30.8 


1.0 


4 


20-23 


0.7 


*8R 


60111 


27.9 


+ 03 30 


5.66 


A5 


FOn 


+ 00.3 


0.6 


4 


6-13 


2.8 




60357 


29.0 


+ 03 35 


5.82 


AO 


AOn 


+ 32.0 


1.7 


5 


3 


5.7 


' 


60654 


30.5 


+ 40 14 


6.57 


Ma 


K8 


+ 32.1 


1.2 


4 


19-26 


0.9 




61035 


07 32.2 


+ 24 36 


6.32 


FO 


FOn 


+ 06.8 


0.8 


4 


7-18 


2.0 




61294 


33.5 


+ 38 34 


5.89 


K5 


K5 


+ 47.1 


0.6 


4 


8-21 


1.5 




61603 


35.0 


+ 23 16 


6.18 


K5 


K5 


+ 40.9 


0.9 


4 


13-22 


1.2 




61630 


35.1 


+ 13 59 


6.50 


KO 


K2 


+ 06.2 


0.7 


4 


10-24 


1.0 




61885 


36.3 


+ 13 44 


6.10 


Ma 


Ml 


+ 08.3 


0.4 


4 


16-22 


0.9 




62140 


07 37.4 


+ 63 04 


6.35 


A5 


FOg 


+ 01.4 


1.5 


4 


9-15 


1.9 




62141 


37.4 


+ 22 39 


6.34 


KO 


G5 


- 02.2 


0.7 


4 


15-24 


0.6 




62264 


38.0 


+ 00 26 


6.36 


G5 


G6 


+ 08.7 


0.2 


4 


17-22 


0.9 




62407 


38.7 


+ 13 07 


6.50 


KO 


K3 


+ 26.6 


0.8 


4 


18-22 


0.9 




62437 


38.9 


+ 02 39 


6.34 


FO 


FO 


+ 14.2 


0.8 


4 


17-24 


1.0 




63352 


07 43.4 


+ 13 38 


6.25 


KO 


Kl 


- 56.3 


0.5 


4 


13-22 


0.9 




63435 


43.8 


+ 04 34 


6.51 


GO 


GO 


- 05.5 


0.5 


4 


19-24 


0.6 




63799 


45.6 


+ 03 32 


6.30 


G5 


KO 


-46.9 


0.9 


4 


10-22 


1.0 




63889 


46.1 


+ 19 35 


6.13 


KO 


KO 


+ 40.7 


0.3 


4 


12-23 


0.7 




64052 


46.9 


+ 03 32 


6.59 


Ma 


M4 


- 60.0 


0.9 


4 


10-20 


1.6 




64938 


07 51.2 


+ 04 44 


6.32 


KO 


G5 


+ 17.5 


0.8 


4 


19-21 


0.7 




65066 


51.8 


+ 08 54 


6.12 


G5 


G6 


- 35.1 


0.3 


4 


14-22 


0.6 




65299 


53.0 


+ 84 21 


6.39 


AO 


AO 


Var. 




4 


8-15 


1.5 


II 


65448 


53.7 


+ 63 21 


6.04 


F8 


F8 


+ 18.2 


1.9 


4 


13-16 


1.2 


*13R 


65522 


54.0 


+ 13 30 


6.20 


K5 


K2 


+ 27.8 


0.3 


4 


12-20 


1.1 1 





The Radial I 'elocities of 681 Stars 
TABLE I — Continued 



321 



Star 


a 


i 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. /sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


65735 


h m 

07 55.0 


o / 

+ 20 05 


6.28 


K0 


KO 


+ 28.7 


0.4 


4 


22-24 


0.7 




65757 


55.1 


+ 23 53 


6.42 


KO 


KO 


+ 26.0 


0.8 


4 


19-24 


0.8 




65S01 


55.4 


+ 35 41 


6.27 K0 


K5 


- 14.5 


0.8 


4 


20-22 


0.9 




65900 


55.9 


+ 05 09 


5.66 


AO 


AO 


+ 45.1 


0.4 


4 


9-16 


1.5 




67224 


08 01.9 


+ 58 33 


6.05 


KO 


K2 


+ 36.2 


0.6 


4 


20-23 


0.7 




67827 


08 04.7 


+ 39 02 


6.47 


GO 


F8 


+ 25.7 


0.9 


4 


16-22 


0.8 




67934 


05.2 


+ 82 44 


6.17 


AO 


AOn 


- 16.5 


5.3 


4 


3-4 


7.2 


* 


6S077 


05.8 


+ 56 46 


5.90 


KO 


G8 


+ 08.3 


0.3 


4 


21-25 


0.7 




69149 10.6 + 54 26 


6.40 


K5 


K5 


+ 26.5 


0.4 


4 


20-22 


0.8 




69478 


12.1 


+ 09 11 


6.31 


KO 


G6 


+ 29.9 


1.4 


4 


11-27 


0.7 




69682 


08 12.9 


+ 53 53 


6.36 


FO 


FO 


+ 10.0 


0.7 


4 


21-27 


0.9 




70013 


14.6 


+ 04 15 


6.29 


G5 


G5 


- 45.6 


0.6 


4 


14-22 0.7 




70771 


18.7 


+ 35 22 


6.21 


KO 


KO 


+ 34.1 


0.8 


4 


20-22 


0.7 




71095 


20.4 


+ 02 27 


5.91 


KO 


K5 


+ 13.1 


0.9 


4 


12-19 


1.1 




71553 


23.0 


+ 69 39 


6.44 


KO 


K2 


- 29.3 


0.3 


4 


20-23 


0.8 




72208 


08 26.5 


+ 10 09 


6.58 


AO 


AO 


Yar. 




5 


3-7 


5.2 


II 


72359 


27.3 


+ 10 26 


6.30 


AO 


AO 


Yar. 




4 


8-13 


1.9 


II 


72505 


28.2 


+ 13 36 


6.40 


KO 


KO 


+ 28.8 


0.8 


4 


16-22 


nv 




72561 


28.5 


+ 05 06 


6.13 


KO 


G5 


+ 01.6 


0.5 


1 


12-22 


1.0 




72908 


30.3 


+ 03 05 


6.48 


KO 


KO 


- 05.0 


0.8 


4 


13-22 


n.<\ 




73131 


08 31.6 


+ 53 16 


6.54 


KO 


Kl 


+ 40.0 


0.4 


4 


22-23 


0.8 




73143 


31.7 


+ 10 00 


5.98 


AO 


A2 


+ 15.5 


1.6 


4 


10-22 


1.5 




73599 


34.1 


+ 08 22 


6.49 


KO 


KO 


+ 17.7 


0.6 


4 


18^22 


o.s 




74591 


39.7 


+ 06 03 


6.00 


A2 


A3n 


- 14.6 


0.6 


4 


5-10 


3.7 




74873 


41.5 


+ 12 28 


5.71 


AO 


AO 


+ 21.0 


2.0 


4 


3-4 


3.2 




75959 


08 48.1 


+ 30 57 


5.60 


KO 


G8 


- 59.1 


0.4 


4 


20-22 


0.5 




76292 


50.1 


+ 40 35 


5.88 


F2 


F2 


+ 25.4 


1.0 


1 


10-26 


1.6 




76494 


51.4 


+ 04 37 


6.36 


G5 


G8 


-11.2 


0.4 


1 


20-23 


0.7 




76508 


51.5 


+ 17 32 


6.29 


KO 


KO 


+ 19.9 


0.3 


4 


16-20 


0.7 




76629 


52.3 


+ 09 46 


6.32 


KO 


G8 


- 12. 6 


0.4 


4 


9 22 


0.8 




7694 1 


(is 54.2 


+ 38 00 


6.54 


K5 


K5 


15.5 


0.3 


1 


9-22 


0.9 




77250 


56.3 


+ 06 02 


6.31 


KO 


KO 


+ 34.3 


0.1 


1 


19-23 


0.7 




77309 


56.7 


+ 54 41 


5.68 


\'J 


A2n 


- 08.9 


2.1 


1 


1 


5.0 


* 


771 15 


:,7. 1 


+ 07 41 6.07 


KO 


KO 


1 28.0 


0.3 


1 


17-23 


0.7 




78196 


09 01.8 


+ 01 52 6.41 


Ma 


M2 


+ 04.4 


1.2 


1 


1 1 20 


1.1 





322 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE I — Continued 



Star 


a 


s 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. /sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


78234 


h m 

09 02.0 


o / 

+ 32 57 


6.33 


F2 


F2 


+ 40.9 


1.5 


4 


14-18 


2.3 




78633 


04.3 


4-72 04 


6.46 


K0 


G8 


+ 06.7 


0.8 


4 


20-23 


0.8 




78712 


04.6 


+ 31 23 


Var. 


Mc 


M7 


+ 16.3 


0.1 


4 


18-22 


1.0 




79248 


07.9 


+ 21 42 


6.09 


A0 


AO 


+ 07.8 


0.4 


4 


7-13 


2.0 




79517 


09.5 


+ 74 26 


6.54 


G5 


KO 


+ 56.7 


0.7 


4 


18-24 


0.7 




80953 


09 17.7 


+ 64 23 


6.46 


K2 


K3 


+ 08.1 


1.5 


4 


17-24 


1.0 


*10 


81025 


18.1 


+ 52 01 


6.37 


GO 


GO 


Var. 




4 


21-24 


0.8 


11 


81790 


22.7 


+ 56 1 1 


6.46 


F2 


F2 


+ 09.6 


0.8 


4 


11-20 


0.8 




82189 


25.4 


+ 72 39 


5.82 


F5 


F5 


- 38.9 


0.2 


4 


18-24 


0.7 




82670 


28.3 


+ 23 53 


6.43 


K5 


K5 


- 04.7 


0.9 


4 


11-21 


1.3 




82685 


09 28.4 


+ 73 32 


6.43 


FO 


FOn 


- 00.5 


1.1 


4 


8-10 


3.2 


R 


82780 


29.1 


+ 40 24 


6.56 


F2 


F2 


Var. 




4 


8-20 


2.4 


Ilk 


83126 


31.2 


+ 67 43 


6.28 


K5 


K6 


+ 20.5 


0.3 


4 


17-22 


1.0 




83550 


34.2 


+ 78 36 


6.41 


G5 


Kl 


- 26.3 


0.6 


4 


8-22 


1.4 




83951 


36.7 


+ 35 32 


6.03 


F2 


F2 


- 08.4 


0.9 


4 


16-22 


1.0 




84252 


09 38.9 


+ 19 20 


6.64 


KO 


KO 


+ 00.4 


0.6 


4 


14-22 


0.6 




84812 


42.6 


+ 66 04 


6.29 


FO 


FOn 


- 07.2 


2.1 


4 


4-6 


4.4 




85505 


47.1 


+ 00 33 


6.29 


KO 


G5 


+ 20.1 


1.0 


4 


15-24 


0.5 


*9 


85583 


47.7 


+ 61 36 


6.42 


KO 


KO 


- 09.7 


1.0 


4 


17-22 


0.7 




85709 


48.5 


+ 06 26 


6.27 


Ma 


Ml 


- 00.3 


0.9 


4 


10-19 


1.0 




86321 


09 52.6 


+ 84 24 


6.48 


KO 


K6 


- 10.5 


1.0 


4 


12-22 


1.6 




87500 


10 00.3 


+ 16 14 


6.28 


FO 


FOn 


+ 11.6 


4.3 


4 


8-12 


5.0 


* 


88231 


05.3 


+ 37 53 


6.14 


KO 


K2 


+ 09.7 


0.5 


5 


13-25 


0.9 




88651 


08.3 


+ 60 31 


Yar. 


Ma 


MO 


- 19.6 


0.4 


4 


16-21 


1.2 




89268 


12.8 


+ 47 17 


6.48 


KO 


KO 


- 20.0 


0.8 


4 


18-21 


0.8 




89319 


10 13.2 


+ 48 55 


6.15 


KO 


KO 


- 05.2 


0.4 


4 


17-20 


1.0 




89344 


13.4 


+ 25 14 


6.60 


KO 


K2 


+ 01.0 


0.4 


4 


8-21 


1.5 




89389 


13.8 


+ 54 18 


6.44 


F8 


F8 


- 20.6 


0.4 


4 


14-22 


0.9 




90125 


19.1 


+ 02 52 


6.43 


KO 


KO 


- 13.0 


0.4 


4 


11-17 


1.5 




90472 


21.6 


+ 19 52 


6.29 


KO 


KO 


+ 32.9 


0.5 


4 


16-21 


0.7 




94237 


10 47.5 


+ 00 21 


6.59 


K5 


K4 


+ 09.5 


0.6 


4 


10-21 


0.7 




94720 


50.9 


+ 22 54 


6.24 


K2 


K5 


+ 26.7 


1.6 


4 


11-20 


0.9 




94747 


51.2 


+ 26 02 


6.40 


KO 


KO 


+ 31.0 


0.6 


4 


19-22 


0.8 




95057 


53.4 


+ 52 26 


6.34 


KO 


K2 


- 05.6 


0.6 


4 


16-23 


1.0 




95233 


54.6 


+ 52 02 


6.52 


G5 


G8 


+ 01.0 


0.9 


4 


19-22 


1.1 





The Radial Velocities of 681 Stars 

TABLE I— Continued 



323 



Star 


a 


5 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. /sec. 


P.E 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


97501 


h m 

11 08.1 


o / 

+ 41 3S 


6.49 


K0 


KO 


+ 12.7 


1.0 


4 


18-24 


0.9 




98499 


14.8 


+ 67 38 


6.31 


KO 


G8 


- 55.2 


0.7 


4 


18-24 


0.8 




98960 


18.2 


+ 00 41 


6.26 


KO 


K3 


+ 22.6 


0.4 


4 


17 


1.2 




99967 


25.0 


+ 47 12 


6.49 


KO 


KO 


Var. 




4 


20-22 


0.7 


II 


100030 


25.5 


+ 48 29 


6.38 


G5 


G5 


+ 39.4 


1.8 


5 


18-21 


0.5 




100055 


11 25.7 


+ 49 20 


6.42 


G5 


G6 


+ 07.3 


0.5 


4 


18-30 


0.9 




100655 


29.9 


+ 20 59 


6.44 


KO 


KO 


- 05.5 


1.0 


4 


16-22 


1.1 




101112 


33.0 


+ 09 26 


6.55 


KO 


KO 


+ 12.1 


0.4 


4 


20-22 0.7 




101151 


33.3 


+ 34 12 


6.36 


K2 


K2 


- 04.7 


0.5 


4 


19-22 1.0 




101604 


36.4 


+ 55 43 


6.40 


K5 


K4 


-05.6 


0.4 


4 


16-23 


0.9 




101980 


11 39.1 


+ 25 47 


6.19 


K5 


K5 


- 01.7 


1.2 


5 


11-20 


1.5 




103500 


50.0 


+ 37 20 


6.54 


Mb 


M2 


+ 20.7 


1.2 


4 


15-24 


1.8 




103736 


51.7 


+ 62 06 


6.28 


G5 


G5 


+ 18.1 


0.4 


4 


12-21 


0.4 




103799 


52.1 


+ 40 55 


6.54 


F5 


F5 


+ 26.2 


0.6 


4 


12-23 


0.7 




103953 


53.2 


+ 62 02 


6.66 


G5 


G8 


- 24.9 


0.5 


4 


15-22 


0.6 




107274 


12 14.9 


+ 49 32 


5.56 


K2 


K5 


+ 11.0 


1.0 


5 


9-20 


0.8 




107904 


18.9 


+ 43 05 


5.98 


FO 


F2n 


Var. 




4 


10-23 


2.9 


II 


108471 


22.6 


+ 09 10 


6.42 


KO 


G8 


- 05.3 


0.4 


4 


16-23 


0.9 




108651 


23.8 


+ 26 27 


6.69 


A3 


A2 


Var. 




4 


17-22 


1.0 


II 


108861 


25.4 


+ 59 19 


6.22 


KO 


,G8 


- 15.5 


0.9 


4 


17-24 


0.6 




108985 


12 26.3 


+ 08 10 


6.16 


K5 


K5 


- L5.7 


0.3 


4 


13-20 


1.2 




109345 


28.9 


+ 33 57 


6.37 


KO 


KO 


- 42.7 


0.4 


4 


18-23 


0.6 




109980 


33.9 


+ 41 25 


6.29 


A3 


A5n 


- 16.5 


4.1 


4 


3-5 


6.2 


* 


109996 


34.0 


+ 23 12 


6.47 


KO 


KO 


- 26.2 


0.5 


4 


21-26 


0.7 




110462 


37.2 


+ 63 16 


5.92 


AO 


AO 


-04.6 


0.9 


1 


7-19 


1.5 




110678 


12 38.7 


+ 61 42 


6.46 


KO 


K2 


- 04.8 


0.9 


4 


19-22 


0.7 




111164 


42.2 


+ 12 30 


6.05 


A3 


A3n 


- 03.5 


2.5 


4 


3-6 


6.0 


* 


111591 


15.3 


+ 23 24 


6.46 


KO 


KO 


+ 07.0 


0.7 


1 


16 23 


0.9 




! 12 1st; 


51.9 


+ 54 39 


5.84 


\2 


A 2 


Var. 




1 


4-23 


2.0 


II 


1 1 i:r>7 


13 05.0 


+ 37 57 


6.1 I 


K2 


K2 


- 18.7 


0.1 


4 


20-25 


0.6 




11 172 1 


13 07.3 


+ 21 is 


6.46 


KO 


G8 


- 23.0 


1.0 


4 


17-26 


0.7 




114793 


07.7 


+ 19 17 


6.58 


G5 


GO 


- 20.4 


0.4 


4 


18-26 


0.8 




114889 


08.4 


+ 19 i:> 


ti.ls 


KO 


Kl 


- 22.5 


0.5 


1 


19-26 


0.5 




11527] 


11.0 


+ 41 23 


5.68 


A5 


\.m 


- 18.8 


1.2 


1 


10-17 


3.0 




115709 


I :; s 


+ 04 13 


f ;.-,<; 


\<) 


AO 


Var. 


4 


9 1 1 




II 



324 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE I— Continued 



Star 




6 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


hCm./sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


115723 


h m 

13 13.9 


O 1 

4-34 37 


5.98 


K0 


K2 


- 19.6 


1.0 


6 


13-26 


1.9 


S 


117200 


23.7 


+ 65 15 


6.66 


FO F2 


- 13.9 


1.5 


4 


11-24 


1.3 




117201 


23.7 


+ 65 13 


7.01 


FO F5 


- 15.1 


1.2 


4 


14-24 


0.8 




117261 


24.1 


+ 41 15 


6.54 


KO 


G3 


- 58.3 


0.3 


4 


17-24 


0.6 




117281 


24.2 


+ 51 06 


6.77 


A3 


A5 


- 16.3 


1.6 


4 


17-20 


1.6 




117404 


13 25.0 


+ 07 42 


6.29 


K5 


K5 


- 01.9 


0.4 


4 


10-21 


0.8 




117405 


25.0 


+ 06 32 


6.41 


KO 


G6 


- 18.3 


1.0 


4 


17-19 


0.8 




117710 


27.0 


+ 42 36 


6.15 


KO 


Kl 


- 19.7 


0.2 


4 


17-21 


1.1 




118266 


30.6 


+ 10 43 


6.46 


KO 


Kl 


+ 33.7 


0.5 


4 


18-26 


0.7 




118295 


30.9 


+ 44 43 


6.63 


A5 


FOn 


- 26.1 


1.4 


4 


7-14 


3.3 




118508 


13 32.3 


-;- 25 07 


5.90 


Ma 


M2 


- 26.1 


1.0 


5 


9-16 


2.1 


S 


118536 


32.5 


+ 50 00 


6.60 


KO 


K2 


-08.9 


0.2 


4 


17-26 


0.8 




118686 


33.4 


+ 77 04 


6.70 


K5 


K6 


- 13.0 


0.3 


4 


13-22 


1.3 




118741 


33.7 


+ 51 13 


6.59 


K5 


K2 


- 46.6 


0.2 


4 


15-23 


1.1 


R 


119081 


36.0 


+ 28 35 


6.36 


KO 


K2 


- 61.8 


0.4 


4 


17-21 


1.0 




119445 


13 38.2 


+ 42 10 


6.34 


KO 


G5 


- 31.8 


0.4 


4 


13-21 


0.4 




120602 


45.4 


+ 05 59 


6.25 


KO 


G5 


- 23.2 


0.7 


4 


16-21 


1.1 




120787 


46.5 


+ 61 59 


6.05 


KO 


G6 


- 11.7 


0.4 


4 


17-23 


0.8 




120874 


47.1 


+ 59 02 


6.36 


AO 


AO 


Yar. 




6 


3-16 


3.2 


II 


121146 


48.6 


+ 68 49 


6.44 


KO 


KO 


- 43.5 


1.0 


4 


21-26 


0.7 




121607 


13 51.4 


+ 01 32 


5.94 


A3 


A3n 


- 27.9 


3.0 


5 


6-10 


5.7 


* 


122064 


54.4 


+ 61 59 


6.40 


K5 


K2 


- 24.3 


0.2 


4 


19-23 


0.9 




122675 


58.2 


+ 46 15 


6.46 


K5 


K2 


- 47.6 


0.6 


4 


16-21 


0.9 




122742 


58.6 


+ 11 16 


6.43 


G5 


G5 


- 13.4 


1.4 


4 


17-25 


0.7 


♦11 


122744 


58.6 


+ 08 01 


6.35 


KO 


G5 


- 19.1 


0.6 


4 


21-23 


0.7 




122866 


13 59.3 


+ 51 27 


6.05 


AO 


AO 


- 08.7 


2.3 


5 


5-6 


4.3 


* 


122909 


59.6 


+ 69 10 


6.42 


K5 


K3 


- 20.5 


0.4 


4 


21-23 


0.8 




122910 


59.6 


+ 02 47 


6.35 


KO 


KO 


- 27.5 


1.3 


4 


10-20 


1.3 




124186 


14 06.9 


+ 32 45 


6.24 


K2 


K2 


- 20.7 


1.5 


5 


14-23 


1.6 


S 


124681 


09.9 


+ 03 47 


6.62 


Ma 


M2 


- 47.8 


1.3 


4 


8-20 


1.4 




125538 


14 14.9 


+ 39 12 


6.48 


G5 


G8 


- 09.0 


0.9 


6 


7-24 


2.1 




125632 


15.6 


+ 55 20 


6.55 


A3 


A2 


- 04.2 


2.0 


4 


4-10 


4.5 




126271 


19.4 


+ 08 33 


6.22 


K2 


Kl 


- 29.0 


0.5 


4 


16-25 


1.1 




127043 


24.1 


+ 28 44 


7.45 


AO 


AOn 


- 08.4 


4.0 


4 


2-5 


5.3 


R 


127065 


24.2 


+ 36 39 


6.19 


KO 


Kl 


- 16.5 


0.3 


4 


17-26 


1.1 





The Radial Velocities oj 681 Stars 
TABLE I — Continued 



325 



Star 


a 


6 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ret. 


127067 


b m 

14 24.2 


o / 

+ 28 44 


6.95 


A0 


AOn 


- 10.5 


2.8 


5 


3-4 


6.2 




127334 


- 25.7 


+ 42 15 


6.45 


GO 


G5 


00.0 


1.5 


4 


19-25 


0.5 


R 


127929 


29.0 


4- 60 40 


6.18 


FO 


FO 


- 19.5 


0.6 


4 


13-26 


0.9 




128000 


29.4 


+ 55 50 


5.99 


K5 


K5 


+ 04.8 


1.6 


6 


7-23 


2.7 


s 


128402 


31.6 


+ 23 41 


6.48 


KO 


KO 


+ 08.2 


0.5 


4 


19-25 


0.9 




129153 


14 35.9 


+ 13 57 


5.98 


A5 


A8 


- 08.4 


0.9 


5 


6-16 


2.8 


s 


129430 


37.4 


+ 21 33 


6.43 


G5 


G5 


- 10.0 


0.6 


4 


8-26 


1.7 


130025 


40.8 


+ 19 18 


6.39 


KO 


G2 


- 04.1 


0.6 




18-22 


0.6 




130084 


41.1 


+ 33 13 


6.47 


Ma 


MO 


+ 33.3 


1.0 


4 


10-16 


1.4 




130970 


45.9 


+ 00 09 


6.24 


K2 


K5 


— 18.9 


1.1 


4 


10-22 


1.5 




131951 


14 51.5 


+ 14 51 


5.77 


AO 


AOn 


- 12.4 


3.3 


5 


3-5 


8.0 


S 


132772 


55.8 


+ 39 40 


5.58 


F2 


F2 


+ 12.6 


1.1 


6 


9-21 


2.7 


S 


132879 


56.4 


+ 22 27 


6.45 


KO 


Kl 


- 24.9 


0.5 


4 


13-24 


1.1 




133485 


59.6 


+ 34 56 


6.43 


KO 


KO 


- 24.1 


0.8 


4 


14-22 


0.8 




134493 


15 05.1 


+ 50 27 


6.27 


KO 


KO 


— 27.7 


1.1 


4 


15-28 


0.7 




135530 


15 10.5 


+ 42 33 


6.37 


Ma 


Ml 


- 04.8 


0.8 


4 


17-22 


1.7 




136643 


16.7 


+ 25 20 


6.44 


KO 


K2 


- 01.2 


0.4 


4 


13-21 


0.7 




137390 


20.7 


+ 45 37 


6.24 


K2 


K2 


-09.1 


0.8 


4 


20-24 


0.8 




138383 


26.7 


+ 37 09 


6.52 


KO 


KO 


+ 02.8 


0.3 


4 


20-24 


0.8 




138524 


27.6 


+ 62 27 


6.49 


K5 


Kl 


- 39.4 


0.8 


4 


19-22 


1.0 




138803 


15 29.3 


+ 17 29 


6.45 


FO 


FOn 


- 21.2 


1.0 


4 


15-18 


1.8 




138936 


30.1 


+ 02 00 


6.58 


A3 


\0 


- 19.5 


2.0 


5 


7-18 


2.0 




139284 


32.2 


+ 38 42 


6.50 


K2 


K2 


+ 03.7 


1.2 


4 


20-27 


0.9 




139493 


33.4 


+ 54 57 


5.74 


AO 


AOn 


- 20.3 


1.5 


5 


4-6 


8.2 


S 


139862 


35.4 


+ 12 23 


6.31 


G5 


G5 


-20.5 


0.3 


4 


18-23 


0.6 




140227 


15 37.4 


+ 69 36 


5.86 


KO 


KO 


- 25.2 


1.8 


4 


1 1-21 


1.7 


MIS 


140232 


37.4 


+ 18 47 


5.80 


A3 


AO 


- 30.5 


1 


4 


13-20 


is 


S 


140438 


38.5 


+ 13 59 


6.44 


G5 


G3 


- 09.9 


1.4 


1 


1 s 2s 


1.0 




1 11 456 


44.1 


+ 32 02 


6.56 


K5 


K5 


- 18.0 


0.3 


4 


13-24 


1.1 




141472 


44.2 


4 55 17 


5.90 


K2 


K2 


- 04.4 


1.0 


5 


13-21 


2.5 


s 


142244 


15 48.4 


+ 17 43 


(ill 


KO 


KO 


- 10.7 


0.7 


1 


13-29 


1.2 




! 12531 


50.0 


+ 56 07 


5.92 


KO 


KO 


- 28.6 


1.2 


•"> 


L6 2 1 


1.7 


S 


143209 


54.0 


+ 39 58 


0. 1 1 


KO 


K2 


13 l 


1.0 


1 


15-26 


11 




L44046 


58.8 


4 05 16 


6.18 


KO 


G8 


- 42.7 


1.1 


4 


10 21 


1.4 




1 15694 


If, 07 2 


4- 56 or, 


6 59 


KO 


KO 


13.6 


0.3 


1 


!'.» 2 1 


0.6 





326 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE I — Continued 



Star 


a 


& 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


•(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. /sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


145931 


h m 

16 08.5 


O 1 

+ 42 38 


6.01 


K5 


K6 


- 21.2 


0.3 


4 


19-24 


1.5 




146537 


11.7 


4-27 41 


6.30 


K2 


K3 


- 09.9 


0.4 


4 


14-31 


1.1 




146603 


12.0 


4-67 24 


6.28 


K0 


G8 


- 08.5 


0.4 


4 


19-23 


0.7 




147662 


18.1 


4-68 48 


6.47 


K0 


K2 


- 09.6 


0.6 


4 


18-23 


0.8 




148228 


21.5 


4- 11 40 


6.21 


KO 


KO 


- 20.3 


0.7 


4 


16-22 


0-.8 




149009 


16 26.9 


4-22 25 


5.96 


K5 


K5 


- 22.9 


0.8 


5 


7-27 


2.2 


S 


149084 


27.4 


+ 35 27 


6.47 


K5 


K8 


+ 25.6 


1.2 


4 


9-21 


1.3 


*10 


150429 


35.9 


+ 63 17 


6.44 


K5 


K5 


- 40.6 


0.2 


4 


19-24 


0.9 




150580 


36.9 


+ 25 03 


6.22 


K2 


K3 


- 66.6 


0.7 


4 


14-23 


1.2 




151623 


43.5 


+ 79 06 


6.38 


KO 


KO 


- 19.8 


1.2 


4 


20-24 


0.8 




153226 


16 53.0 


+ 14 03 


6.51 


G5 


KO 


- 29.7 


0.5 


4 


10-22 


1.0 




153299 


53.5 


+ 50 13 


6.70 


Ma 


MO 


- 29.6 


0.2 


4 


12-20 


0.9 




153312 


53.6 


+ 24 33 


6.36 


KO 


KO 


- 20.8 


0.6 


4 


14-22 


1.0 




153697 


55.9 


+ 65 11 


6.44 


FO 


FOn 


- 25.0 


0.4 


4 


8-15 


2.1 




154126 


58.5 


+ 32 02 


6.60 


KO 


KO 


- 12.1 


0.7 


4 


18-23 


0.8 




154301 


16 59.6 


+ 19 50 


6.57 


K5 


K5 


- 37.8 


0.6 


4 


7^24 


1.7 




154319 


59.7 


+ 69 20 


6.52 


KO 


GO 


- 26.8 


0.3 


4 


18-23 


0.8 




154391 


17 00.1 


+ 60 47 


6.24 


KO 


KO 


- 15.6 


1.0 


4 


17-23 


0.8 




154610 


01.4 


+ 09 53 


6.56 


K5 


K5 


-04.0 


0.3 


4 


20-23 


0.9 




154619 


01.5 


+ 10 35 


6.47 


KO 


G6 


- 22.9 


0.4 


4 


20-24 


0.6 




155500 


17 06.9 


+ 08 01 


6.39 


KO 


KO 


- 04.7 


1.2 


4 


11-22 


1.2 




155646 


07.8 


+ 00 29 


6.52 


F5 


F5 


+ 58.4 


0.7 


4 


15-21 


1.0 




156284 


11.6 


+ 23 52 


6.10 


K2 


K2 


- 39.0 


0.8 


4 


12-23 


1.2 




156593 


13.4 


+ 23 13 


6.53 


K2 


K5 


- 13.9 


0.6 


4 


15-21 


1.3 




156697 


14.0 


+ 06 11 


6.44 


FO 


Fon 


- 25.2 


5.4 


4 


4-14 


8.0 




156891 


17 15.0 


+ 38 55 


5.98 


KO 


G8 


- 36.4 


1.2 


4 


17-28 


1.4 


s 


157257 


17.1 


+ 16 50 


6.59 


Ma 


Ml 


+ 40.4 


0.6 


4 


14-21 


1.0 




157617 


19.2 


+ 08 56 


5.92 


K2 


K2 


+ 17.9 


1.1 


5 


12-24 


2.2 


s 


157681 


19.6 


+ 53 31 


5.95 


K5 


K5 


-08.2 


0.8 


4 


9-24 


1.7 


s 


157967 


21.4 


+ 17 00 


6.29 


Mb 


M4 


-06.5 


0.6 


4 


13-21 


1.0 




157978-9 


17 21.5 


+ 07 41 


5.98 


AO-G 


AO-G 


Yar. 




6 


6-20 


1.4 


IIR 


158996 


27.2 


+ 80 13 


5.91 


K2 


K5 


-05.9 


1.3 


4 


9-21 


0.7 




159026 


27.3 


+ 38 58 


6.45 


F2 


F2n 


- 27.7 


1.3 


4 


8-12 


6.5 




159222 


28.4 


+ 34 21 


6.54 


G5 


G2 


- 52.1 


0.4 


4 


20-24 


0.8 




159354 


29.2 


+ 14 55 


6.66 


Mb 


M4 


+ 31.2 


0.7 


4 


13-21 


1.1 





The Radial I r elocities of 681 Stars 
TABLE I — Continued 



32; 



Star 


a 


6 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


159925 


h m 

17 32.2 


o / 

4-37 22 


6.15 


K0 


G8 


+ 04.5 


0.3 


4 


18-24 


0.8 




159926 


32.2 


4-28 14 


6.48 


K5 


K5 


- 32.6 


1.0 


4 


8-20 


1.9 




160677 


36.2 


+ 31 15 


6.30 


Ma 


MO 


- 08.9 


0.6 


4 


16-23 


1.0 


160781 


36.7 


+ 06 22 


5.98 


K0 


K2 


- 31.2 


1.5 


6 


7-21 


1.0 




160822 


36.9 


+ 31 22 


6.43 


K0 


KO 


- 05.1 


1.0 


4 


17-22 


0.8 




160933 


17 37.6 


+ 69 38 


6.48 


F8 


F8 


- 53.3 


0.2 


4 


20-24 


O.S 




160950 


37.7 


+ 43 31 


6.67 


KO 


K2 


- 28.2 


0.6 


4 


18-22 


0.8 




161162 


38.9 


+ 57 22 


6.84 


KO 


G5 


- 12.8 


0.8 


4 


18-21 


0.8 




161178 


39.0 


+ 72 31 


5.96 


KO 


KO 


+ 09.0 


0.6 


4 


18-24 


0.6 




161193 


39.1 


+ 51 52 


6.12 


KO 


KO 


- 07.0 


0.6 


4 


17-24 


0.7 




161369 


17 40.1 


+ 44 08 


6.57 


K2 


K4 


- 59.3 


0.6 


4 


13-21 


0.9 




161815 


42.6 


+ 38 56 


6.51 


KO 


KO 


- 10.5 


0.7 


4 


20-22 


1.0 




161832 


42.7 


+ 39 22 


6.56 


KO 


K3 


Yar. 




4 


16-21 


1.1 


II 


162113 


44.3 


+ 02 00 


6.46 


KO 


K2 


- 57.0 


0.4 


4 


14-19 


0.9 




162468 


46.1 


+ 11 59 


6.35 


K2 


Kl 


- 48.2 


0.6 


4 


19-23 


0.8 




162734 


17 47.4 


+ 15 22 


6.54 


KO 


KO 


- 42.0 


0.7 


5 


14-22 


0.8 




162774 


47.6 


+ 01 20 


6.15 


K5 


K5 


- 63.6 


0.3 


4 


12-20 1.1 


162826 


47.9 


+ 40 05 


6.52 


GO 


F8 


+ 01.5 


0.4 


4 


21-25 0.7 


163840 


53.2 


+ 24 01 


6.36 


GO 


GO 


Var. 




6 


L6-24 0.7 II 


164280 


55.3 


+ 36 17 


5.98 


KO 


KO 


+ 10.5 


1.3 


5 


1 7 22 


1.9 


s 


164428 


17 56.0 


+ 78 20 


6.38 


K5 


K5 


-05.3 


0.5 


1 


19-20 


0.9 




164780 


57.7 


+ 75 10 


6.44 


KO 


KO 


- 16.8 


0.3 


4 


19-21 


0.7 




164824 


57.9 


+ 33 20 6.27 


K5 


K5 


-08.9 


0.4 


4 


15-23 


1.3 




166207 


18 04.5 


+ 50 49 6.35 


KO 


KO 


- 56.1 


1.7 


4 


20-22 


0.9 


•12 


166411 


05.4 


+ 30 26 


6.64 


K2 


Kl 


- 78.6 


0.3 


4 


21-24 


0.8 




167304 


18 09.5 


+ 41 08 


6.36 


KO 


KO 


17. -J 


0.6 


4 


22-24 


0.8 




L67654 


11.1 


+ 02 22 


6.31 


Mb 


M3 


+ 23.0 


0.8 


4 


13-22 


1.1 




168009 


12.7 


| 15 L0 


6.30 


GO 


GO 


- 64.4 


0.4 


4 


10-21 


0.7 




168323 


14.0 


+ 23 15 


6.72 


K5 


KO 


+ 04.8 


0.4 


4 


15-19 


1.2 




168694 


16.0 


+ 29 37 


oil 


KO 


K2 


- 34.8 


0.9 


1 


21-24 


0.9 




169221 


18 18.6 


+ 19 10 


6.51 


KO 


KO 


ir.ii 


0.8 


4 


1 5 22 


0.7 




169646 


20.6 


+ 38 42 


6.45 


K2 


K2 


39.2 


1.2 


4 


18-24 


1.0 




170137 


22.8 


+ 03 41 


0.1 1 


K2 


K2 


- 17.7 


1.1 


.". 


9-18 


2.2 


170829 


26.4 


+ 20 46 


6.59 


G5 


G8 


Var. 




4 


16-27 


OS II 


171994 


32.6 


+ 16 07 


6.38 


Ko 


KO 


l.-, ii 


11 


t 


I.". 20 


OS 





328 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE I— Continued 



Star 




6 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. /sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


172424 


h m 

18 35.0 


o I 

+ 07 16 


6.36 


K0 


G8 


- 40.0 


0.4 


4 


13-22 


0.7 




172569 


35.9 


4-65 24 


6.00 


A3 


A3 


Yar. 




4 


9-18 


2.1 


II 


172631 


36.2 


4-30 46 


6.48 


K0 


G5 


- 48.9 


0.2 


4 


19-23 


0.6 




172958 


37.9 


4-31 31 


6.47 


AO 


B9n 


- 17.3 


1.0 


4 


3-5 


5.7 




173383 


39.9 


4-39 13 


6.55 


K5 


K5 


Yar. 




4 


16-24 


1.4 


II 


173398 


18 40.0 


4-62 39 


6.01 


KO 


KO 


- 25.7 


0.4 


4 


16-25 


0.6 




173416 


40.1 


4-36 28 


6.25 


KO 


G8 


- 59.9 


0.4 


4 


11-23 


0.8 




173833 


42.3 


4- 18 36 


6.27 


K5 


K6 


- 11.4 


0.7 


4 


7-18 


1.6 




173920 


42.9 


4-54 47 


6.26 


G5 


GO 


+ 07.1 


0.1 


4 


20-26 


0.7 




174205 


44.3 


+ 70 41 


6.56 


K2 


K2 


- 04.4 


0.6 


4 


22-25 


0.7 




174369 


18 45.1 


4-24 56 


6.56 


AO 


A2n 


Var. 




5 


5-9 


4.0 


II 


174481 


45.6 


4-48 39 


6.02 


A3 


A5n 


- 32.0 


2.1 


4 


8-10 


4.4 




174569 


46.0 


4- 10 52 


6.63 


K2 


K5 


- 22.2 


0.5 


5 


12-21 


1.2 


R 


175679 


51.4 


+ 02 21 


6.28 


KO 


G8 


- 14.4 


0.5 


4 


17-22 


0.7 




175743 


51.7 


+ 17 59 


5.72 


K2 


K2 


Yar. 




5 


9-23 


1.6 


II 


176541 


18 55.7 


+ 22 40 


6.41 


Ma 


M3 


- 52.5 


0.6 


4 


16-17 


1.2 




176707 


56.5 


+ 50 41 


6.37 


G5 


G8 


- 19.6 


0.5 


4 


16-26 


0.8 




176776 


56.8 


+ 19 10 


6.51 


KO 


KO 


- 27.9 


0.4 


4 


19-22 


0.9 




176844 


57.1 


+ 40 32 


6.77 


Ma 


M2 


- 03.0 


0.7 


4 


20-23 


1.1 




176939 


57.5 


+ 24 53 


6.92 


K2 


K3 


- 20.2 


0.6 


4 


17-25 


1.0 




176981 


18 57.6 


+ 08 14 


6.62 


K2 


K2 


- 07.7 


1.4 


4 


19-25 


0.9 


*11 


177199 


58.6 


+ 19 31 


6.25 


KO 


K2 


-06.0 


0.4 


4 


19-26 


0.9 




179094 


19 06.1 


+ 52 16 


5.93 


KO 


G8 


Yar. 




4 


21-24 


0.6 


II 


179933 


09.4 


+ 65 49 


6.19 


A2 


A2n 


-23.0 


1.9 


4 


3-5 


2.6 




181122 


14.1 


+ 09 27 


6.38 


KO 


KO 


- 10.7 


0.5 


4 


16-26 


0.8 




181597 


19 16.0 


+ 49 23 


6.26 


KO 


KO 


- 13.0 


0.4 


4 


17-24 


0.9 




181655 


16.2 


+ 37 09 


6.36 


G5 


G5 


+ 02.5 


0.5 


4 


8-24 


0.9 




182272 


18.8 


+ 33 19 


6.30 


KO 


KO 


- 14.8 


0.4 


4 


19-25 


0.5 




182488 


19.8 


+ 33 01 


6.50 


KO 


Kl 


- 19.5 


0.9 


4 


20-22 


0.7 




182635 


20.5 


+ 36 15 


6.45 


KO 


KO 


- 31.9 


0.3 


4 


15-23 


0.7 




183387 


19 24.2 


+ 00 02 


6.52 


K2 


K2 


- 58.9 


0.9 


4 


19-21 


1.0 




183589 


25.2 


+ 02 41 


6.38 


K5 


K5 


- 05.7 


1.3 


4 


13-21 


1.1 




183611 


25.3 


+ 62 21 


6.46 


K5 


K4 


- 38.9 


0.9 


4 


19-21 


0.8 




184102 


27.8 


+ 79 24 6.00 


A2 


A2n 


- 04.1 


1.8 


4 


4-6 


5.3 




184786 


31.0 


+ 49 02 1 6.19 


Mb 


Ml 


- 07.8 


0.8 


5 


12-24 


1.1 





The Radial i'elocilies of 681 Stars 
TABLE I — Continued 



329 



Star 




s 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. /sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


184884 


b ni 

19 31.4 


o / 

+ 10 55 


6.53 


A2 


A2n 


- 06.1 


3.1 


4 


3-5 


5.7 


* 


184936 


31.6 


+ 59 57 


6.43 


K5 


K5 


- 17.7 


0.4 


4 


20-23 


1.0 




184944 


31.7 


4- 14 10 


6.47 


K0 


KO 


- 41.0 


0.5 


4 


18-22 


0.7 




184958 


31.8 


4- 70 47 


6.25 


K2 


K4 


- 41.9 


0.4 


4 


12-22 


0.9 




184977 


31.9 


+ 47 57 


6.70 


A5 


A5 


- 01.0 


0.7 


4 


13-23 


1.4 




185264 


19 33.2 


+ 50 01 


6.63 


G5 


G8 


+ 09.3 


0.4 


5 


16-23 


0.8 




185436 


34.0 


+ 20 34 


6.50 


K0 


KO 


+ 06.0 


0.6 


4 


13-26 


1.1 




185622 


34.9 


+ 16 21 


6.58 


K5 


K6 


- 00.4 


1.4 


5 


9-25 


1.6 




186021 


36.9 


+ 22 13 


6.44 


K2 


Kl 


- 22.0 


0.4 


4 


17-21 


1.0 




186121 


37.5 


+ 12 50 


6.39 


Ma 


M2 


- 04.2 


1.1 


4 


17-22 


1.0 




186532 


19 39.9 


+ 55 13 


6.52 


Mb 


M6 


- 25.7 


0.9 


4 


19-21 


1.0 




186702 


40.9 


+ 34 10 


6.77 


Ma 


M2 


+ 10.1 


0.4 


4 


19-21 


1.0 




186776 


41.4 


+ 40 28 


6.44 


Ma 


M2 


- 98.1 


0.3 


4 


16-21 


1.0 




186815 


tl.C + 56 47 


6.39 


G5 


G5 


- 24.6 


0.7 


4 


14-19 


1.1 




186998 


42.5 


4- 2 1 53 


6.60 


F0 


FOn 


+ 15.1 


2.9 


4 


4-5 


5.1 




187038 


19 42.7 


+ 32 38 


6.18 


K2 


K2 


- 45.4 


0.3 


5 


18-28 


0.9 




187764 


46.6 


+ 68 11 


6.35 


FO 


FOn 


- 12.6 


2.9 


4 


10-16 


2.6 


* 


187880 


47.2 


+ 37 35 


6.31 


Ma 


M2 


- 14.2 


0.8 


4 


15-22 


1.0 




ISS1 I'.l 


48.7 


+ 36 11 


6.33 


KO 


K3 


- 19.8 


0.3 


4 


14-24 


1.0 




lss:i.-.o 


49.6 


+ 00 01 


5.57 


AO 


AOn 


- 42.6 


2.9 


4 


4-8 


3.9 


» 


L89127 


19 53.4 


+ 57 59 


6.19 


KO 


G8 


- 15.5 


0.2 


4 


18-24 


0.7 




L89322 


54.3 


+ 01 07 


6.35 


<-,:, 


G6 


+ 07.0 


1.1 


1 


13-22 


1.0 


•10 


189695 


56.2 


+ 08 17 


6.08 


K2 


K5 


- 36.8 


0.6 


4 


9-25 


1.3 




189942 


57.5 


+ 36 19 


6.39 


KO 


KO 


- 15.0 


0.9 


1 


18-23 


0.7 




190252 


59.0 


+ 70 05 


6.46 


G5 


G3 


- 10.3 


0.7 


4 


20-26 


0.6 




L90658 


20 00.9 


+ L5 L3 


6.56 


Ma 


Ml 


Var. 




4 


16 2D 


1.0 


II 


190771 


01.5 


+ 38 12 


6.56 


G5 


GO 


- 24.2 


0.2 


1 


18-27 


0.7 




L90964 


02. 1 


+ 51 33 


6.28 


Ma 


MO 


- 54.2 


0.5 


4 


12-24 


1.1 




191096 


03.1 


+ 56 03 


6.18 


FO 


F2 


- 12.2 


0.6 


1 


13 2 1 


0.9 




191178 


03.5 


+ 16 24 


6.67 


Ma 


M3 


+ 13,1 


0.6 


4 


13 20 


1.2 




L91329 


20 04.3 


+ 19 :.7 


6 52 


A2 


\2n 


• 112 2 


2.6 


1 


3-4 


5.0 


• 


1'. II 372 


04.5 


| 67 15 


6.56 


Ma 


Ml 


km; 


0.7 


1 


15-23 


0.8 




L91814 


06.7 


+ 20 51 


6 26 


KO 


< ;:, 


- Oli.O 


0.8 


1 


L6 21 


Of, 




L92635 


L0.3 


j 13 in 


6.25 


K2 


K5 


- 22.1 


0.1 


1 


i:, 23 


1.0 




193094 


L3.4 


! 28 50 


6.38 


KO 


G8 


L9.0 


0.3 


6 


15-21 


0.6 





330 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE I — Continued 



Star 




5 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. /sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


193217 


h m 

20 14.0 


o / 

+ 42 24 


6.45 


K2 


K3 


- 16.4 


0.4 


4 


12-21 


1.0 




193373 


14.8 


+ 12 56 


6.50 


Ma 


MO 


+ 25.9 


0.6 


4 


19-20 


0.9 




193944 


17.9 


+ 53 16 


6.38 


K5 


K5 


- 02.1 


0.3 


4 


15-21 


1.4 




194220 


19.4 


+ 42 40 


6.33 


K0 


KO 


- 19.1 


0.4 


5 


20-24 


0.7 




194244 


19.5 


+ 00 45 


6.11 


A0 


AOn 


+ 02.7 


3.3 


4 


3-4 


10. 


* 


194298 


20 19.8 


+ 63 41 


5.92 


K5 


K6 


+ 31.9 


0.8 


4 


19-23 


1.0 




194526 


21.0 4-09 45 


6.46 


K5 


K5 


- 75.3 


0.6 


4 


11-21 


1.3 




194616 


21.5 


+ 19 31 


6.44 


KO 


KO 


- 29.1 


0.4 


4 


17-21 


0.9 




194937 


23.2 


+ 08 07 


6.26 


KO 


KO 


- 10.0 


0.4 


6 


11-24 


1.1 




194953 


23.3 


+ 02 36 


6.35 


KO 


G5 


- 20.5 


0.3 


4 


18-25 


0.8 




195820 


20 28.5 


+ 51 58 


6.27 


KO 


KO 


- 08.9 


0.6 


4 


22-25 


0.7 




196134 


30.3 


+ 41 25 


6.43 


KO 


KO 


+ 02.0 


0.6 


4 


19-23 


0.8 




196379 


31.9 


+ 51 31 


6.26 


FO 


FO 


- 13.2 


1.0 


4 


20-25 


1.0 




196610 


33 J .4 


+ 17 55 


6.27 


Mc 


M7 


- 63.3 


0.2 


4 


17-23 


1.3 




196642 


33.6 


+ 37 58 


6.32 


KO 


KO 


- 35.5 


0.9 


4 


18-22 


0.8 




196787 


20 34.5 


+ 81 05 


5.62 


KO 


G8 


-03.9 


0.2 


4 


19-24 


0.6 




197101 


36.4 


+ 55 39 


6.50 


FO* 


FOn 


- 01.0 


1.5 


4 


4-8 


4.8 




197249 


37.4 


+ 17 11 


6.27 


KO 


G6 


- 01.4 


1.0 


4 


10-23 


1.1 




197508 


39.1 


+ 83 17 


6.16 


A2 


A2 


Var. 




4 


16-22 


0.7 


II 


197812 


40.9 


+ 17 44 


Var. 


Mb 


M6 


- 19.6 


1.2 


4 


15-19 


1.1 


R 


197939 


20 41.8 


+ 56 08 


6.24 


Ma 


M2 


- 27.3 


0.4 


5 


13-24 


1.2 




198181 


43.5 


+ 52 38 


6.43 


KO 


KO 


- 27.6 


0.5 


4 


19-22 


0.7 




198236 


43.9 


+ 69 23 


6.52 


KO 


G8 


- 07.5 


0.4 


5 


18-24 


0.7 




198404 


45.0 


+ 05 11 


6.30 


KO 


KO 


- 20.7 


0.3 


4 


17-22 


0.8 




199095 


49.8 


+ 82 10 


5.69 


AO 


AO 


Var. 




4 


4-7 


1.6 


II 


199442 


20 52.1 


+ 00 05 


6.26 


K2 


K2 


- 24.6 


0.6 


5 


20-22 


0.9 




199611 


53.3 


+ 50 20 


5.80 


FO 


FOn 


- 19.6 


2.0 


5 


8-11 


3.7 


* 


199941 


55.2 


+ 16 26 


6.53 


F2 


F2 


+ 01.7 


0.7 


4 


15-22 


1.3 




200430 


58.3 


+ 14 20 


6.38 


Ma 


Ml 


- 37.0 


0.8 


5 


12-22 


1.2 




200527 


58.9 


+ 44 25 


6.38 


Mb 


M3 


+ 02.1 


0.5 


4 


17-24 


1.0 




200661 


20 59.7 


+ 02 33 


6.55 


KO 


KO 


- 09.4 


0.6 


6 


6-20 


1.1 




200663 


59.7 


+ 01 54 


6.42 


G5 


G5 


- 10.7 


1.0 


4 


11-20 


0.9 




200740 


21 00.2 


+ 49 57 


6.45 


KO 


KO 


- 21.1 


0.5 


4 


21-28 


0.6 




201298 


03.5 


+ 06 36 


6.38 


K5 


K6 


+ 21.5 


0.7 


4 


12-21 


1.1 




202582 


11.7 


+ 63 59 


6.41 


GO 


GO 


+ 29.6 


0.4 


4 


18-24 


0.6 





The Radial I 'clocities of 6S1 Stars 
TABLE I — Continued 



331 



Star 


a 


5 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


(1900) 


C1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


202720 


b m 

21 12.7 


o / 

+ 41 50 


6.53 


K2 


K2 


+ 09.2 


0.4 


4 


17-21 


0.9 




202951 


14.1 


+ 10 47 


6.32 


K5 


K6 


— 35.5 


1.3 


4 


18-25 


1.0 


*9 


203358 


16.6 


+ 32 02 


6.44 


G5 


G5 


- 27.5 


0.5 


4 


22-23 


0.5 


R 


203630 


18.4 


+ 29 53 


6.28 


K0 


Kl 


- 23.9 


0.4 


4 


20-24 


0.7 




203857 


19.7 


+ 36 55 


6.59 


K5 


K5 


- 01.4 


0.6 


4 


20-23 


0.9 




203886 


21 19.9 


+ 24 06 


6.42 


K0 


KO 


- 22.8 


0.3 


4 


18-23 


0.5 




204445 


23.5 


+ 07 46 


6.66 


Ma 


M2 


- 04.1 


0.5 


4 


13-20 


0.9 




204560 


24.3 


+ 17 29 


6.36 


K."> 


K3 


- 11.1 


0.9 


4 


17-22 


1.1 




204585 


24.5 


+ 21 45 


6.18 


Mb 


M3 


- 20.5 


0.6 


4 


18-22 


0.9 




204599 


24.6 


+ 59 19 


6. 1 1 


Ma 


M2 


- 14.4 


0.2 


4 


18-21 


0.9 




205314 


21 29.4 


+ 49 30 


5.76 


AO 


AOn 


Var. 




5 


2-4 


2.9 


II 


205349 


29.6 


+ 45 25 


6.56 


K2 


K2 


-04.2 


0.6 


4 


15-25 


0.9 




205688 


31.9 


+ 29 37 


6.47 


KO 


GS 


- 18.7 


0.7 


4 


20-23 


0.7 




205924 


33.5 


+ 05 19 


5.80 


FO 


FOn 


- 21.0 


2.8 


.". 


2-7 


6.5 


* 


206040 


34.3 


+ 53 36 


6.20 


G5 


G8 


+ 02.5 


0.7 


1 


15-26 


ll> 




206509 


21 37.4 


+ 5 1 25 


6.16 


KO 


KO 


+ 05.1 


0.3 


4 


19-24 


0.8 




206632 


38.3 


+ 45 18 


ii.17 


Ml 


Ml 


+ 10.3 


0.4 


4 


14-23 


1.1 




206731 


39.0 


+ 49 08 


6.12 


KO 


G5 


-03.5 


1.3 


4 


21-23 


0.7 


*10 


207088 


41.5 


+ 35 24 


6.60 


KO 


G6 


- 04.0 


0.7 


4 


18-22 


0.8 




207223 


42.3 


+ 16 44 


6.24 


FO 


F2 


- 19.7 


0.8 


4 


16-28 


1.1 




207446 


21 43.9 


+ 36 06 


6.60 


K5 


K5 


- 29.5 


0.6 


1 


16-24 


0.9 




207636 


15.3 


+ 69 11 


6. 12 


AO 


AOn 


- 03.2 


2.3 


4 


3-4 


"i..") 


* 


208110 


18.9 


+ 06 23 


6 58 


GO 


GO 


- 09.8 


0.1 


1 


16-21 


0.8 




208527 


51.7 


+ 20 48 


6.62 


K5 


K5 


+ 03.5 


1 7 


5 


7-22 


2.0 




208606 


52.3 


+ 61 04 


6.22 


K."> 


KOg 


Var. 




5 


19-26 


0.7 


II 


209112 


21 55.9 


+ 62 i:; 


6.16 


Ml) 


M2 


- 14.5 


0.6 


1 


16-23 


0.9 




209258 


56.9 


+ 74 31 


6.64 


K5 


K5 


15.1 


1.5 


1 


20-24 


iiv 


•10 


210502 


22 05.7 


f 11 us 


5.92 


K5 


K5 


+ 21.7 


1.3 


5 


11-21 


2.1 


s 


210905 


08.5 


- 58 3 1 


6.52 


KO 


KO 


- 27.3 


0.8 


1 


L9-26 


0.6 




211029 


09.3 


• 62 18 


6.06 


Ma 


M3 


- 12.3 


1.1 


1 


12 23 


1.0 




212047 


22 Ki.l 


• 26 26 


6.50 


Ma 


M3 


- 04.8 


11 


1 


13-20 


12 




212150 


17.1 


\ 76 00 


6.56 


AO 


AOn 


ls7 


2.1 


1 


3-4 






212988 


23.2 


+ 31 20 


6.26 


K2 


K3 


+ 01.9 


1.0 


.". 




1.1 




213242 


25.0 


+ 63 31 


6 38 


KO 


Kl 


25 9 


0.4 


1 


22 2 1 


H7 




213272 


25.2 


+ 35 13 


6.53 


AO 


AOn 


03 1 


2.8 


1 


4-5 


3.3 


* 



332 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE I— Continued 



Star 


a 


& 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. 


(1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. /sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


213389 


h m 

22 25.9 


o / 

+ 48 51 


6.52 


K0 


Kl 


Yar. 




5 


17-22 


1.0 


II 


213644 


27.9 


+ 15 20 


6.36 


K0 


K2 


- 26.8 


0.6 


4 


20-24 


0.8 




213720 


28.4 


+ 53 31 


6.47 


KO 


KO 


- 13.4 


0.7 


4 


12-22 


0.7 




214298 


32.1 


+ 12 04 


6.53 


K5 


K3 


- 18.1 


1.5 


5 


8-20 2.2 




214313 


32.2 


+ 35 08 


6.50 


K5 


K3 


+ 11.0 


0.5 


4 


19-24 


0.7 




214710 


22 35.0 


+ 74 51 


6.06 


K5 


K5 


- 05.3 


0.8 


4 


17-25 


0.9 




214714 


35.0 


+ 37 04 


6.14 


G5 


GOg 


-06.5 


0.8 


4 


15-22 


0.7 




214878 


36.2 


+ 53 20 


6.10 


KO 


G8 


- 05.7 


0.2 


4 


15-21 


0.6 




214979 


36.9 


+ 30 26 


6.48 


K5 


K5 


- 33.0 


0.5 


4 


17-22 


0.8 




215030 


37.2 


+ 41 03 


6.07 


KO 


KO 


- 13.0 


0.4 


4 


16-21 


0.7 




215159 


22 38.2 


+ 53 23 


6.26 


K2 


K3 


+ 09.6 


0.8 


4 


L8-24 


0.7 




215518 


40.7 


+ 51 59 


6.66 


K2 


K5 


+ 05.8 


0.6 


4 


20-24 0.9 




215907 


43.5 


+ 57 57 


6.29 


Alt 


AO 


-00.6 


1.6 


4 


4-5 | 2.5 




215943 


43.7 


+ 36 52 


6.00 


KO 


G8 


- 23.2 


1.0 


4 


17-22 0.7 




216102 


45.0 


+ 62 24 


0.16 


KO 


KO 


- 25.6 


0.6 


4 


19-23 


0.5 




216201 


22 45.8 


+ 18 36 


6.50 


KO 


KO 


- 37.6 


0.6 


4 


17-22 


0.6 




216756 


50.4 


+ 36 33 


6.00 


F2 


F3 


- 28.0 


1.0 


5 


10-20 


0.7 




217019 


52.5 


+ 03 15 


6.43 


K2 


KO 


+ 11.7 


0.3 


4 


19-21 


0.7 




217314 


54.8 


+ 52 06 


6.41 


K2 


K2 


+ 28.5 


0.4 


4 


8-20 1.1 




217459 


.")."). 7 


+ 02 29 


5.96 


KO 


K2 


+ 21.4 


0.6 


4 


15 -21 


0.9 




217673 


22 57.3 


+ 56 34 


6.50 


K2 


K2 


- 04.5 


0.5 


4 


20-21 


0.9 




217944 


59.2 


+ 58 01 


6.50 G5 


G5 


+ 15.8 


0.4 


4 


20-24; 0.6 




218103 


23 00.2 


+ 00 46 


6.38 


KO 


G8 


- 11.4 


0.4 


4 


21-23 0.6 




218261 


01.5 


+ 19 22 


6.42 


F8 


GO 


- 01.2 


0.9 


4 


15-24 0.7 




218416 


02.8 


+ 52 17 


6.26 


KO 


KO 


+ 05.7 


0.8 


4 


20-22 


0.6 




218560 


23 03.9 


+ 63 41 


6.41 


KO 


G8 


- 27.0 


0.8 


4 


17-20 


0.7 




219139 


08.5 4- 10 31 


5.94 


KO 


KO 


+ 18.0 


0.8 


4 


14-17 


1.5 


s 


219310 


09.7 , + 23 34 


6.49 


KO 


Kl 


- 25.8 


0.1 


4 


19-22 


0.9 




219485 


11.0 +73 41 


5.74 


AO 


AO 


-03.8 


0.9 


4 


6-10 1.5 




220074 


15.8 


+ 61 26 


6.62 


K5 


K6 


- 33.8 


0.4 


4 


19-23 


0.8 




220130 23 16.2 


+ 61 40 


6.43 


K5 


K2 


- 22.4 


0.9 


4 


13-23 


0.8 




220242 


17.1 


+ 26 05 


6.64 


F2 


F2 


+ 09.0 


0.4 


4 


18-24 


0.7 




221113 


24.1 


+ 22 31 


6.45 


KO 


KO 


+ 20.6 


0.4 


4 


19-21 0.6 




221246 


25.3 


+ 4S 36 


6.38 


K2 


K4 


+ 07.0 


0.5 


4 


18-20 0.8 




221293 


25.8 


+ 38 06 


6.21 


KO 


G8 


- 08.8 


0.6 


4 


16-21 


0.8 





The Radio! Velocities oj 681 Stars 
TABLE I— Continued 



333 



Star a 


5 


Vis. 


Type 


Type 


Velocity 












H.D. (1900) 


(1900) 


Mag. 


H.D. 


D.D.O. 


Km. sec. 


P.E. 


Plates 


Lines 


e 


Ref. 


! h m 

221491 23 27.5 


+ 34 25 


6.55 


A0 


AOn 


+ 10.8 


2.7 


4 


3-4 


4.6 


* 


221661 28.9 


+ 44 31 


6.28 


G5 


G6 


+ 08.1 


0.3 


4 


12-22 0.7 




221662 ' 28.9 


+ 20 18 


6.29 


Ma 


Ml 


+ 06.7 


0.3 


4 


17-23 1.0 




221776 . 29.9 


+ 37 29 


6.34 


K5 


K5 


- 10.9 


0.8 


4 


8-20| 1.4 




221861 30.6 


+ 71 05 


6.13 


K0 


KOg 


-02.4 


0.5 


4 


19-26 


0.7 




221905 23 30.9 


+ 24 01 


6.60 


Ma 


Ml 


- 10.6 


0.8 


5 


14-19 


1.1 




222618 37.1 


+ 56 43 


6.33 


G5 


G8 


- 08.1 


0.2 


4 


22-25 0.7 




222670 37.6 


+ 63 58 


6.85 


Ma 


M2 


- 01.7 


0.9 


4 


9-22 


0.9 




222682 37.7 


+ 61 07 


6.54 


K2 


K2 


- 14.5 


0.4 


4 


21-23 


0.6 




224128 50.3 


+ 25 24 


6.67 


K5 


K5 


- 13.3 


0.6 


4 


15-23 


1.0 




224303 23 51.6 


+ 22 05 


6.30 


Ma 


MO 


+ 01.8 


0.6 


4 


10-22 


1.2 




224309 51.7 


+ 82 38 


6.42 


A0 


A2n 


- 13.9 


1.0 


4 


4-5 


5.5 




224784 


55.5 


+ 59 01 


6.37 


KO 


G6 


- 32.2 


0.5 


4 


18-24 


0.6 




224870 


56.3 


+ 49 25 


6.36 


KO 


G5 


- 19.1 


0.2 


4 


16-23 


0.7 




225136 


23 58.7 


+ 66 09 


6.62 


Ma 


M3 


+ 17.6 


0.6 


4 


11-19 


1.0 




225276 ' 59.8 


+ 26 06 


6.52 


K2 


K2 


- 03.6 


0.8 


4 


19-23 


0.7 





334 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



H.D. 
6480 

8949 
11037 
15253 
16458 



17378 - 

26923 - 

28736 - 

32039 - 



34533 - 

35295 - 

36041 - 

59878 - 

65448 - 

82685 - 

82780 - 

118741 - 

127043 - 

127334 - 
157978-9 

174569 - 

197812 - 

203358 - 



Notes to Table I 

This star with H.D. 6479 forms a wide double. The brighter com- 
panion has a velocity of — 9 km. The two stars have a common 
proper motion. 

There is a faint companion, separation 70", B.D.S. 770. 
All the plates but one are taken with the 123/9-inch camera. 
Brighter component of double star A.D.S. 1878, separation 2". 6. 
X4554, Ba +, is very strong in this star — stronger than in an ordinary 
star of type M7, and almost as strong as in 19 Piscium, type X. The 
absolute magnitude line-ratios have not yet been determined for 
plates taken with our spectrograph but using the curves determined 
for the one-prism at Victoria, which is nearly the same dispersion, 
the absolute magnitude is — 3.5±. In all the plates obtained of 
K-type stars here no other star of this type has X4554 nearly so strong. 
Harvard gives the spectrum as composite A-F. There does not seem 
to be any evidence of composite spectrum on our plates. The a Cygni 
lines are very strong. 

Brighter star of a wide double A.D.S. 3085, separation 65". 
This star belongs to the Taurus cluster. 

This and the next star form a wide double, the components of which 
have a common proper motion. H.D. 32040 may be variable but the 
range is too small considering the character of the lines to make this 
definite. The mean velocitv of the 8 plates for the two stars is 
+ 36 km. ±. 

This is the brighter component of a wide double A.D.S. 3903, sepa- 
ration 23". The spectrum is composite. 

The brighter component of a wide double A.D.S. 4000, separation 31". 
The brighter component of a wide double B.D.S. 2757, separation 75". 
Brighter component of double star A.D.S. 6160, separation 11". 
Brighter component of wide double B.D.S. 4359, separation 47". 
Brighter component of double star A.D.S. 7446, separation 5". 
Brightest star of three forming a wide triple A.D.S. 7438. 
This star is double, A.D.S. 8976, separation 1".9, magnitudes 6.4- 
7.9; not always resolved on the slit. 

This star forms with H.D. 127067 a wide double. The velocities of 
the two stars seem to be equal. 
All plates but one taken with 12> ;>-inch camera. 
The spectrum is composite, types about A0-G; two stars not seen 
on slit. 

Brighter component of A.D.S. 11750, separation 4". 
Variable, mag. 6.4-7.5. 

Double star A.D.S. 14889, separation 1".8; not always resolved 
on slit. 



The Radial Velocities of 681 Stars 
TABLE II 



335 



Star 


J.D.242... 


Vel. 










H.D. 


or 243... 


Km. /sec. 


P.E. 


Lines 


M 


Remark- 


15138 


0575.886 


- 59.3 


2.6 


7 


N 


The component- are 


02 h 21 m .2 




+ 56.0 


3.2 


7 




about equal. 


+ 50° 07' 


0672.565 


- 02.0 


1.8 


15 


N 


Velocity of system 


6.27 F2 


1008.791 


+ 41.1 
- 49.1 


1.2 
3.4 


6 
6 


Y 


— 4 km. ± 




1093.560 


- 09.2 


1.5 


5 


Y 




21018 


0707.661 


- 03.0 


0.7 


21 


No 




03 h 18»>.4 


1004.810 


- 04.9 


0.7 


23 


Y 




+ 04° 31' 


1106.563 


+ 11.4 


1.1 


17 


F 




6.47 FS 




+ 12.6 


0.9 


21 


Xo 






1329.892 


- 00.5 


0.7 


20 


N 






1357.807 


+ 07.3 


0.8 


22 


F 




23626 


0615.857 


+ 05.3 


0.9 


17 


F 




03 h 41 m .5 


0701.620 


+ 00.8 


0.6 


18 


Y 




+ 31 c 54' 


1076.625 


- 17.5 


0.7 


12 


Y 




6.23 F6 




- 17.1 


1.2 


18 


Ma 






1127.517 


- 06.1 


0.8 


21 


\ 




29104 


0640.762 


- 33.8 


1.4 


11 


Y 


The components are 


04 h 29 m .8 




+ 75.8 


2.2 


7 




very unequal which 


+ 19° 41' 


1072.665 


- 23.4 


1.5 


4 


Y 


may account for the 


6.56 F8 


1092.650 


- 26.2 


0.9 


19 


Y 


discordant velocities 




1367.769 


+ 15.2 


1.0 


6 


N 


obtained when the 






- 73.6 


1.4 


6 




lines are single. 




1391.713 


+ 14.5 


0.7 


18 


N 






1395.695 


+ 01.1 


0.8 


15 


N 






1396.735 


+ 17.7 


1.5 


11 


N 






1397.788 


+ 07.3 


1.5 


13 


N 




33541 


0758.615 


- 02.4 


1.9 


7 


Y 


1 Vv. sharp lines. On 


D.V O.V.9 


1006.910 


+ 03.8 


1.1 


4 


F 


the last plate K nil 


+ 73 3 09' 


L356.876 


- 00.3 


3.1 


6 


Y 


Ho are double giving 


5.76 A0 


1402.744 


- 04.4 


17 


5 


Y 


\< locities - 45. s km 

and + 2S.S km. 


34053 


1076.694 


- 22.8 


3.4 


4 


Y 


Fair hydrogen and 


05 09»5 


L 094.680 


+ 01.2 


5.3 


6 


F 


i alcium K. 


+ 22 Ki' 


1357.933 


+ 111 


1.9 


l 


Y 


Some other faint lines. 


6 Hi A2 


ins 7s:; 


'-'7 1 


2.3 


.". 


1 





336 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE II — Continued 



Star 


J.D.242... 


Vel. 










H.D. 


or 243.... 


Km. /sec. 


P.E. 


Lines 


M 


Remarks 


40084 


1023.896 


- 03.7 


0.8 


21 


Y 


On the last plate the 


05 h 51 ra .6 


1160.552 


- 05.4 


1.0 


20 


N 


lines are double but 


+ 49° 55' 


1386.824 


- 02.0 


0.7 


21 


Y 


resolved in the violet 


6.07 G5 


1419.753 


- 27.7 
+ 47.3 


2.3 
3.3 


3 
3 


X 


only. 


40372 


0726.697 


+ 18.7 


1.4 


24 


No 




05" 53«\2 


1113.641 


- 04.8 


1.0 


16 


Y 




+ 01° 49' 


1377.861 


+ 101.3 


1.0 


22 


Y 




6.06 A 5 


1427.787 


+ 62.5 


1.6 


18 


N 




47415 


0685.792 


+ 20.0 


1.1 


24 


No 


The lines are double on 


06 h 33 m .4 


1029.902 


+ 65.0 


1.1 


7 


Y 


the last three plates. 


+ 24° 41' 




- 28.3 


2.3 


6 




In each case the first 


6.48 F8 


1385.853 


- 10.3 


0.6 


8 


Y 


velocity refers to the 






+ 86.5 


2.0 


5 




stronger component. 




1446.703 


+ 54.0 
- 42.6 


3.3 
1.2 


3 
2 


Y 


The last plate is weak. 


52913 


1029.942 


- 19.8 


2.8 


6 


Y 


Xumerous lines of fair 


06 h 57 m .9 


1106.715 


- 02.8 


3.5 


8 


F 


quality only. 


+ 09° 17' 


1396.873 


- 25.8 


l.:. 


11 


Y 




5.93 A2 


1452.769 


+ 02.5 


3.2 


9 


N 




65299 


1114.700 


- 24.6 


1.8 


8 


Y 


Good line-. 


07 h 53 m .O 


1302.707 


- 05.7 


1.5 


12 


No 




+ 84° 21' 


1339.591 


+ 11.3 


1.5 


15 


F 




6.39 A0 


1363.532 


+ 08.6 


1.2 


15 


N 




72208 


0731.806 


- 00.2 


7.2 


3 


Y 




08 h 26 n \5 


0837.549 


+ 08.4 


9.8 


4 


F 




+ 10° 09' 


1168.640 


- 41.0 


4.1 


5 


X 




6.58 AO 


1427.906 


+ 36.3 


2.0 


7 


Y 






1527.626 


+ 34.7 


2.9 


5 


N 




72359 


0731.840 


+ 20.9 


2.6 


8 


Y 


Good lines. 


08 h 27 m .3 




+ 24.3 


3.5 


8 


Y 




+ 10° 26' 


1087.810 


- 04.8 


1.9 


11 


N 




6.30 AO 


1396.959 


+ 07.2 


1.3 


12 


Y 






1518.659 


- 09.6 


1.3 


13 


F 





The Radial J'clocitics of 681 Stars 



337 







TABLE 


II — Continued 




Star 


J.D.242 


Vel. 










H.D. 


or 243 ... 


Km. /sec. 


P.E. 


Lines 


M 


Remark - 


81025 


0463.585 


- 02.0 


1.2 


22 


F 




09 h 18 m .l 


0805.662 


- 15.8 


0.7 


24 


Xo 




+ 52° 01' 


1155.694 


- 38.4 


0.7 


21 


Y 




6.37 GO 


1198.641 


- 06.2 


0.7 


21 


X 




82780 


0474.559 


- 23.0 


2.2 


8 


Y 


The second plate is 


09 h 29 m .l 


0796.704 


+ 11.5 


3.8 


9 


F 


weak. 


+ 40° 24' 




+ 24.3 


2.9 


12 


Xo 




6.56 F2 


0849.567 


- 35.7 


1.4 


20 


Xo 






1199.610 


- 132.7 


1.7 


15 


X 




99967 


0797.752 


+ 51.1 


0.8 


20 


Y 


An orbit is being com- 


ll h 25'" .0 


0832.691 


+ 13.8 


0.6 


22 


X 


puted for this star. 


+ 47° 12' 


0849.611 


+ 00.6 


0.7 


24 


X 




6.49 KO 


0859.583 


+ 24.2 


0.8 


22 


X 




107904 


0444.733 


- 24.7 


4.3 


10 


X 




12 h 18 m .9 


0173.658 


- 11.4 


2.9 


23 


Xo 




+ 43° 05' 


0797.794 


- 05.0 


2.3 


17 


Y 




5.98 F2n 


1171.744 


+ 04.2 


3.5 


13 


F 




108651 


0461.683 


- 05.2 


1.1 


22 


X 


Good lines. 


12'' 23"\8 


0473.681 


- 16.4 


0.9 


22 


F 




+ 26° 27' 


0478.653 


- 14.6 


1.3 


17 


Y 




6.69 A2 


1191.692 


+ 09.3 


0.7 


21 


Y 




112486 


0451.781 


- 01.8 


1.9 


11 


Y 


Components about 


12 h 51"'.9 


0753.910 


- 01.7 


0.9 


23 


No 


equal in intensity 


+ 54° 39' 


0858.646 


- 36.0 


3.1 


8 


N 




5.84 A2 




+ 45.1 


2.5 


8 








1210.683 


- 37.7 
+ 35.2 


2.1 
0.7 


6 
6 


X 




115709 


0787.849 


+ 2.V1 


2.3 


1 1 


N 




I3 h I3 m .8 


0809.787 


- 06.5 


2.6 


9 


Y 




+ 04° 13' 


0846.656 


+ 20.1 


1.9 


14 


'Xo 




6.56 An 


1200.703 


- 13.2 


2.2 


1 1 


Y 





338 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE II — Continued 



Star 


J.D.242... 


Vel. 










H.D. 


or 243 ... . 


Km. /sec. 


P.E. 


Lines 


M 


Remarks 


120874 


0135.682 


- 58.3 


2.2 


11 


F 


The lines are poor but 


13 h 47 m .l 




- 47.5 


4.3 


16 


N 


the last plate seems to 


+ 59° 02' 


0141.624 


- 33.9 


2.1 


13 


No 


establish the varia- 


6.36 A0 


0878.650 


- 60.2 


2.9 


8 


F 


bility. 




1235.664 


- 43.8 


6.2 


3 


Y 






1252.583 


- 03.9 


2.4 


6 


F 








- 09.9 


2.1 


8 


No 




157978-9 


9780.705 


- 17.2 


7.9 


6 


B 


The spectrum is com- 


17 h 21 m .5 


9790.709 


+ 05.0 


2.7 


20 


B 


posite. The measures 


+ 07° 41' 




+ 04.6 


2.8 


15 


No 


refer to the G type 


5.98 AO-G 


9803.643 


+ 00.7 


3.2 


10 


Y 


lines. Only K shows 




0066.944 


- 15.0 


4.5 


8 


B 


the A type definitely. 




0083.927 


- 04.5 


3.5 


9 


Y 






1314.574 


- 03.5 


1.4 


16 


N 


• 


161832 


0597.546 


- 39.9 


1.0 


20 


No 




17 h 42™7 




- 38.3 


1.2 


21 


No 




+ 39° 22' 


0873.794 


- 20.5 


1.2 


20 


N 




6.56 K3 




- 21.3 


1.5 


17 


F 






0980.530 


- 29.6 


0.7 


19 


Y 






1286.676 


-36.0 


1.0 


16 


No 




163840 


0603.568 


- 26.5 


0.8 


23 


F 




17 h 53 m .2 




- 25.8 


0.6 


21 


Xo 




+ 24° 01' 


0885.812 


- 34.1 


0.8 


21 


F 




6.36 GO 


0963.542 


- 43.9 


0.6 


22 


No 








- 43.5 


0.5 


24 


N 






1282.642 


- 32.4 


0.4 


22 


Xo 






1305.569 


- 36.4 


0.8 


21 


No 






1309.778 


- 33.3 


1.0 


16 


No 




170829 


0574.662 


- 65.0 


0.7 


27 


N 




18 h 26 m .4 


0624.534 


- 73.0 


0.7 


26 


No 




+ 20° 46' 


0951.593 


- 48.8 


0.6 


20 


N 




6.59 G8 


0996.508 


- 63.5 


1.5 


16 


F 





The Radial I 'clarities of 681 Stars 
TABLE II— Continued 



339 



Star 


J.D.242 .... 


Vel. 










H.D. 


or 243 . ... 


Km. /sec. 


P.E. 


Lines 


M 


Remarks 


172569 


9757.811 


- 06.3 


2.4 


16 


N 




18 h 35 m .9 


9828.646 


- 14.5 


1.8 


18 


B 




+ 65° 24' 


0075.941 


- 26.6 


3.4 


14 


B 




6.00 A3 




- 32.1 


5.3 


9 


F 








- 32.2 


2.5 


14 


No 






1264.777 


- 18.8 


2.1 


12 


No 




173383 


0576.656 


- 24.1 


1.3 


22 


No 




18 h 39 m .9 


0902.807 


- 42.2 


2.5 


16 


F 




+ 39° 13' 


0955.628 


- 33.1 


0.8 


24 


N 




6.55 K5 


0998.500 


- 30.9 


1.1 


18 


Y 




174369 


0602.594 


- 04.5 


5.6 


7 


N 


The lines are poor. 


18 h 45™. 1 


0616.748 


4-23.6 


4.1 


5 


Y 




4- 24° 56' 


0809.928 


4- 10.0 


5.4 


9 


No 




6.56 A2n 


1003.986 


- 45.4 


3.3 


7 


F 








- 54.1 


3.0 


5 


F 






1314.619 


- 26.6 


2.8 


7 


F 




175743 


9408.854 


4- 51.4 


1.0 


22 


T 




18 h 51 m .7 


9419.787 


+ 54.3 


0.9 


23 


T 




+ 17° 59' 


9466.713 


+ 26.8 


3.6 


9 


No 




5.72 K2 




+ 27.1 


3.9 


6 


K 






9540.497 


+ 45.2 


1.8 


21 


B 






1314.637 


+ 46.7 


0.9 


19 


N 




179094 


0987.585 


+ 15.6 


0.6 


21 


No 


An orbit has been com- 


19 h 06"'. 1 


1008.496 


- 33.0 


0.6 


23 


Y 


pleted for this star. 


+ 52° 16' 


1027.469 


+ 15.5 


0.5 


24 


Y 


H and K show as 


5.93 G8 


1040.451 


- 17.3 


0.7 


24 


Y 


emission lines. 


190658 


0607.638 


- 114.8 


1.1 


16 


Y 


The velocity is very 


20 h 00 m .9 


0931.759 


- 106.3 


1.1 


20 


No 


large, but shows about 


+ 15° 13' 


1012.528 


- 118.6 


0.9 


16 


K 


17 km. range. 


6.56 Ml 


1317. 674 


- 101.8 


1.2 


18 


N 




197508 


0643.548 


+ 11 


0.5 


22 


Y 


Very good lines. 


20 h 39"'. 1 


0959.684 


+ 15.6 


0.9 


22 


N 




+ 83° 17' 


1019.533 


+ 08.1 


0.5 


21 


F 




6.16 A2 


1322.590 


+ 18.0 


0.8 


16 


Y 





340 Publications of the David Ditnlap Observatory 

TABLE II — Continued 



Star 


J.D.242.... 


Vel. 












H.D. 


or 243.... 


Km. /sec. 


P.E. 


Lines 


M 


Remarks 




199095 


0564.797 


- 26.6 


1.7 


4 


Y 






20 h 49 m .8 


0643.566 


- 53.4 


1.8 


6 


Y 






+ 82° 10' 


1019.542 


+ 01.4 


1.8 


4 


F 






5.69 A0 


1019.546 


- 01.2 


1.0 


7 


Y 






205314 


0579.768 


- 03.1 


1.2 


2 


Y 


Very poor lines, 


poorer 


21 h 29 m .4 


0958.699 


- 43.9 


4.5 


4 


Y 


than the P.E 


indi- 


+ 49° 30' 


0996.617 


- 74.8 


2.7 


2 


N 


cates and the 


varia- 


5.76 AOn 


1010.574 


- 21.4 


4.4 


3 


F 


bility is not 


welj 




1315.769 


- 21.3 


1.6 


3 


Y 


established. 




208606 


0608.708 


- 28.2 


0.4 


19 


No 






21 h 52. m 3 


0937.830 


- 37.1 


0.7 


23 


N 






+ 61° 04' 


0962.730 


- 24.0 


0.9 


20 


Y 






6.22 KOg 


1040.514 


- 27.9 


0.9 


24 


F 








1001.633 


- 40.4 


0.8 


26 


K 






213389 


0576.784 


- 34.5 


0.9 


17 


F 






22 h 25"\9 


0914.844 


- 30.8 


1.0 


22 


A 






+ 48° 51' 


0973.762 


+ 19.3 


1.4 


17 


Y 






6.52 Kl 


0989.655 


- 05.2 


1.2 


18 


Y 








1010.635 


+ 31.2 


0.6 


22 


F 







PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume I Number 17 



LIGHT CURVES OF THE VARIABLE STARS 
IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 5466 



BY 
HELEN B. SAWYER 



in ir. 

III! UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRI£SS 

TORON I". CANADA 



PLATE XXXI 



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The cluster NGC 5466, arith variables marked. Enlarged from D.D.O plate 
7n 7, 1942, June 8, exp. 20 m . Scale, 1 mm«6".6. 



LIGHT CURVES OF THE VARIABLE STARS IN THE 
GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 5466 

By Helen B. Sawyer 

(with Plate xxxi) 

HP HE globular cluster NGC 5466 is a loose cluster of low absolute 

magnitude lying in very high galactic latitude. It closely re- 
sembles the cluster NGC 5053 which is relatively close to it in the 
sky. It is well situated for observation from the northern hemi- 
sphere, since its R.A. is 14 h 03 m .2 and Dec.+ 28° 56' (1950). It has 
a galactic longitude of 8°, and latitude of + 72°. 

In 1926 Baade 1 announced the discovery of fourteen variable 
stars in this cluster. From the similarity of their magnitudes and 
the general trend of the light changes, he concluded they were all 
cluster type variables. On the basis of a median magnitude of 16.17 
for these variables, he derived the distance of the cluster as 19,000 
parsecs. This distance was reduced in 1929 2 to 17,000 parsecs by 
the zero point correction for absolute magnitude of Cepheid 
variables. 

The distance of 17,000 parsecs is still accepted in the recent 
revision by Shapley 3 of the distances of clusters in high galactic 
latitudes. From the survey of nebulae in the field it appears that 
this cluster lies in a region rich in galaxies, and Shapley has therefore 
applied no correction for absorption. The colour class determined 
by Stebbins and Whitford is f8, with a colour excess of + 0.05. 
Because of its high galactic latitude, therefore, this cluster is actually 
at the very great distance of 16,000 parsecs above the galactic plane, 
and is one of the few objects which indicates the enormous extent of 
our galaxy in this direction. It is a cluster of low apparent and 
absolute magnitude. Its apparent photographic magnitude as 
determined by Christie 5 with the schraffier kassette is 10.39, giving 
it an absolute magnitude of only —5.8. 

The cluster was put on the observing list of this observatory in 
1940, in order that enough plates might be acquired to permit the 
determination of the periods of Baade's variables. A total of 58 
plates has been taken by the writer, who is indebted for instrumental 

[343] 



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Fig. 1. Light curves of variables with periods between 0.7 day and 0.57 day. 



I'ariable Stars in the Globular Cluster XGC 5466 345 







No. 


14 
































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2. Light curves of variables with periods between 0. 11 and 0.2S day. 
Baade's observations arc represented by open i in l< s, Sawyer's, by dots. 



346 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

assistance especially to Dr. F. S. Hogg, and to Mr. G. Longworth, 
Miss Ruth Northcott, Mr. D. K. Norris and Mr. W. S. Armstrong. 

About a dozen pairs of these plates have been systematically ex- 
amined with the blink microscope and four new variables discovered. 
These all have small ranges of only half a magnitude. The positions 
of the new variables on the same co-ordinate basis as those found 
by Baade are given in the remarks to Table I. 

Baade published a drawing of the cluster for identification of his 
variables. Plate XXXI shows a print of this cluster from a David 
Dunlap plate, on which Sawyer's four new variables are marked, 
and all of Baade's except No. 1 which is too far from the cluster 
centre to show. All of the variables except No. 1 are included in 
the catalogue of 241 stars of this cluster published by Hopmann, 6 
which he later 7 compared with the Hamburg positions. 

All of the variables were estimated on the David Dunlap plates 
with the use of the magnitude sequence as determined by Baade. 
Because of the relative sparseness of stars, magnitude estimates in 
this cluster possess a greater degree of reliability than in the more 
compact clusters. 

The 58 plates from this observatory, along with the 21 obser- 
vations published by Baade for most of his variables, have permitted 
the determination of periods for all of the 18 variables. For six 
variables there are no observations by Baade available. Four of 
these are the new variables found by the writer. The other two are 
close double stars, on which Baade could make no reliable estimates 
from the Hamburg plates. These periods are therefore not so well 
determined as for most of the other twelve variables. 

Table I gives the elements of the variables, including the num- 
ber in Hopmann's catalogue, the maximum and minimum magni- 
tudes, the mean, an epoch of a well observed maximum, and the 
period. Remarks on a few individual stars follow the table. 

Table 1 1 gives the observations of these eighteen variables from 
the David Dunlap plates, with the phase expressed in thousandths 
of a day as computed on the basis of the assigned period. 

The light curves for all of these stars are shown in Figures 1 and 2, 
where the stars are arranged in order of decreasing period length. 
The light curves are of an ordinary type. The interval between 
Baade's plates and the writer's is only twenty years, but there is not 



Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster NGC 5466 



347 



much suggestion of period change. For one or two variables the two 
series of observations might be best represented by slightly different 
periods, but in general the periods appear very constant. Xo long- 
period Cepheids have been found in this cluster. The mean magni- 




•3 da^s b -7 

Fig. 3. Frequency of periods in NGC 5406. 



tude of the eighteen variables is 1617, the same as determined by 
Baade for eleven variables nineteen years ago. 

On the basis of period frequency, NGC 5466 belongs to the 
double maximum type of cluster to which the writer 8 has recently 
called attention. Figure 3 gives a diagram of the period frequency 
in this cluster. The periods are collected in groups of 0.05 day; the 
ordinate represents the number of variables having periods in the 
interval indicated by the abscissa. There appear to be no periods 
close to half a day in this cluster; the periods fall around two-thirds 
of a day and one-third of a day. In NGC 5466, the gap in which 
no periods have been found amounts to 0.13 day. It will be im- 
portant to discover the reason behind such a frequency distri- 
bution of period lengths. 

REFERENCES 

(1) Baade, Ham. Mitt., v. 6, no. 27, L926. 

(2) Shapley and Sawyer, II. B.. no. 869, 1929. 

(3) Shapley, P.N.A.S., v. 30, pp. 61-68, 191 I. 
Stebbins and Whitford, .1//. I!'. ConL, no. 547, 1930. 

(5) Christie, Ml. W. Cont.. no. 620, 1939. 

(6) Hopmann, A.N., v. 217, p. 333, 1922. 

(7) Hopmann, A.N., v. 229, p. 209, L927. 

(8) Sawyer, J.R.A.S.C., v. 37, pp. 295-302 {Comm. P. P.O. no. 11 I, 194 1. 



Richmond Hill, ( mtario, 
April 2."), mi."). 



348 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE I 
Elements of the Variable Stars in NGC 5466 



Var. 


Hop- 




Magnitudes 




Epoch 




Xo. 


mann 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean 


Julian Day 


Period 


1 





15.6 


16.7 


16.15 


30553.674 


0.577415 


2 


64 


15.5 


16.6 


16.05 


30554.720 


0.588523 


3 


95 


15.4 


16.7 


16.05 


30550.623 


0.578065 


4 


56 


15.5 


16.6 


16.05 


30556 . 602 


0.337968 


5 


61 


15.7 


16.7 


16.20 


20519.697 


0.380519 


6 


202 


15.2 


16.6 


15.90 


39786.653 


0.62096 


7 


20 


15.7 


16.7 


16.20 


30519.697 


0.703423 


8 


141 


15.8 


16.7 


16.25 


30520.617 


0.629120 


9 


148 


15.5 


16.7 


16.10 


30170.656 


0.685027 


10 


186 


15.8 


16.7 


16.25 


30519.697 


0.709273 


11 


198 


15.7 


16.7 


16.20 


30884.625 


0.37799 


12 


134 


16.0 


16.5 


16.25 


30880.665 


. 2942387 


13 


83 


16.0 


16.7 


16.35 


30556.702 


0.341557 


14 


84 


15.8 


16.5 


16.15 


30880.599 


0.440041 


15 


227 


15.9 


16.5 


16.20 


30519.618 


0.28672 


16 


37 


16.0 


16.5 


16.25 


30553.612 


0.29667 


17 


68 


15.9 


16.4 


16.15 


30519.713 


0.370117 


18 


166 


16.0 


16.7 


16.35 


30519.697 


0.37406 



Remarks to Table I 

I. This star is very near the edge of the plates, and measures have consid- 
erable uncertainty. 

4. The large range and steepness of the curve strongly suggest that the period 
of this star might lie close to half a day. But the writer has not been able to 
satisfy the existing observations with a related period around 0.51 day. 

5. Baade's observations from plates 3475 and 3476 are not plotted as they 
seem inconsistent with the others. 

6. The variable is one component of a close double and no measures are 
published by Baade. 

II. This star is also one component of a double, and Baade could not derive 
reliable measures from his plates. The related period of 0.60668 day satisfies the 
observations nearly as well as the period published, but with slightly larger scatter. 

12. Baade's observation from plate 3476 is inconsistent and not plotted. 

13. Baade's observation from plate 3476 is omitted from plot. 

15. x", + 223; y", + 20. 

16. x", - 149; v", - 175. 

17. x", - 60; y", - 30. 

18. x", + 44; y", + 41. 



Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster XGC 5466 



349 



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PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume I Number 18 



PERIODS OF VARIABLE STARS IN THE 
GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 5053 



BY 
HELEN B. SAWYER 



L946 

THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 
TORONTO, CANADA 



PERIODS OF VARIABLE STARS IN THE GLOBULAR 
CLUSTER XGC 5053 

By Helen B. Sawyer 

THE globular cluster XGC 5053 is a loose globular cluster in high 
galactic latitude, with very low intrinsic luminosity. With an 
absolute magnitude of only — 5.3, 1 this cluster ranks near the bottom 
of the luminosity scale of globular clusters, the only cluster of lower 
luminosity being XGC 7492, of absolute magnitude —4.7. Its con- 
centration class is XI, 2 its galactic latitude and longitude are +78° 
and 310°. At R.A. 13 h 39 m .O, Dec. + 17° 57' (1950) it is well placed 
for observation in the northern hemisphere. 

A. Variable Stars. 

In 1927 Baade" announced the discovery of nine variable stars 
in this object, and published estimates of their magnitudes on 37 
plates, taken mostly with the 1-metre Hamburg reflector. A plate 
of the cluster identifying the variables and sequence stars is given 
in his paper. From the behaviour of the variables on these plates, 
he assumed that they were all cluster type variables, with a mean 
median magnitude of 16.19, but he determined no periods. 

An accumulation of 64 plates taken by the writer with the 74- 
inch David Dunlap reflector over the past nine years provides 
material for intensive investigation of the variables in this cluster. 
For telescopic assistance in taking these plates, I am indebted to 
Dr. F. S. Hogg, Mr. Gerald Longworth, and .Miss Ruth Xorthcott. 

Xumerous pairs of plates were searched systematically with the 
blink microscope, but only one new variable was detected, Xo. 10, 
at x = +94", y — +56", on Baade's co-ordinate system. 

The magnitude sequence as determined by Baade was used, and 
the variables estimated twice on each plate. Periods have now been 
determined for all ten variables, all of which were found to be of the 
cluster type. For most of the variables, the same period satisfies 
both the series of observations by Baade (which are not republished 
in this paper) and those of Sawyer. There is a separation of about 
ten years bel ween these two series. For two variables, there is real 
evidence for a period change in this interval. And for one Other 
variable, five isolated, early, scattered observations by Baade are 

357 



358 



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Periods of Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster NGC 5053 359 



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Periods of Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster XGC 505S 361 

not well represented by a period which suits all the other obser- 
vations. 

Table I contains the observations of the variables on the David 
Dunlap plates. Table II gives the elements of the variables as 
derived from these observations in conjunction with those of Baade. 
The light curves are represented by the individual observations in 
figures 1 and 2. Baade's observations have been represented in 
separate curves. 

For this cluster, the longest cluster type period is 0.74 day, and 
the shortest is 0.29 day. The average range of these ten variables 

TABLE II 
Elements oi Variable Stars in* NGC 5053 







Magnitude 




Epoch 


Period 


Var. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean 


of Maximum 


d 


1 


15.8 


16.6 


16.2 


30519.640 


0.647178 


2 


15.9 


16.5 


16.2 


30556.611 


0.378953 


3 


15.8 


16.6 


16.2 


30519.640 


0.592946 


4 


15.7 


16.6 


16.15 


29787.621 


0.400585 


5 


15.S 


16.6 


16.2 


29786.672 


0.416868 


6 


16.0 


16.6 


16.3 


30555.617 


0.292198 


7 


15.9 


16.5 


16.2 


30880.610 


0.351581 


8 


15.8 


16.6 


16.2 


30 :.20. 642 


0.362842 


9 


L5.9 


16.6 


16.25 


30520.642 


0.74173 


10 


16.0 


16.5 


16.25 


29077.020 


0.30354 



Remarks to Table II 

Var. 4. A double star; Baade did not publish his observations and the period 
depends solely on those of Sawyer. 

Var. 5. The early isolated observations by Baade are omitted from the light 
curve as they do not harmonize with the rest. 

Var. 6. The shortest period derived in this cluster. 

Var. 7. The one Mt. Wilson observation is omitted from the light curve. 

Var. 8. Definitely a changing period. Baade's observations are plotted with 
the same epoch, but with a period of 0.362852. $ for this star is 
— 12 X 10 10 . The early observations by Baade are omitted from 
the curve. 

Var. 9. The longest period in the cluster, and apparently increasing in length. 
Baade's observations are represented by the elements Maximum = 
2 I '76.456 + 0.74169 E. The value of j8 here is 48 X 10'°. Martin 
found large positive values of /3 around this length of period. The 
five early observations ol Baade are omitted. A greal deal of work 
wras done in an attempl to find a snorter, related period for this -tar, 
but the value airouml 0.7 1 best represents the observations. 

Var. 10. No observations bj Baade, so the period is determined solely from 
Saw yer's observal ions. 



362 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 









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Fig. 1. Light curves of the longer period cluster type variables in NGC 5053, 
with periods from 0.74 day to 0.41 day. The upper curve for each variable 
represents observations by Sawyer, the lower, a series made a dozen years 
earlier bv Baade. 



Periods of Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster NGC 5058 363 









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I ig. 2. Lighl curves of the shorter period variables in NGC 50")3, with periods 
from 0.40 day to 0.29 day. For variables Nos. I and 10, no observations 
l>\ Baade wen- available. 



364 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

is rather small, being only 0.7 magnitude. In regard to period fre- 
quency, this cluster is another of the double maximum type dis- 
cussed by the writer, 4 with an avoidance of periods close to half a 
day. In this case, however, as shown in figure 3, the majority of 
periods lie in the one-third of a day region. 




• j a*-£s 



Fig. 3. The frequency distribution of periods in NGC 5053, intervals of 0.05 
day. 

B. Variable Stars in Relation to Colour-Magnitude Diagram 

This cluster is important as a testing-ground for the relation 
between variable and non-variable stars, since Cuffey 5 has deter- 
mined the colour-magnitude diagram for it. Schwarzschild, 6 Cuffey, 
and Baade, 7 have pointed out that the cluster type variables in 
globular clusters lie in a definite region of the colour-magnitude 
diagram, and that most of the stars in this region tend to be variable. 

With the 30-inch Link reflector, Cuffey made a photometric 
survey of this cluster, and obtained magnitudes and red coloui 
indices for 155 stars in it. The colour-magnitude diagram Mas found 
to be characteristic for a globular cluster, although unusual in that 
one of the fainter branches extends toward red stars, though he 
points out that this trend might be changed by observational evi- 
dence a magnitude or two fainter. 

Cuffey found the nine variable stars to be closely grouped 
together at the beginning of the faint blue branch, near apparent 
red photographic magnitude 15.6, and red colour-index 0.7. In and 
around this same colour magnitude region were fourteen stars not 
known to be variable. Cuffey lacked sufficient plates to confirm 
or deny the variability of these. 

The writer has estimated these stars on all of her plates, from 
an identification chart kindly provided by Dr. Cuffey. The stars 
lying in this critical region of the colour-magnitude diagram are, 
according to numbers in Cuffey 's unpublished catalogue: 68, 15, 81, 
90, 101, 118, 148, 156, and 158. No. 68 proved to be the same as 



Periods of Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster NGC 5055 365 

Variable Xo. 10 which had been independently found by the writer 
with the blink microscope. Other stars close to the region, which 
Cuffey suggested as possible variables are: 21, 25, 33, 131, and 146. 
Accordingly the magnitudes of these 14 stars were estimated 
once by the writer on each of 62 plates; the extreme points for the 
stars were then estimated a second time. The result was somewhat 
surprising. Not a single one of these stars (apart from the known 
Yar. Xo. 10) proved to be variable in the sense of having a range 
large enough to conclude variability. For eleven of these stars, the 
estimates on 62 plates have a maximum spread of only 0.2 magni- 
tude per star. For one of them, there is one point which gives a 
spread of 0.3 magnitude. And for the remaining one, Xo. 158, the 
estimates have a spread of 0.4 magnitude, with three points over 
the 0.2 magnitude interval. A star of comparable magnitude, pre- 
sumed non-variable, was estimated along with the possible variables. 
The estimates on this star gave a spread of 0.3 magnitude, just one 
point being over the 0.2 magnitude interval. On the other hand, 
the estimates of the variable of smallest range, No. 10, have a spread 
of 0.5 magnitude, with 16 points outside a 0.2 magnitude interval. 
The distribution of the estimates for these stars is given in Table III. 

TABLE III 

Frequency of Recorded Magnitudes for Cuffey's Possible Variables 

on 62 Plates 



Star 


16.1 


16.2 


16.3 


16.4 


16.5 


Star 


16.0 


16.1 


16.2 


16.3 


16.4 


16.5 


15 


1 


27 


:;i 






21 




13 


34 


15 






81 




13 


38 


11 




25 




6 


■tl 


12 






90 






14 


37 


11 


33 






3 


39 


20 




101 






22 


38 


2 


131 






16 


36 


10 




118 




1 


37 


24 




146 






6 


28 


28 




148 




8 


21 


30 




68 


4 


6 


19 


12 


14 


7 


156 


1 


12 


38 


11 




non- 






4 


11 


40 


i 


158 


2 


15 


33 


10 


2 


var. 















It would appear then that a star in a globular cluster can have 
i he same colour and magnitude as the cluster type variables and not 
vary its light bv an appreciable amount. This is contrary to the 



366 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

findings of Schwarzschild in Messier 3 where he concluded "In the 
color-magnitude diagram of Messier 3 the region occupied by the 
variables does not seem to contain non-variables, which indicates 
that stars which can pulsate do pulsate." 

Of course a variation whose total range is not more than 0.2 
magnitude cannot be ruled out for these stars from the existing 
observations. 

C. Distance of Cluster. 

Since Baade's magnitude sequence was employed, the modulus 
of the cluster as determined from the median magnitudes of the 
variables should be expected to agree closely with Baade's value. 
Such proves to be the case. The median magnitude of the ten cluster 
type variables as determined by the writer is 16.23, with an average 
deviation of only 0.04 magnitude. The median magnitude of seven 
variables as determined by Baade was 16.19. Shapley 1 used a 
modulus of 16.2 in his most recent determination of the distances 
of high latitude clusters. This gives a distance of the cluster of 
about 17 kiloparsecs, in excellent agreement with Cuffey's distance 
of 16 ± 2 kiloparsecs as determined from the colour magnitude 
diagram. Any absorption correction may be neglected for this 
cluster, since there is an absence of colour excess as well as an excess 
in the numbers of extragalactic nebulae in nearby fields. 

This cluster is noteworthy for its very large distance of about 
55,000 light years above the galactic plane, as well as for its very 
low luminosity. Its luminosity and appearance are in marked con- 
trast to the adjacent cluster NGC 5024, which is a close neighbour 
in space, but of much higher intrinsic luminosity. 

References 

1. Shapley, P.NA.S., v. 30, pp. 61-68, 1941. 

2. Shapley and Sawyer, H.B., no. 869, 1929. 

3. Baade, Ham. Mitt., v. 6, p. 92, 1927. 

4. Sawyer, J.R.A.S.C, v. 37, pp. 295-302 (Comm. D.H.O. no. 11), 1944. 

5. Cuffey, Ap. J., v. 98, pp. 49-53, 1943. 

6. Schwarzschild, H.C., no. 437, 1940. 

7. Baade, Ap. J., v. 100, p. 144, 1944. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario 
October 31, 1946. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume I Numbkr 19 



THE ORBITS OF THE SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES 
H.D. 99967, H.D. 181144, H.D. 209813 and H.D. 213389 



BY 
RUTH J. XORTHCOTT 



L947 

THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 
TORONTO, CANADA 



THE ORBITS OF THE SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES 
H.D. 99967, H.D. 181144, H.D. 209813 and H.D. 213389. 

By Ruth J. Northcott 



HP HESE four stars were found to have variable velocities in the 
course of radial-velocity programmes at this Observatory. 
The positions, visual magnitudes, spectral classes, together with 
the reference announcing the variable character of the stars are 
given in Table I. 

TABLE I 





1900 


Vis. 


D.D.O. 


Reference in 


Siar 


a 


5 


Mag. 


Type 


Pub. D.D.O. 


H.D. 99967 


ll h 25 m .O 


17 12' 


6.49 


K0 


v.l, no. 16, 1945 


H.D. L81144 


19 11.2 


16 19 


6.92 


F7 


v.l. no. 3. 1939 


H.D. 209813 


22 01.0 


46 45 


6.52 


K0 


v.l. no. 3, 1939 


H.D. 21338'.) 


22 25.9 


48 51 


6.52 


K1 


v.l. no. 16, I'M.". 



The spectra of each of the stars were examined in order to 
determine the absolute magnitudes and spectroscopic parallaxes. 
The lines used were those used by R. K. Young and W. E. Harper. 1 
The values arc given in the tables of binary elements. 

H.D. 99967 

The first four plates taken of this star in 1942 and 1943 showed 
the velocity to vary over 50 km. /sec, and it was put on the spec- 
troscopic binary programme. Due to the poor observing weather 
during the winter and the binary's long and somewhat uncertain 
period of 75 days, observation of this star was not completed 
until 1946, with a total of 55 plates. All the plates but the first 
were taken with the 25-inch camera and one-prism spectrograph, 
giving a dispersion of aboul 33 A. /mm. at H7. The information 
obtained from these plates is given in Table II. The observations 
were grouped according to phase into 33 observational equations; 
in no ease did the observations to be grouped differ in time bj 
more than one revolution. Weights I, 2, 3) were assigned according 
to 1 he number of plati s. 



'Pub. D. A. 0., v. 3, p. I. 1924. 



369 



370 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



The preliminary elements were derived using R. K. Young's 2 
graphical method. It was found that a circular orbit fitted the 
observations fairly well. Final elements were derived using T. E. 



TABLE II 
Radial-Velocity Observations of H.D. 99967 





Vo 


Phase from 


Vo 


Vo— Vc 


J.D. 243 


km. /sec. 


final T 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


0442.687 


+43.6 


39.837 


+45.8 


-2.2 


0797.752 


+51.1 


20.599 


+48.9 


+2.2 


0832.691 


+ 13.8 


55.538 


+ 11.8 


+2.0 


0849.611 


+00.6 


72.458 


+01.4 


-0.8 


0859.583 


+24.2 


7.569 


+20.8 


+3.4 


0867.594 


+40.5 


15.580 


+40.2 


+0.3 


0873.594 


+50.8 


21.580 


+51.0 


-0.2 


0878.601 


+53.2 


26.587 


+55.5 


-2.3 


0885.609 


+57.0 


33.595 


+54.0 


+3.0 


0894.578 


+44.0 


42.573 


+ 40.7 


+3.3 


1187.665 


+52.7 


36.208 


+51.3 


+ 1.4 


1191.660 


+43.4 


40.203 


+45.2 


-1.8 


1194.662 


+38.9 


43.205 


+39.4 


-0.5 


1197.635 


+33.0 


46.178 


+32.7 


+0.3 


1199.639 


+26.9 


48.182 


+28.8 


-1.9 


1200.650 


+23.6 


49.193 


+25.9 


-2.3 


1202.633 


+21.6 


51.176 


+21.3 


+0.3 


1207.618 


+09.5 


56.161 


+ 10.4 


-0.9 


1208.624 


+07.1 


57.167 


+08.6 


-1.5 


1209.611 


+07.5 


58.154 


+06.8 


+0.7 


1210.621 


+03.4 


59.164 


+05.2 


-1.8 


1213.619 


+03.2 


62.162 


+01.2 


+2.0 


1218.612 


-07:4 


67.155 


-01.4 


-6.0 


1221.609 


-01.0 


70.152 


-00.6 


-0.4 


1224.604 


+03.2 


73.147 


+02.3 


+0.9 


1226.567 


+06.6 


0.249 


+05.2 


+ 1.4 


1227.574 


+05.3 


1.256 


+06.9 


-1.6 


1231.578 


+ 15.7 


5.260 


+ 15.3 


+0.4 


1235.617 


+24.4 


9.299 


+25.1 


-0.7 


1528.702 


+ 12.0 


2.942 


+ 10.2 


+ 1.8 


1537.646 


+33.6 


11.886 


+31.6 


+2.0 


1538.689 


+34.0 


12.929 


+34.1 


-0.1 


1539.653 


+33.8 


13.893 


+36.4 


-2.6 


1542.637 


+41.6 


16.877 


+43.0 


-1.4 



2 J. R. A. S. C, v. 11, p. 130, 



1917. 



Orbits of Four Spectroscopic Binaries 



371 



TABLE II — Continued 
Radial-Yei.ocity Observations of H.D. 99967 





Vo 


Phase from 


Vc 


Vo-Vc 


J.D. 243 


km. sec. 


final T 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


1543.643 


+45.4 


17.883 


+44.9 


+0.5 


1551.586 


+53.1 


25.826 


+55.1 


-2.0 


1552.592 


+56.4 


26.832 


+55.6 


+0.8 


1553.570 


+56.6 


27.810 


+55.9 


+0.7 


1554.578 


+56.0 


28.818 


+56.0 


0.0 


1555.599 


+54.2 


29.839 


+55.9 


-1.7 


1578.587 


+19.0 


52.827 


+ 17.6 


+ 1.4 


1589.585 


-01.4 


63.825 


-00.3 


-1.1 


1882.726 


+06.3 


57.523 


+08.0 


-1.7 


1883.703 


+08.2 


58.499 


+06.3 


+ 1.9 


1905.681 


+ 14.0 


5.617 


+ 16.1 


-2.1 


1907.737 


+22.5 


7.673 


+21.1 


+ 1.4 


1908.681 


+23.0 


8.617 


+22.9 


+0.1 


1921.660 


+51.1 


21.596 


+51.0 


+0.1 


1922.684 


+51.3 


22.620 


+52.3 


-1.0 


1923.626 


+53.7 


23.562 


+53.4 


+0.3 


1929.597 


+59.2 


29.533 


+56.0 


+3.2 


1942.615 


+40.0 


42.551 


+40.7 


-0.7 


1943.606 


+36.7 


43.542 


+38.7 


-2.0 


1962.705 


+00.8 


62.641 


+00.7 


+0.1 


1985.621 


+30.0 


10.696 


+28.6 


+ 1.4 



Sterne's 3 form of least-squares solution for very small eccentricity. 
Corrections were computed for all six elements. Reduction of 



TABLE III 
Orrital Elements of H.D. 99967 





Preliminary 


Pinal 




Period 


P 74.87 davs 


74.861 days ± 


0.0148 


Eccentricity 


e 


0.0290 ± 


0.0066 


Angle of periastron 


a; 


218°.70 ± 


12°.9 


Periastron passage 


T 


J.D.2430852.014 ± 


0.137 


Velocity of system 


7 +27.85 km. sec. 


+27.863 ± 


0.107 


Semi-amplitude 


K. 29.0 km. /sec. 


28.771 ± 


0.192 


a sin i 




2.961 X 10 7 km. 




mi 3 sin 3 i 




0.185© 




(mi + m 2 ) 2 






Absolute magnitude 


M (spectroscopic) 


+0.3 




Spectroscopic parallax 




0".006 













3 Proc. Nat. Acad, of Sc, v. 27, p. 179, 1941. 



372 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Zpv 2 was from 136 to 108. Table III gives the preliminary and 
final elements obtained. 



60 








o 


















60 


km/ 






<*P° 


•o 


o 


s o 
















50 














Ap 












50 


40 


























40 


JO 


_ 
























30 






06 












c\ 






oh 






20 


/o 




















J° 




20 


,0 


















o\o 


7o 






10 


o 




i 


i 








1 


1 


o 

1 


So 

1 


1 








JD 0790 0800 08KD 0810 08i0 0640 0850 0860 

Figure 1 — Velocity Curve of the Spectroscopic Binary H.D. 99967 



The individual observations are plotted on the graph in figure 
1. The probable error of a single plate is 1.9 km. /sec. 

H.D. 181144 

Four plates of this star, taken in 1938, showed variation in 
radial velocity of over 50 km. /sec. It was put on the spectroscopic 
binary programme in 1945 and 25 plates were obtained; a few- 
plates were taken in 1946 to complete the observation. The early 
plates were taken with the one-prism spectrograph and the 123^- 
inch camera giving a dispersion of 66 A. /mm. at H7; the rest of 
the plates were taken with the 25-inch camera and 33 A. /mm. at H7. 
The data from the individual plates are given in Table IV. The 
early observations enabled the period to be well determined and 
the others were grouped according to phase into 20 observational 
equations, weighted (1, 2, 3) according to number of plates. 

The preliminary orbit, derived graphically, was essentially 
circular. T. E. Sterne's method of least-squares solution for very 



Orbits of Four Spectroscopic Binaries 



373 



small eccentricities was used to determine the corrections for the 
five elements. Reduction of 2pv 2 was from 117 to 101. Table V 
gives the preliminary and final elements obtained. 



TABLE IV 



Radial-Velocity Observations of H.D. 181144 





Vo 


Phase from 


Vc 


Vo-Vc 


J.D. 242-243 


km. /sec. 


final T 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


9082.758 


+23.8 


5.262 


+33.2 


-9.4 


9170.583 


-15.2 


1.622 


-09.9 


-5.3 


9172.540 


-33.8 


3.579 


-30.0 


-3.8 


9184.543 


+ 18.2 


4.821 


+21.3 


-3.1 


1630.812 


-39.3 


3.055 


-41.0 


+ 1.7 


1631.779 


-09.1 


4.022 


-13.1 


+4.0 


1647.751 


-21.3 


3.853 


-20.2 


-1.1 


1653.731 


+07.5 


4.452 


+06.0 


+ 1.5 


1656.663 


-24.4 


2.004 


-25.3 


+0.9 


1661.713 


-10.0 


1.673 


-12.1 


+2.1 


1666.713 


+06.7 


1.293 


+04.6 


+2.1 


1669.695 


-00.5 


4.275 


-01.9 


+ 1.4 


1670.707 


+34.4 


5.287 


+32.6 


+ 1.8 


1672.686 


-23.0 


1.886 


-20.8 


-2.2 


1678.701 


-39.7 


2.521 


-39.3 


-0.4 


1684.680 


-37.3 


3.120 


-40.3 


+3.0 


1686.626 


+26.0 


5.066 


+28.2 


-2.2 


1691.601 


+ 15.7 


4.660 


+ 14.7 


+ 1.0 


1694.674 


-36.4 


2.353 


-35.8 


-0.6 


1695.579 


-38.1 


3.258 


-38.2 


+0.1 


1704.533 


-04.1 


1.451 


-02.4 


-1.7 


1706.672 


-32.7 


3.590 


-29.7 


-3.0 


1708.656 


+33.9 


0.194 


+34.4 


-0.5 


1710.584 


-29.9 


2.122 


-29.3 


-0.6 


1711.649 


-37.2 


3.187 


-39.3 


+2.1 


1714.583 


+20.0 


0.741 


+25.5 


-5.5 


1746.488 


+32.1 


0.364 


+33.3 


-1.2 


1757.496 


+33.9 


0.611 


+29.0 


+4.9 


1763.467 


+09.6 


1.202 


+08.5 


+ 1.1 


L! t75.850 


-26.8 


3.759 


-23.8 


-3.0 


1981.831 


-01.8 


4.354 


+01.6 


-3.4 


1985.856 


-43.2 


2.999 


-41.5 


-1.7 


1990.761 


-39.9 


2.523 


-39.4 


-0.5 


2010.760 


+ 17.1 


1.001 


+ 16.7 


+0.4 



374 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE V 
Orbital Elements of H.D. 181144 



Period 
Eccentricity 
Angle of periastron 
Periastron passage 
Velocity of system 
Semi-amplitude 
a sin i 

nii 3 sin 3 i 
(mi + ni 2 ) 2 
Absolute magnitude 
Spectroscopic parallax 



Preliminary 

P 5.3803 days 
e 

CO 

T 

7 —04.6 km. /sec. 
K 38.5 km. /sec. 



\I (spectroscopic) 



Final 
5.3803 . ± 0.0004 estimated 
0.0183 ± 0.0091 

348°.74 ± 29°.2 

J.D.2431638.518 ± 0.008 
-04.440 ± 0.253 

38.17G ± 0.364 

2.824 X 10 6 km. 

0.03 llO 

+4.2 
0".029 



The individual observations are plotted on the graph in figure 2. 
The probable error of a single plate is 1.5 km. /sec. 




1637 JD 1638 1639 io40 1641 1642 ">4J 

Figure 2 — Velocity Curve of the Spectroscopic Binary H. D. 181144 



H.D. 209813 

Four early plates, taken 1935-1937 showed this star to vary in 
radial velocity by about 55 km. /sec. In 1945 observations to 



Orbits of Four Spectroscopic Binaries 



375 



TABLE Yl 
Radial-Velocity Observations of H.D. 209813 





Vo 


Phase from 


Vc 


Vo-Vc 


J.D. 242-243 


km. /sec. 


final T 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


8131.491 


-32.6 


13.167 


-31.1 


-1.5 


8432.631 


+ 16.0 


21.135 


+ 11.0 


+5.0 


8769.750 


-08.0 


16.220 


-06.8 


-1.2 


8798.644 


+04.2 


20.683 


+ 11.4 


-7.2 


1647.847 


-46.1 


11.459 


-43.1 


-3.0 


1653.825 


+02.2 


17.437 


+01.4 


+0.8 


1666.803 


-51.2 


5.984 


-51.0 


-0.2 


1669.794 


-49.7 


8.975 


—53.8 


+ 4.1 


1672.779 


-38.6 


11.960 


-39.9 


+ 1.3 


1678.772 


+01.1 


18.043 


+04.8 


-3.7 


1683.772 


+03.1 


22.953 


+04.6 


-1.5 


1685.772 


-07.3 


0.522 


-09.6 


+2.3 


1686.762 


-16.4 


1.512 


-17.3 


+0.9 


1691.674 


-52.5 


6.424 


-52.5 


0.0 


1694.728 


-51.8 


'.1.478 


-52.4 


+0.6 


1701.719 


-02.7 


16.469 


-05.0 


+2.3 


1702.712 


+02.5 


17.462 


+oi.5 


+ 1.0 


1703.714 


+08.5 


18.464 


+06.8 


+ 1.7 


1704.706 


+ 13.6 


19.456 


+ 10.1 


+3.5 


1705.722 


+09.9 


20.472 


+ 11.4 


-1.5 


1706.697 


+09.2 


21.447 


+ 10.4 


-1.2 


1708.698 


-01.0 


23.448 


+01.6 


-2.6 


1710.644 


— 15.5 


0.963 


-13.4 


-2.1 


1714.718 


-48.9 


5.037 


-46.3 


-2.6 


1715.782 


-52.9 


6.101 


-51.4 


-0.5 


1728.686 


+08.9 


19.005 


+08.8 


+0.1 


1746.545 


-36.8 


12.433 


-36.6 


-0.2 


1747.633 


-28.2 


13.521 


-28.3 


+0.1 


1748.694 


-25.5 


14.582 


-19.7 


-5.8 


1757.590 


+02.6 


23.478 


+01.4 


+ 1.2 


1765.549 


-54.3 


7.006 


-54.0 


-0.3 


1770.644 


-35.6 


12.101 


-38.9 


+3.3 


1790.476 


-57.3 


7.502 


-54.7 


-2.6 


1791.489 


-54.8 


8.515 


-54.5 


-0.3 


1813.454 


— 51.5 


0.049 


-51.2 


-0.3 


2017.831 


-16.1 


14.978 


-16.5 


+0.4 


2025.815 


+02.1 


22.962 


+04.5 


-2.4 


2028.865 


-18.6 


1.581 


-18.9 


+0.3 


2037.783 


-49.3 


10.499 


-48.4 


-0.9 


2056.714 


-44.4 


5.029 


-46.2 


+ 1.8 


2078.652 


-25.0 


2.506 


-27.1 


+2.1 


2079.807 


-37.3 


3.661 


-36.S 


-0.5 


2098.630 


+ 10.4 


22.484 


+06.9 


* :;.:. 



376 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



determine its orbit were started; 39 plates were obtained in 1945 
and 1946. Three early plates were taken with the 12}^-inch 
camera and one-prism spectrograph; the rest were with the 25-inch 
camera giving a dispersion of about 33 A. /mm. at H7. Table VI 
gives the information from these plates. Using the early plates, 
the period was well determined; the other plates were grouped 
according to phase into 25 observational equations. Weights (1, 2) 
were assigned according to the number of plates. 

TABLE VII 



J.I). 


Vh and K 


Vc 


O-C 


242-243 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


8798.644 


+ 11.4 


+ 11.4 


0.0 


1672.779 


-48.8 


-39.9 


-8.9 


1678.772 


+00.4 


+ 04.8 


-3.4 


17' 10.476 


-54.3 


-54.7 


+0.4 


2028.865 


-32.7* 


-18.9 


-13.8 


2037.783 


-54.7* 


-48.4 


-6.3 



The spectrum of the star is K(). Emission H and K lines of 
calcium Avere observed on six plates of strong exposure. The 
velocities given by the H and K lines are shown in Table VII. The 
asterisk means the velocity of the H line only is given. 



TABLE VIII 
Orbital Elements of H.D. 209813 







Preliminary 


Einal 




Period 


P 


24.431 days 


24.431 ± 


0.002 (estim'd) 


Eccentricity 


e 





0.0271 ± 


0.0079 


Angle of periastron 


03 




60 ; .38 ± 


17°.8 


Periastron passage 


T 




J.D.2431660.819 ± 


0.026 


Velocity of system 


7 


-22.0 km./sec. 


-22.208 ± 


0.147 


Semi-amplitude 


K 


34.5 km./sec. 


33.135 ± 


0.240 


a sin i 






1.113 X 10 7 km. 




mi 3 sin 5 1 






0.0922 O 




(m, + m 2 ) 2 




Absolute magnitude 


M 


(spectroscopic) 


+3.3 




Spectroscopic parallax 






0".023 





Orbits of Four Spectroscopic Binaries 



377 



The preliminary orbit was circular and was found graphically. 
The five final elements were found using T. E. Sterne's method of 
least-squares solution for small eccentricities. Reduction of ^pv- 
was from 167 to 105. Table VIII gives the preliminary and final 
elements obtained. 



-20 




J D 1652 1656 1660 1664 1668 1672 1676 

Figure 3 — Velocity Curve of the Spectroscopic Binary H. D. 209813 

The individual observations are plotted on the graph in figure 3. 
The probable error of a single plate is 1.4 km. /sec. 

H.D. 213389 



During 19-12 and 1943 five plates of this star were taken, 
showing it to vary by about 66 km. /sec. In 1945 observations were 
commenced to determine its orbit; 36 plates were obtained during 
1945 and 1946. All the plates were taken with the one-prism 
spectrograph and the 25-inch camera giving a dispersion of about 
33 A. /mm. at H7. Table IX gives the information from these 
plates. The period was determined with considerable accuracy 
from the early plates. The other plates were grouped according 
to phase into 24 observational equations and weighted (1, 2) 
according to the number of plates. 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE IX 
Radial-Velocity Observations ok H.D. 213389 





Vo 


Phase from 


Vc 


Vo-Vc 


J.l). 243 


km. /sec. 


final T 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


0576.784 


-33.4 


2.886 


-33.5 


+0.1 


0914.844 


-32.0 


3.601 


-35.0 


+3.0 


0973.762 


+ 18.6 


9.254 


+ 18.0 


+0.6 


0989.655 


-05.1 


7.392 


-05.6 


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1010.635 


+32.8 


10.617 


+ 34.6 


-1.8 


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17.528 


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1666.772 


+28.5 


9.819 


+26.2 


+2.3 


1672.807 


+27.0 


15.851 


+23.3 


+3.7 


1678.799 


-33.9 


1.092 


-34.5 


+0.6 


1684.738 


+33.2 


10.030 


+28.6 


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1686.784 


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12.076 


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2.293 


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1702.747 


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10.284 


+31.3 


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1704.755 


+39.3 


12.292 


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1705.756 


+43.4 


13.293 


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1708.725 


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16.262 


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1710.692 


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0.474 


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1715.729 


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5.511 


-26.7 


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5.676 


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1.805 


-26.2 


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1.111 


-19.0 


-2.4 


1770.699 


-09.4 


7.216 


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1778.567 


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Orbits of Four Spectroscopic Binaries 



379 



The preliminary orbit was found by graphical means to be 
circular and T. E. Sterne's method of least-squares solution for 
orbits of small eccentricity was used to determine the five final 
elements. Reduction of ^pv 2 was from 178 to 111. Table X 
gives the preliminary and final elements obtained. 

TABLE X 
Orbital Elements of H.D. 213389 

Final 

17.75.") ± 0.002 (estim'd) 

0.0226 ± 0.0073 

103°.34 ± 19°.8 

J.D.2431G56.953 ± 0.021 

+05.356 ± 0.215 

40.172 ± 0.305 

9.806 X 10 6 km. 

0.119O 

+2.2 
0".014 







Preliminary 


Period 


P 


17.755 days 


Eccentricitv 


e 





Angle of periastron 


CO 




Periastron passage 


T 




Velocity of svstem 


7 


+05.0 km. /sec 


Semi-amplitude 


K 


40.0 km. /sec 


a sin i 






mi 3 sin 3 i 







(nil + m 2 ) 2 
Absolute magnitude 
Spectroscopic parallax 



M (spectroscopic) 




Figure 4 — Velocity Curve of the Spectroscopic Binary H. D. 213389 



The individual observations are plotted on the graph in figure 4. 
The probable error of a single plate is 1.5 km. /sec. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario 
March 1, 1947. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

Volume 1 Number 20 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY 

OF 

INDIVIDUAL GLOBULAR CLUSTERS 



BY 

HELEN B. SAWYER 



1947 

THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 

TORONTO, CANADA 



PLATE XXXI 
X 




The cluster NGC 6868, Messier 71, long thoughl to be a galactic cluster, 
bul now considered in the globular category. The photograph is from a plate 
with one hour exposure by D.K. Nbrris with tin- 74-inch David Dunlap reflector, 
June 21, 1947. Scale, 1 mm =1 \ '.7. 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF INDIVIDUAL GLOBULAR 
CLUSTERS 

By Helen B. Sawyer 

(With Plate XXXII) 

Advertisement. — Whoever attempts the enlargement of the bounds of 
knowledge in any particular branch of science, in justice to himself, the public, 
and previous laborers in the same field, should make himself familiar with all 
that has been previously published on the subject. But information of this kind 
is so widely dispersed through the journals and transactions of learned societies 
of all parts of the civilized world, that index catalogues or references to authorities 
are of the utmost importance to the investigator. — Joseph Henry, Secretary, 
Smithsonian Institute, Washington, 1877. 

I. Purpose and Development of Work 

In this bibliography an attempt is made to list under the cluster 
concerned, all research papers containing information on individual 
globular clusters. The purpose is to enable any astronomer to find 
out what work has been done on a specific cluster, thus saving time 
and avoiding duplication of research. Globular clusters, with a 
large range in linear diameter, absolute magnitude, and numbers of 
variable stars are being treated more and more as individual 
systems. 

Only clusters thought to belong directly to our own galaxy are 
included, and only clusters considered globular at present. A few 
minutes of studying the bibliography will show the type of infor- 
mation available on the cluster. A few hours of reading the original 
sources indicated in this work will give the reader all the published 
facts about the object. For only a few clusters, notably Messier 13 
in Hercules and Messier 3 in Canes Venatici, is the literature volumi- 
nous and unwieldy. 

For over twenty years I have maintained a card catalogue of 
references to globular cluster literature. This catalogue is a neces- 
sary complement to the 2000 globular cluster photographs which 
have now been accumulated at the David Dun lap Observatory on 
about one-half of the known globular clusters. One result of this 
catalogue was the publication by the writer in 1939 of A Catalogue 
of 1116 Variable Stars in (lobular Clusters (Dunlap Publication, 

383 



384 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

no. 4). This paper gives a list of references to variable stars in these 
clusters. (A second edition of this catalogue is in preparation at 
present). But at the time this work was published it was felt that 
a complete bibliography of individual clusters would be of great use 
to an astronomer concerned with globular clusters. It is good for 
an astronomer working on variables in a cluster, or radial velocities, 
or space reddening, to be able to find out speedily what other data 
about the cluster are known. 

In the globular cluster literature of the present century little 
attention is paid to the earlier references, that is, those up until the 
later nineteenth century. References to globular clusters of a cen- 
tury ago are buried beneath an enormous amount of literature on 
all kinds of nebulous objects, and in nebular catalogues. There is 
a confusion of numbering too, before the Xew General Catalogue, 
so that each cluster may be referred to by any one of several 
numbers. 

As far as possible, the writer has read over this entire mass of 
literature, back to the time of Hevelius and Halley, and segregated 
all pertinent material from it. Over 800 individual references in 
about 125 different serial publications have been listed and sur- 
veyed. The bibliography is essentially complete up to the dis- 
ruption of communications in Canada at the beginning of the last 
war. Most literature published up to the end of 1938 was safely 
reccived and has been included, together with as much as possible 
of the literature of the past eight years. Disruption of foreign 
communications occurred in Canada in 1939; some material was 
received through the United States during the ensuing two years. 

The substance of earlier bibliographies has been incorporated in 
the present work, as well as many references not in any existing 
bibliography. Of course the Astronomischer Jahresbericht has been 
used for many years as a basis for references. For earlier biblio- 
graphies some use has been made of the list of papers on nebulae 
by Knobel, Monthly Xotices, vol. 36, p. 377, 1876. This list does 
not give much clue to the character of many of the references, but 
the subject was rediscussed by Holden, who published a very com- 
prehensive reference work, with comments, in Smithsonian Mis- 
cellaneous Collections, no. 311, 1877 (from which our foreword is 
taken). A more recent bibliography was published by Bigourdan in 
1917. in Paris Annales, Observations 1907. A comprehensive biblio- 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 385 

graphy was published by Shapley in Star Clusters, 1930, and supple- 
mented in 1935 by Miss Mohr with later references in Harvard 
Circular, no. 402. 

Reference should here be made to several of the longer works on 
clusters which cannot be adequately dealt with in this bibliography 
because of the extensive material they contain, and which any 
serious worker in the field of globular clusters should consult. 
Readers are certainly familiar with the volume Star Clusters by 
Shapley, 1930, and his article Stellar Clusters in the Handbuch der 
Astrophysik, vol. V, 2, 1933, where most of the important infor- 
mation on clusters is gathered into a concise form. In ten Brug- 
gencate's monograph Stemhaufen, 1927, emphasis is placed par- 
ticularly on the theoretical side of clusters. In the final volume of 
the extensive series Observations de nebuleuses et oV a mas stellaires by 
Bigourdan, in Paris Annales, Observations, several hundred pages 
are devoted to the development of the study of nebulae and clusters. 
For the objects in Messier's catalogue readers should consult the 
long series by Flammarion in the Bulletin de la Societe Astron- 
omique de France, 1917-21, where a complete historical account of 
each cluster is given. Messier's original descriptions are reprinted, 
along with Flammarion's drawings and photographs of the objects. 
Early twentieth century catalogues of globular clusters are those of 
Bailey, 1908 and 1918, Hinks 1911, Shapley 1918 and 1919, Charlier 
1918, and Lundmark 1920. 

For convenience and the avoidance of repetition of references, the 
bibliography has been divided into two sections. All papers refer- 
ring to individual globular clusters are listed in the first section. 
The important papers dealing principally with one cluster are listed 
by date, author and title directly under that cluster. These com- 
prise the main body of the work in Section A. But many papers, 
such as the catalogues mentioned above, list attributes of several or 
many clusters. Reference to these works is made in Section A by 
date and author under each cluster concerned. Section B is a com- 
plete list of these references in their entirety, arranged chrono- 
logically. 

Of the more than 800 references studied for this bibliography, 
about 700 were available in the scientific libraries around Toronto, 
which include those of the David Dunlap Observatory and Royal 
Astronomical Society of Canada, the University of Toronto, tin- 



386 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Royal Canadian Institute, and the Meteorological Service of 
Canada. About fifty more papers were obtained from other Cana- 
dian libraries, those of the Dominion Observatory, Ottawa, McGill 
University, and the University of Alberta. Fifty others were bor- 
rowed from United States libraries, chiefly from the Harvard 
Observatory and the University of Michigan. I am indebted to 
librarians Miss Slater and Miss Wales of the University of Toronto, 
Miss Hanley of the Harvard Observatory, and Mr. Gauthier of the 
Dominion Observatory for aid in obtaining some of the references. 

I am especially indebted to Miss Edna Fuller, Miss Ruth 
Northcott and my husband, Dr. F. S. Hogg, all of the David 
Dunlap Observatory, for assistance at various stages of the work; 
to Mrs. R. E. Williamson for preparation of the final manuscript 
for the printer; and above all to Dr. Harlow Shapley for his inspira- 
tion for my two decades of work on star clusters. 

I began this work with the realization that it was beyond the 
limits of human frailty to make it one hundred per cent complete 
and correct. I have striven to make the bibliography as correct and 
complete as circumstances would permit, and will welcome any 
corrections or additions of important papers which may be included 
in later lists. 

II. A Catalogue of Globular Star Clusters 

For the convenience of the reader, certain of the material indi- 
cated in the bibliography has been assimilated into a table of infor- 
mation on globular clusters. Table I lists all clusters at present on 
the globular list for our own galaxy. The clusters are arranged by 
XGC number, which does not always correspond to right ascension 
for 1950. Successive columns give the NGC number, the right 
ascension and declination for 1950, and the constellation in which 
the cluster is located as determined from the I.A.U. Atlas. The 
galactic longitude and latitude have been computed for 1900 on 
the basis of the Harvard Pole 12 h 40 m , + 28°, with the help of 
Ohlsson's tables, Lund Annals, no. 3, 1932. The concentration 
class for most clusters is that assigned by Shapley and Sawyer in 1927. 
The angular diameters are partly by Mowbray. 194G. and partly by 
Shapley and Saver, 1935. The integrated photographic magnitude 
is, when possible, by Christie, 1940; or by Sawyer and Shapley, 1927, 
reduced to the same system. The spectral type and radial velocity in 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 387 

kilometres a second are by Mayall, 1946; the number of variables 
according to Sawyer, 1939, with some more recent adjustments. The 
magnitudes of bright stars and variables are from the most recent 
reliable published observations to be found under each cluster. The 
color excess is by Stebbins and Whitford, 1936. The modulus from 
variables in the next to the last column of the table is uncorrected 
for absorption, and the reader may apply the correction which seems 
to him best to fit the case. Many of the blanks in the table will be 
filled during the coming months from studies of the David Dunlap 
plates. 

(a) It is interesting to note from this catalogue the distribution 
of globular clusters by constellation. The 99 globular clusters are 
found in only 37 of the constellations. Somewhat surprisingly, the 
largest number of globular clusters is found in the constellation of 
Ophiuchus, which has 20. The second largest total, 17, is as one 
would expect, in Sagittarius; Scorpio is third with 8. Xo other 
constellation has more than 3. Six constellations have 3 each, 
7 have 2, and 22 have one. The distribution by constellation is as 
follows: 

Ophiuchus 20, Sagittarius 17, Scorpio 8, 3 each in Coma Beren- 
ices, Lupus, Hercules, Ara, Pavo, and Aquarius; 2 each in Toucan, 
Musca, Hydra, Centaurus, Apus, Serpens, Delphinus; one cluster 
each in Sculptor, Horologium, Mensa,Columba,Lepus,Puppis,Lynx, 
Carina, Vela, Canes Venatici, Bootes, Virgo, Libra, Norma, Corona 
Austrina, Telescopium, Scutum, Aquila, Lyra, Sagitta, Pegasus, 
Capricornus. 

The heaviest concentration of known globular clusters is defin- 
itely in the region of Ophiuchus-Sagittarius, rather than in the more 
commonly mentioned one of Sagittarius-Scorpio. 

(b) A feature of the main section of the bibliography is that for 
each cluster I have tried to indicate the date of the first recorded 
observation. This is the first observation of the object in the sky; 
I have not attempted to indicate when the object was first correct ly 
assigned to the globular category. Even at the present day the 
proper classification of some objects is still doubtful. 

It is interesting then to note the astronomers who first observed 
these objects in the sky. The man who leads all others in the 
discovery of globular clusters is Sir William Herschel, who found 
exactly one-third of the clusters accepted as globular today. 



388 



Publications of the Dai'id Dunlap Observatory 



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A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 



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392 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

He found 33, while his nearest competitor, James Dunlop, who 
worked in the southern hemisphere, found 21. Messier found 14, 
Mechain and John Herschel 5 each, Lacaille 4, and no other observer 
found more than two. Table II lists the globular clusters by NGC 
number according to their discoverer. 

TABLE II 

DISCOVERERS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS 

William Herschel: 288, 2419, 4147, 5053, 5466, 5634, 5694, 5897, 6144, 6229, 
6284, 6287, 6293, 6304, 6316, 6342, 6355, 6356, 6401, 6426, 6440, 6517, 6522, 
6528, 6544, 6553, 6569, 6624, 6638, 6712, 6934, 7006, 7492. 

James Dunlop: 362, 1261, 1851, 2298, 2808, 3201, 4372, 5286, 5927, 5986, 6101, 
6139, 6352, 6362, 6388, 6441, 6496, 6584, 6652, 6723, 6752. 

Charles Messier: 4590, 5272, 6218, 6254, 6266, 6273, 6333, 6402, 6626, 6637, 
6681, 6715, 6779, 7099. 

Pierre Mechain: 1904, 6093, 6171, 6864, 6981. 

John Herschel: 1841, 5946, 6325, 6453, 6684. 

Abbe de Lacaille: 104, 4833, 6397, 6809. 

Halley, 5139, 6205; Hevelius or Ihle, 6656; Kirch, 5904; Maraldi, 7078, 7089; 

de Cheseaux, 6121; Kohler, 6838; Bode, 5024, 6341; Cacciatore, 6541; 

Brorson, 6539; Hind, 6760; Winnecke, 6366; Barnard, 5824; Stewart, IC 

4499; Shapley, one unnumbered. 

1 have made every effort to assign the discovery to the correct 
observer, but will be pleased to receive any corrections. A paper 
by the writer discussing the development of nebular catalogues in 
the eighteenth century, with special reference to Messier and 
Mechain, and the publication of a long overlooked letter by the 
latter, is to be found in Dunlap Comm., no. 14, 1947. 

(c) It is interesting to compare the totals of variables as listed in 
this catalogue of globular clusters with those in the catalogue of 
variables in David Dunlap Publication no. 4, 1939. The total of 
1116 variables known at that time has grown to 1294 now, an 
increase of 178 variables. But whereas in 1939, 60 globulars had 
been searched for variables, the number now has increased to 
only 62. Actually three more clusters have been examined, but 
one on the earlier list, NGC 6535, has now been dropped from the 
globular category. Since the globular clusters now being searched 
for variables are increasingly difficult objects, further progress 
will be slow. The writer has in her possession data on other 
clusters which will be published when completed. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 393 

III. Instructions for Use of Bibliography 

All references to individual globular clusters are listed in Section 
A where the clusters are arranged by NGC number, with Messier's 
number indicated in parenthesis. The Right Ascension and Dec- 
clination are for 1950; the galactic coordinates are for 1900. 

Under each cluster are listed by date, author and title all prin- 
cipal papers on that cluster. Many important references to indi- 
vidual clusters are lost in works on another cluster or subject; every 
attempt has been made to include these stray bits of information. 
Numerous papers intercompare clusters, and these are listed under 
each cluster so compared. 

Papers which involve several or more clusters are usually listed 
under each cluster concerned by date and author only. The com- 
plete reference list for these items will be found in Section B. There 
was no iron-clad rule as to whether papers mentioning a few clusters 
should be listed by title under each cluster, but in general Section B 
is a list of catalogues and works providing observational data on 
many clusters. Since the New General Catalogue number by 
Dreyer, 1888, is used for each cluster, there is. no additional 
reference to this catalogue by individual cluster. 

The first date and name reference under NGC 104, 47 Tucanae, 
is 1755 Lacaille. If the reader will turn to Section B, he can read 
the title of the paper as well as the printed source. For some of the 
early catalogues, notably those of Lacaille, the Herschels and 
Dunlop, the catalogue number of the object follows the name of 
the author. When photographs or drawings accompany the paper 
this is usually, but not always, indicated. Certain clusters, such as 
Messier 13, have had too main- photographs published for all to be 
included, but I have attempted to indicate sources where photo- 
graphs of the less well-known clusters can be found. 

Many of the longer and more important references in Section B 
have been indexed with lettered sub-divisions. Early in the work 
it appeared that to list a cluster as being included in a given refer- 
ence was not always enough. For example, a reference may contain 
one list of clusters which the writer of the paper considered globular, 
and another list considered as non-globular. Simply to index both 
lists in the same way would be quite misleading. For these papers, 
then, I have made as many lettered subdivisions as seemed neces- 
sary to serve as an information guide to the material contained 



394 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

therein. For some of the longer works this has been a rather diffi- 
cult procedure. For Shapley's Star Clusters and his article Stellar 
Clusters in the Handbuch der Astrophysik, which provide such a 
comprehensive summary of information, only material not pre- 
viously published by the same author has been indexed. 

In cases where the same author has published more than one 
paper in a given year, these are differentiated by an italicized Roman 
numeral following the year. A long series of papers forming an 
obvious whole, such as that of Bigourdan, has been indexed under 
the first year of the series with a dash following the date, i.e., 1891 — 
Bigourdan. Certain volumes which appeared in several editions 
such as Webb, Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes, have been 
indexed under the date of the edition which I used, with a cross 
reference to the date of the first edition. The titles of Shaplex s 
two series, Studies of Color and Magnitude in Stellar Clusters, in 
Mt. Wilson Communications, and Studies of Magnitudes in Star 
Clusters, in Mt. Wilson Contributions, have been condensed simply 
to Studies. Readers will find convenient access to the papers of 
three famous astronomers in the collected volumes of their work, as 
follows: The Scientific Papers of Sir William Herschel, 2 vols., 
London, 1912; The Scientific Papers of William Parsons, Third Earl 
of Rosce, London, 1926; The Scientific Papers of Sir William 
Huggins, London, 1909. 

The abbreviations employed have been selected to combine 
minimum printing space with maximum ease of identification for 
the reader. Certain abbreviations, such as M.\. , A.N., etc., arc 
so well-known in astronomical literature as to cause no confusion. 
Abbreviations for other periodicals have been constructed in accord- 
ance with principles from the I.A.U. Transactions, vol. Ill, pp. 
19-39, 1928, in conjunction with the Union List of Serials. The 
latter list has been used extensively in locating the whereabouts on 
this continent of many of the rarer volumes. 

In general the word Observatory has been omitted from the 
abbreviation, and taken as understood. Where publications are 
from academies or societies, however, this is always indicated. For 
most publications the abbreviation has been chosen for ease of 
locating the reference in the Union List; that is, the place of publi- 
cation appears first, followed by the series, such as bulletin, circular, 
etc. We might note that the publication Comptes Rendus is to be 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 395 

found under Academie des Sciences, Paris; and Connaissance des 
Temps under France, Bureau des Longitudes. 

The numbers of the catalogue of Messier and Mechain were 
assigned in order of discovery. Since these numbers are in fre- 
quent use to-day, the following table is given for convenience in 
locating these clusters by NGC numbers in this bibliography. 

Identification of Messier-Mechain with NGC Numbers 

Messier NGC Messier NGC Messier NGC 



2 


7089 


19 


6273 


69 


6637 


3 


5272 


22 


6656 


70 


6681 


4 


6121 


28 


6626 


71 


6838 


5 


5904 


30 


7099 


72 


6981 


9 


6333 


53 


5024 


75 


6864 


10 


6254 


54 


6715 


79 


1904 


12 


6218 


55 


6809 


80 


6093 


13 


6205 


56 


6779 


92 


6341 


14 


6402 


62 


6266 


107 


6171 



15 7078 68 4590 

It is impossible in such a long work as this bibliography to print 
a summary of each reference. On each card in my catalogue, how- 
ever, I have written a summary of the reference. For less readily 
obtainable papers I will be glad to supply any astronomer with 
further information from my card catalogue. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario 
June 30, 1947. 



396 Publications oj the David Dunlap Observatory 



SECTION' A. 

NGC 104 (47 Tucanae) a 00 h 21 m .9, 5 — 72° 21' / 272°, b — 45° 

1755 Lacaille, Abbe de. First observation. 

1891 Bailey, S. I. A catalogue of 7922 southern stars observed with the meridian 

photometer during the years 1889-91. Harv. Ann., v. 34, p. 108. 
1894 Pickering, E. C. Variable stars near 47 Tucanae. A.N., v. 135, p. 129. 

1897 Pickering, E. C. Distribution of stars in clusters. Harv. Ann., v. 26, 
p. 213 (with plate). 

1898 Williams, A. S. A catalogue of the magnitudes of 1081 stars lying between 
-30° Dec. and the South Pole (1885-6). London. 

1901 Holetschek, J. Ueber den Helligkeitseindruck von Sternhaufen. Vienna, 
K. Ak. Wiss. Matk-natur. Kl. Sit:. 110, abth. II a, pp. 1253- ( .»7. 

1903 Bailey, S. I., and Pickering, E. C. Observations with the meridian photo- 
meter during the years 1899-1902. Harv. Ann., v. 46, p. 5. 

1908 Pickering, E. C. Revised Harvard Photometry. Harv. Ann., v. 50, p.19. 

1911 Plummer, H. C. On the problem of distribution in globular star clusters. 
M.N., v. 71, pp. 460-70. 

1915 Bailey, S. I. Globular clusters: distribution of star-. Harv. Ann., v. 76, 
no. 4. 

1915 Wood, H. E. Observations of comet 1915a (Mellish) Union Circ, no. 31, 
p. 239. (Colour of 47 Tucanae). 

1923 Shapley, H. Globular cluster containing long period variables. Harv. 
Bull., no. 783. 

1925 Paraskevopoulos, D. W. Integrated magnitude of 47 Tucanae. Harv. 
Bull., no. 824. 

1925 Stromgren, E. Om bevaegelses mulighederne i stjernehobe. Nord. A. 
Tids., v. 6, pp. 21-28. 

1935 Perrine, C. D. Report of Observatorio Nacional Argentino, L934-1935. 
Am. A. S. Pub., v. 8, p. 1(12. (Pour spectrograms taken). 

1939 Globular Cluster, 47 Tucanae. Cover, The Telescope, v. 6, p. 5. 

1940 Ekenberg, B. Estimates of the total magnitudes of £; Tucanae, to Centauri, 
M (> and M 7. Lund. Maid., ser. I, no. 156. 

1941 Shapley, H. Galactic studies, XII. The giant globular cluster 47 Tucanae 
and its long period variables. Nat. Acad. Set. Proc, v. 27, p. 440. Harv. 
Repr. No. 228. 

1942 47 Tucanae. Cover, Sky and Telescope, no. 9, p. 1 . 

1943 The Small Magellanic Cloud and 47 Tucanae. Cover, Sky and Telescope, 
no. 24, p. 1. 

1755 Lacailie I 1, 1828 Dunlop 18 (he. 1), 1847 J. Herschel 2322 (drawing), 
1861 J. Herschel, 1862/iV Auwers, 1864 j. Herschel 52, \867ab Chambers, 1868 
Webb, 1881 Smvth and Chambers, 1882aft Flammarion, 1894 Gore, 1897, 1898/7 
Pickering, I902abc Bailev, 1903 Clerke, 1904a Webb, 1908 Bailev (plate), 1910 
See (plates), 1911a Hinks, 1912 See (olate), 1913 Bailey, 1913ft von Zeipel. 1914 
Stromgren and Drachmann, 19157. 77 Plummer, 1915' Melotte, 1915a6 Bailey, 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 397 

NGC 104 (Cont.) 

1916 Jeans, 1918c Charlier, 1918//cg Shaplev, 1918 VI Shaplev, 1919/c, lie 
Shaplev and Shaplev, 19196 Shaplev. 1920 Hoffmeister, 1920 Lous, 1920a Lund- 
mark, 19227/ Becker, 1923 Lundborg, 1923 von Zeipe!, 1925 Larink, 1925 
Xabokov, 1925/ Doig, 1926c/ Parvulesco, 1927a dh ten Bruggencate, 1927 Sawyer 
and Shaplev, 1927c Parvulesco, 19277, 77 Shaplev and Sawyer, 1929 Cannon, 
I929a6 Shaplev and Sawver, 1930 Heckmann and Siedentoof, 1930 abfgknp 
Shaplev, 1931' Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 
1939a6 Sawver, 1941 de Kort, 1944 Shaplev, 1945 Finlay-Freundlich, 1945 Saw- 
yer, 1946d Mayall. 

NGC 288 a 00 h 50 m .2, 8- 26° 52' / 154°, 6 - 88° 

1789 Herschel, W. First observation, 1785 Oct. 27. 

1943 Oosterhoff, P. Th, A semi-regular variable in N.G.C. 288. B.A.N. , v. 9, 
pp. 397-9. 

1789 W. Herschel VI 20, 1818a W. Herschel, 1833 J. Herschel 74, 1847 J. 
Herschel 2354, 186211a Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 162, 1891-g Bigourdan, 1881 
Smvth and Chambers, 1904a Webb, 1915 Melotte, 1915a, 19186 Bailey, 1918c 
Charlier, 19187760* Shaplev, 191977c Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark, 
1923 Lundborg, 1926 Doig, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927a ten Bruggencate, 1927 
Sawver and Shaplev, 19277, 77 Shaplev and Sawver, 1928 van Rhijn, 1929a6 
Shaplev and Sawyer, 1930a/» Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 
1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1936a Stebbins and Whitford, 1936 Duryea, 1939a 
Sawver, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1944 Shaplev, 1945 Sawyer, 
1946d Mayall, 1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 362 a 01 h 00 m .6, o - 71° 07' I 268°, b - 47° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1915 Bailey, S. I. Globular clusters; distribution of stars. Harv. Ann., v. 76, 

no. 4. 
1927 Heckmann, O. P. ten Bruggencate, Sternhaufen. A. G. Viert., v. 62, 

pp. 180-191. (Analysis). 

1931 Sawyer, H. B. The periods of thirty-six variable stars in four globular 
clusters. (Abs.) Am. A. S. Pub., v. 7, p. 35. 

1932 Sawyer, H. B. Periods and light curves of thirty two variable stars in the 
globular clusters N.G.C. 362, 6121, and 6397. Harv. Circ, no. 366. 

1932 Sawyer, H. B. Periods and light curves of twenty two variable stars in the 
northern border of the Small Magellanic Cloud. (Plate). Harv. Circ, 
no. 374. (Abs.) Variable stars in the northern edge of the Small Magellanic 
Cloud. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 7, p. 100. 

1935 Greenstein, J. L. Two non-cluster type variables in Messier 3. Harv. Bull., 
no. 901, p. 14. (Comparison of variables). 

1943 The Small Magellanic Cloud and 47 Tucanae. Cover, Sky and Telescope, 
no. 24, p. 1. 

1828 Dunlop 62 (tig. 3), 1847 J. Herschel 2375, 1864 J. Herschel 193, 1867a 
Chambers, 18826 Flammarion, 1895, 1897, 189877 Pickering, 1902a6c Bailey, 
1904a Webb, 1908 Bailey, 1911a Hinks, 1913, 1915a6 Bailey, 19157 Plum- 
mer, 1915 Melotte, 1916 Jeans, 1918c Charlier, 191877c Shaplev, 19197c, 
77c Shapley and Shaplev, 1920 Hoffmeister, 1920a Lundmark, 1923 Lundborg, 
1925 Nabokov, 1925/ Doig, 1926f Parvulesco, 1927dft ten Bruggencate, 1927 
Sawver and Shaplev, 19277, 77, 1929a6 Shaplev and Sawver, 1929 Cannon, 



398 • Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 362 (Cont.) 

1930a/*» Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1932a6, 1935a 
Sawver, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1939a6 Sawyer, 1941 de Kort, 1942a Sawyer, 
1943a Oosterhoff, 1944 Shapley. 1944/7. 1945 Sawver, 1946d Mayall. 

NGC 1261 a03 h 10 m .9, 8 - 55° 25' I 236°, 6 - 52° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1828 Dunlop 337, 1847 J. Herschel 2517. 1864 J. Herschel 666, 1908 Bailey, 
1911a Hinks, 1915 Melotte, 1915fl Bailey, 1918c Charlier, 191877c Shaplev, 
1919/Jc Shapley and Shapley, 1920a Lundmark, 1923 Lundborg, 1926/ Parvulesco, 

1927 Sawver and Shaplev, 19277, //. 19296 Shapley and Sawyer, L929 Cannon, 
1930arc Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp. 1941 de Kort, 1944 
Shaplev, 1945 Sawver. 1946d Mayall. 

NGC 1841 a 04 h 52 m .5, 5 - S4 05' / 264 c 6 - 30° 

1847 Herschel, J. First observation, 1836 Jan. L9. 

1940 Shapley, H., and Paraskevopoulos, J. S. Southern clusters and galaxies. 
Harv. Bull., no. 91 1. (New globular cluster). 

1847 J. Herschel 2788, 1864 J. Herschel 1052, L946d Mayall. 

NGC 1851 a 05 h 12 ni .4, 8 - 40° 05' I 211°, b - 34° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1924 Slipher, V. M. The radial velocity of additional globular star clusters. Pop. 

Astr.,\. 32, p. 622. 
1935 Perrine, C. D. Report of Observatorio Nacional Argentine 1934-3."). 

Am. A. S. Pub., v. 8, p. 162. (Spectrogram of 51 hours exp.) 

1828 Dunlop 508, 1847 J. Herschel 2777, 1804 J. Herschel L061, 1867a 
Chambers, 18826 Flammarion, 1904a Webb, L911a Hink^, I'll.") Melotte, 1915a, 
19186 Bailev, 1918c Charlier, L918/Je Shapley, 1919/c, He Shaple\ and Shaplev, 
1920a Lundmark, 1923 Lundborg, L925 Nabokov, L925 Stromber'g, 1925/ Doig, 
1926/ Parvulesco, 1027 Sawyer and Shapley, 19277, 77 Shaplev and Sawver. 

1928 Youte, 1929 Cannon, L9296 Shaplej and Sawyer, I930a/fc«g Shaplev, 1931 
Nabokov, 1932 Moore, 1932, L933 van de Kamp, 1935a6d Edmondson, 1935 
Shiveshw.tr kar, 1935 Mineur, 1935 Shapley ami Saver, 1939« Sawxer, 1940 
Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1944 Shapley, 1945 Sawyer, 1946a6 
Mayall. 

NGC 1904 (Messier 79) a05 h 22'".2, 6 - 24° 34' /195,6 - 28° 

1781 Mechain, P.F.A. First observation, 1780 Oct. 26, Dec. 17. 

1899 Holetschek, J. Leber den Helligkeitscindruck von Nebelflecken und 

Sternhaufen. A. G. Yiert., v. 33, p. 270. 
1924 Slipher, Y. M. The radial velocity of additional globular star clusters. 

Pop. Astr., v. 32, p. 622. 

1781 Mechain, 1783 Bode, 1784 Messier, 1814c W. Herschel. 1818ac W. 
Herschel, 1853 Laugier 7, 1856 d'Arrest, 18621 16 Auwers, 1862 Schonfeld, 1864 
J. Herschel 1112, 1867 Yogel, 1881 Smyth and Chambers, 18826 rlammarion, 
1888 Ginzel. 1897, 189877 Pickering, 1895a6 Monnichmever, 1902a6c Bailev, 
1902 Gore, 1904 Webb, 1904, 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailev, 1909 Perrine, 1909 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 399 

NGC 1904 (Cont.) 

Winnecke, 1010 Porter, 1911a Hinks, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailev, 1915 Kritzinger, 
1917 Shapley and Davis, 1917a" Flammarion, 1918a Bailev, 1918c Charlier, 
1918776a' Shaplev, 1919/c, lied Shaple\- and Shaplev, 1920 Hoffmeister, 1920a 
Lundmark, 19206 Shapley, 1925 Nabokov, 1925 Stromberg, 19256, 1926 Doig, 
1926/ Parvulesco, 19267 Yorontsov-Yelvaminov, 1927/? ten Bruggencate, 1927 
Savvver and Shaplev, 19277, 77 Shaplev and Sawver, 1928 van Rhijn, 1928 
Voute, 1929 Cannon, 1929a6 Shaplev and Sawver, 1930afk>iq Shaplev, 1931 
Nabokov, 1932 Moore, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1935a6 Edmondson, 1935 
Shiveshwarkar, 1935 Mineur, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1936 Durvea, 1937 
Wilkens, 1939a Sawver, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort", 1(141 Copeland, 1946a6 
Mayall, 1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 2298 a 06 h 47 m .2, o - 35° 57' / 213", 6 - 15° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1828 Dunlop 578, 1847 J. Herschel 3065, 1864 J. Herschel 1463, 1881 Smyth 
and Chambers, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailev, 1918c Charlier, 191877c Shaplev, 
191977c Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer 
and Shaplev, 19277, II, 19296 Shapley and Sawyer, V.)30akno Shapley, 1931 
Nabokov, 1932. 1933 van de Kamp, 1935 Shaplev and Sayer, 1939a Sawyer, 
1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1946a6 Mayall, 1946a" Mowbray. 

NGC 2419 a 07 h 34 m .S, o + 39° 00' / 148°, 6 + 27° 

1802 Herschel, William. First observation 1788 Dec. 31. 

1922 Shapley, H. N.G.C. 2419. Han: Bull., no. 776; Pop. Astr., v. 30, p. 590. 
(Discussion of Lampland's photograph). 

1935 Baade, W. The globular cluster N.G.C. 2419. ML W. Cont., no. 529; 
Ap. J., v. 82, pp. 396-412. (Plate). 

1936 Ein merkwurdiger Kugelsternhaufen. Die Himmelswelt , v. 46, pp. 152-3. 

1937 v. Brunn, A. Der Kugelhaufen N.G.C. 2419. Die Sterne, v. 17, pp. 16-8. 

1802 W. Herschel I 218, 1833 J. Herschel 457, 1856 d'Arrest, 1861 Earl of 
Rosse, 186277a Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 1548, 18656 Rumker, 1874 Schultz, 1875 
Schonfeld, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 1891-/* Bigourdan, 1907 Holetschek, 1909 
Winnecke, 1922a Shaplev, 1925 Nabokov, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1926 Reinmuth, 
1927 Sawver and Shaplev, 19277, 77, 19296 Shapley and Sawver, IdSOafkno 
Shapley, 1930 Parenago,1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp. 1933 Stebbins, 
1934, 1935 Lundmark, 1935a6 Edmondson. 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1936a6 
Stebbins and Whitford, 1937 Mineur, 1939a Sawver, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 
1943 (fig. 50), 1944 Shapley, 1945 Sawyer, 1946«6 Mayall, 1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 2808 a 09 h 10 m .9, o - 64° 39' / 250°, 6-11° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1898 Williams, A. S. A catalogue of the magnitudes of 10S1 stars lying between 

— 30° Dec. and the south pole. (1885-6). London. 
1908 Pickering, E. C. Revised Harvard Photometry. Han: Ami., v. 50, p. 91. 

1828 Dunlop 265, 1847 J. Herschel 3152, 1861 J. Herschel, 1864 J. Herschel 
1793, 1881 Smyth and Chambers, 1904a Webb, 1908 Bailev, 1911a Hinks, 1912 
Curtis, 1915 Melotte, 1915a, 19186 Bailey, 1918 Curtis, 1918c Charlier, 191877c 
Shaplev, 19197c, /7c Shaplev and Shapley, 1920a Lundmark, 1923 Lundborg, 
1925 Nabokov, 1925/' Doig, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927// ten Bruggencate, 1927 
Sawver and Shapley, 1927/, //, 1929.;/) Shapley and Sawyer, 1929 Cannon. 
1930a£« Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp," 1935 Shapley and 
Sayer, 1939a Sawyer, 1941 de Kort, 1946rf Mayall. 



400 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 3201 a 10 h 15 m .5, o - 46° 09' / 245°, 6 4- 09° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1919 Woods, I. E. Variable stars in the cluster N.G.C. 3201. Harv. Circ, 

no. 216. 
1922 Bailey, S. I. Photographic work at Arequipa with the Bruce 24-inch 

refractor. N.G.C. 3201. Harv. Circ, no. 234. 

1940 Dowse, M. Twenty-five new variable stars in the globular cluster N.G.C. 
3201. Harv. Bull., no. 913, p. 17. 

1941 Wright, F. W. Periods of fifty-nine variable stars in the globular cluster 
N.G.C. 3201. Harv. Bull., no. 915. 

1828 Dunlop 445. 1847 J. Herschel 3238, 1864 J. Herschel 2068, 1881 Smvth 
and Chambers, 1908 Bailey (plate), 1911a Hinks, 1915 Melotte, 1915a, 1918a 
Bailev, 1918c Charlier, 191877e Shaplev, 191977c Shapley and Shapley, 1920a 
Lundmark. 1923 Lundborg, 1926/ Parvulesco, L927 Sawyer and Shaplev. 19277, 
//, 1929a6 Shapley and Sawyer, L930o/« Shaplev, 1932. 1933 van de Kamp, 
1935 Shapley .md Sayer, L939a Sawyer, 1911 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 194477 
Sawyer, I946d Mayall. 

NGC 4147 a 12 h 07 m .6, 5 4- 18° 49' / 224°, 6 + 78° 

1786 Herschel, W. First observation, 1784 Mar. 14. 

1917 Shapley, H. Descriptive notes relative to nine clusters. .4. 5. P. Pub., 

v. 29, pp. 185-6. 
1917 Davis, H. Five new variable stars in globular clusters. A. S. P. Pub., 

v. 29, p. 260. 

1930 Baade, W. Der kugelformige Sternhaufen NGC 4147. A. N., v. 239, 
pp. 353-8; Hamb. Mitt., v. 7, no. 36, 1932. 

1931 Baade, W. Schwache Haufenveriinderliche in hohen galaktischen Breiten. 
(5 Yeriinderliche in der Umgebung des Kugelhaufens NGC 4147). A. N., 
v. 244, pp. 153-8; 77aw6. Mitt., v. 7, no. 36, 1932. 

1931 Vinter Hansen, J. M. Den kugelformede stjernehob NGC 4147. Nord. 
A. Tids., v. 12, pp. 20-3. 

1786 W. Herschel I 10. 1S33 J. Herschel 1106, 1S56 d'Arrest, 1861 Earl of 
Rosse, 186277a Auwers, 1862 Schonfeld, 1864 J. Herschel 2752, 1867 d'Arrest, 
1874 Schultz, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 1881 Smyth and Chambers, 1882 Engelmann, 
1886 d'Engelhardt. 1891-*' Bigourdan, 1891 Kempf, 1895a6 MOnnichmever, 1904 
Webb, 1907 Holeischek, 190!) Perrine, 1909 Winnecke, 1911 Lorenz, 1912 Curtis, 
1915 Melotte, 1915,/ Bailev, 1918 Curtis, 1918c Charlier, 1918776dg, 7 Fa, VI, 
Shaplev, 191977ca* Shaplev and Shapley, 1920,/ Lundmark, 19206 Shapley, 1923 
Lundborg, 1923 Wirtz, 1923 von Zeipel, 1925 Nabokov, 1925a Doig, 1926/ 
Parvulesco, 1926 Rcinnuith, 1927 Sawver and Shaplev, 19277, 77, 1929a6 Shaplev 
and Sawyer, 1929 Cannon, 1930u/« Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de 
Kamp, 1932a6 Sawyer, 1933 Stebbins, 1934, 1935 Lundmark, 1935 Shapley and 
Sayer, 1936a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1939a Sawver, 1940 Christie, 1941 de 
Kort. 1944 Shapley, 1915 Finlay-Freundlich, 1945 Sawver, 1946a6 Mayall, 
1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 4372 a 12 h 23 m .0, 8 - 72° 24' / 268°, b - 10° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1828 Dunlop 67? (fig. 2), 1847 J. Herschel 3390, 1864 J. Herschel 2927, 1915 
Melotte, 1915a, 19186 Bailey, 1918c Charlier, 191877c, Vb Shapley, 19197c, 776c 
Shapley and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927a/j ten Brug- 
gencate, 1927 Sawver and Shaplev, 19277, 77, 19296 Shapley and Sawver, 1930an 
Shapley, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1939a Sawver, 1946a' Mayall. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 401 

NGC 4590 (Messier 68) a 12 h 36 m .8, o - 26° 29' I 268°, ft + 37° 

1780 Messier, C. First observation, 1780 Apr. 9. 

1919 Shapley, H. Nineteen new variable stars. A. S. P. Pub., v. 31, p. 226. 

1920 Shapley, H. Studies. XV. A photometric analysis of the globular system 
Messier 68. Mt. W. Cont., no. 175; Ap. J., v. 51, pp. 49-61 (Plate). 

1930 Sticker, B. Cber die Farbenhaufigkeitsfunktion in Sternhaufen. Z.f.Ap., 

v. 1, p. 174. 
1947 Greenstein, J. L., Bidelman, W. P. and Popper, D. M. Variable 27 in the 

globular cluster Messier 68. A. S. P. Pub., v. 59, p. 143. 

1780 Messier, 1783 Bode, 1784 Messier, 1814ft W. Herschel, 1818a W. 
Herschel, 1847 J. Herschel 3404, 1862/76 Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 3128, 1881 
Smyth and Chambers, 1882ft Flammaricn, 1891-i Bigourdan, 1902 Gore, 1904 
Webb, 1004. 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailev, 1909 Perrine, 1910 Porter, 1911a 
Hinks, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailev, 1917 Shaplev and Davis, 1917a" Flammarion, 
1918ft Bailev, 1918c Charlier, 19i8//c Shaplev, 19ldIIcd Shapley and Shaplev, 
1920a Lundmark, 1920ft Shaplev, 1923 Lundborg, 1923 von Zeipel, 1924 ten 
Bruggencate, 1925 Nabokov, 1925fft, 1926 Doig, 1926ft/, 1927a Parvulesco, 1927i 
ten Bruggencate, 1927 Sawver and Shaplev, 1927 Lonnquist, 19277, II, 
1929aft Shaplev and Sawver, 1929 Cannon, 1930ae/w Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 
1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1937 Wilkens, 1939a Hachenberg, 1939a Sawyer, 1940 
Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland,1943 Cuftev, 1944 Shaplev, 1945 Sawver, 
1946aft Mayall, l<)46aft Mowbray. 

NGC 4833 a 12 h 56 m .O, o - 70° 36' / 271°, ft - 08° 

1755 Lacaille, Abbe de. First observation. 

1923 Bailey, S. I. Eleven new southern variable stars. Harv. Bull., no. 792. 
1942 Wright, F. \V. Eleven variable stars in the globular cluster NGC 4833. 
Harv. Bull., no. 916. 

1755 Lacaille I 4, 1828 Dunlop 164, 1847 J. Herschel 3444, 1861 J. Herschel, 
186277c Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 3325, 1881 Smvth and Chambers, 1908 Bailev, 
1911a Hinks, 1915 Melotte, 1915a, 1918ft Bailev, 1918c Charlier, 19187/e Shaplev , 
191977c Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark, 1923 Lundborg, 1925 Nabokov, 
1926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawver and Shapley, 19277, 77, 1929ft Shapley and 
Sawver, \9S0afkn Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1935 
Shapley and Saver, 1939a Sawyer, 1941 de Kort, 19460" Mayall. 

NGC 5024 (Messier 53) a n 13 h 10 m .5, 8 + 18° 26' / 306°, ft + 79° 

1777 Bode, J. E. Observed by him, Feb. 3, 1775. 

1783 Messier, C. Observed by him, Feb. 26, 1777. 

1784 Herschel, W. Account of some observations tending to investigate the 
construction of the heavens. Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., v. 74, pp. 437-51. 
Fig. 2, drawing. 

1899 Holetschek, J. Ueber den Helligkeitseindruck von Nebelflecken und 

Sternhaufen. A. G. Viert., v. 33, p. 270. 
1917 Lundmark, K., and Lindblad, B. Photographic effective wave-lengths of 

some spiral nebulae and globular clusters. Ap. J., v. 46, pp. 206-18; 

A. N.,x. 205, pp. 161-70. 
1917 Pease, F. G., and Shapley, H. Axes of symmetry in globular clusters. 

.17/. W. Comm., no. 39; Nat. Acad. Set. Proc, v. 3, pp. 96-101. 



402 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 5024 (Cont.) 

1919 Sanford, R. F. Radial velocities of clusters. Aft. W. Rep., no. 15, p. 250. 

1920 Shapley, H. Studies. XVII. Miscellaneous results. Pt. 1. Position 
co-ordinates of new variable stars. (Plate). Mt. W. Cont., no. 190; Ap. J., 
v. 52, p. 73. 

1922 Baade, W. 7 Yeranderliche in der Umgebung des Kugelhaufens M 53. 

Hamb. Mitt., v. 5, no. 16. 
1926 Baadc, W. 17 neue Yeranderliche im Kugelhaufen M 53 (NGC 5024). 

Hamb. Mitt., v. 6, no. 27. 
1929 Heckmann, O., and Siedentopf, H. Uber die Struktur der kugelformigen 

Sternhaufen. Gott . Veroff., no. 6; Z.f. Phys., v. 54, p. 183. 

1931 Barnard, E. E. Micrometric measures of star clusters. Yerkes Pub., 
v. 6, pp. 42-3. 

1932 Grosse, E. Untersuchungen iiber die veranderlichen Sterne im Kugel- 
sternhaufen Messier 53. A. N., v. 246, pp. 397-406; Hamb.-Berg. Abh., 
v. 4, no. 2. 

1933 GrosM-, E. (ber die isolierten Haufenveranderlichen in der Umgebung von 
M 53 nebst einer Bemerkung iiber die Streuung der absoluten Helligkeiten 
der Haufenveranderlichen. A. N., v. 249, pp. 389-'. » I. 

1940 Oosterhoff, P. Th. Note on the period of variables 15 and 40 in M 53. 

B. A. .V., v. 9, p. 57. 
I'M? van den Hovcn van Genderen, E, An investigation on the variables of the 

globu i M53. B. A. N. v. 10, pp. 241-8. (Print.) 

1777 Bode 26, L780 Messier 53, 1783 Bode, 1784 Messier, 1814c, 1818ai W. 
Herschel, 1833 I. Herschel 1558, L856 d'Arrest, 1861 J. Herschel, 1861 Earl of 
Rosse, 18627, lib Auwers, 1S62 Schonfeld, 1864 1. Herschel 3453. 1865 Auwers, 
L866 Riimker, L867 Schmidt, 1867 Vogel, 1867 d'Arrest, 1867a Chambers, 1868 
Webb, 1S7I1 I'-ivlirhin. 1880 End of R.—e. 1881 Smyth and Chambers, 1882 
Engelmann, 18826 Flammarion, 1891-j Bigourdan, L893 Roberts, 1897 Barnard, 
L902 Gore, 1904 Webb, 1004, I'M)? Holetschek, 1908 Bailey, L909 IVrrine, 1911 
Wirtz, 1911 Fath, 1911a Hink-. 1912 Curtis, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailey, 1915 
Kritzinger, 1916 Wilson, L917 Shapley and Davis, 1917 Pease and Shapley, 1917c 
Flammarion, 19186 Bailey, 1918 Curtis, 1918 Slipher, 1918c Charlier, IdlSIIbcd, 
Va Shaplev, 19196 Lundmark, 1919/ac, lied Shapley and Shapley, 1920ac 
Lundmark,' 19206 Shapley, 1922i Becker, 1!»23 Lundborg, 1924Z, // Silberstein, 
1925 Nabokov, 1925 Stromberg, 1925a, 1926 Doig, 192fi Reinmuth, 1926ac/, 
1927c Parvulesco, I927gh ten Bruggencate, 1927 Sawyer and Shaplev, 19277, II 
Shaplev and Saw^ er, 1928 van Rhijn, 1928 Voute, 1929 Cannon, 1929a6 Shapley 
and Sawyer, 1930 Heckmann ami Siedentopf, \930afknq Shaplev, 1931 Harrison, 
1931 Nabokov. 1932 Moore, 1«>32, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Stebbins, 1933 
Vyssotsky and Williams, 1934, 1935 LuiKlmark, 1935a Baade, 1935a6a'Edmondson, 
1935 Shiveshwarkar, 1935 Mineur, 1 ( .»35 Shaplev and Saver. 1936a6 Stebbins 
and Whitford, 1936 Durvea, 1937 Wilkens, 1939a Sawver, 1939 Oosterhoff, 1940 
Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1943 (fig. 58), 1944 Shaplev, 19447, II, 
1945 Sawyer, 1946ao Mayall, 1946a/> Mowbray. 

NGC 5053 a 13 h 13 m .9, 8 + 17° 57' / 308°, b + 78° 

1786 Herschel. W. First observation, 1784 Mar. 14. 

1922 Baade, W. 7 Yeranderliche in der Umgebung des Kugelhaufens M 53. 
Hamb. Mitt., v. 5, no. 16. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 403 

NGC 5053 (Cont.) 

1928 Baade, W. Der Sternhaufen XGC 5053. Hamb. Mitt., v. 6, no. 29; 

A. N., v. 232, p. 193. (Plates). 
1930 Baade, \V. Der kugelformige Sternhaufen XGC 4147. A. N., v. 239, 

p. 358; Hamb. Mitt., v. 7, no. 36, p. 27, 1932. (Contrast with 5053). 
1940 Sawyer, H. B. Twelve new variable stars in the globular clusters NGC 

6205, XGC 6366, and XGC 6779. Dunlap Pub., v. 1, no. 5. (Com- 
parison of 6366 and 5053). 
1943 Cuffey, J. XGC 5053 and XGC 6838. Ap. J., v. 98, pp. 49-54; 

Kirkwood Pub., no. 6. 
1946 Sawyer, H. B. Periods of variable stars in the globular cluster XGC 

5053. Dunlap Pub., v. 1, no. 18. Summary, Federer, Sky and Telescope, 

v. 6, no. 61, p. 6. 

1786 W. Herschel VI 7, 1818a W. Herschel, 1833 J. Herschel 1569, 1861 
Earl of Rosse, 183277a Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 3472, 1867 d'Arrest, 1880 
Earl of Rossc. 1891-j Bigourdan. 10226 Shaplev, 1926 Reinmmh,1929at> Shaplev 
and Sawyer, UVSOadfkn Shaplev. 1932. 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Stebbins, 1936a 
Stebbins and YVhitford, 1939a Sawver, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1943 
(fig. 58), 1944 Shaplev, 1945 Sawyer. 1946a" Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 5139 (co Centauri) a 13 h 23 m .8, 8 - 47° 03' / 277°, b + 15° 

1679 Halley, E. Catalogus stellarum australium. (Reprinted by Baily, R. A. S. 

Mem., v. 13, 1843). Discovery, 1677. 
1844 von Humboldt, A. Cosmos. Milan, 1851 edition, v. 3, p. 114. Amas d'e- 

toiles. 
1866 Schultz, H. Historische Xotigen iiber Xebelflecke. A. N., v. 67, p. 4. 
1893 Bailey, S. I. to Centauri. Astr. and Ap., v. 12, p. 689. 

1897 Pickering, E. C. Distribution of stars in clusters. (Plates). Harv. Ann., 
v. 26, p. 213. 

1898 Bailey. S. I. Variable stars in clusters. (Abs.) Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 49. 
1S99 Bailey, S. I. Xote on the relation between the visual and photographic 

light-curves of variable stars of short period. Ap. J., v. 10, p. 261; Am. A. 
S. Pub.,\. 1, p. 97. 

1901 Holetschek, J. Leber den Helligkeitseindruck von Sternhaufen. Vienna, 
K. Ak. Wiss. Math-natur. Kl. Sit:. 110, abth. Ha, pp. 1253-97. 

1902 Bailey, S. I . A discussion of variable stars in the cluster to Centauri. Harv. 
Ann., v. 38, 252 pp. (Plates). 

1903 Bailey, S. I., and Pickering, E. C. Observations with the meridian photo- 
meter during the years 1899-1902. Harv. Ann., v. 46, p. 30. 

1905 Bailey, S. I. Some variable star problems. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 234. 
1907 von Zeipel, H. La theorie des gaz et les amas globulaires. C.R., v. 144, 

p. 361. 
l'Jll Henkel, F. W. Clusters and nebulae. Knowledge, n.s., v. S, p. 343. 

(Photograph by Curtis). 
1911 Plummer, H. C. On the problem of distribution in globular star clusters. 

M.N., v. 71, pp. 460-70. 
1915 Innes, R. T. A., and Voute, J. Some stars with sensible proper motion on 

an astrographic plate centered upon to Ccntaurus. Union Circ, no. 25. 



404 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 5139 (Cont.) 

1916 Bailey, S. I. Cluster variables with double maxima. Harv. Circ, no. 193. 

1917 Shapley, H. Studies. VI. The relation of blue stars and variables to 
galactic planes. Mt. 11*. Comm., no. 45; Nat. Acad. Sci. Proc,x. 3, pp. 276-9. 

1917 Shapley, H. Studies. VII. A method for the determination of the relative 
distances of globular clusters. Mt. 11'. Comm., no. 47; Nat. Acad. Sci. Proc, 
v. 3, pp. 479-84. 

1917 Eddington, A. S. Researches on globular clusters. Obs., v. 40, pp. 394-401. 

1919 Innes, R. T. A. Centennial proper motions of stars near co Centaurus. 
Union Circ, no. 45, p. 1. 

1919 Plummer, H. C. An analysis of the magnitude curves of the variable -tar- 
in four clusters. M. N., v. 79, pp. 639-57. 

1921 Shapley, H. The scale of the universe. Pt. 1. Nat. Res. Conn. Bull., 
v. 2, p.' 171. 

1923 Innes, R. Proper motions found and measured with the blink microscope. 
Union Circ, no. 59; p. 208, Region around co Centaurus; p. 215, Variable 
stars in and near the cluster co Centaurus. 

1924 Sola, J. C. Obscrvacion estereosc6pica del cumulo estelar co del Centauro. 
Fabra Bol., v. 1, pp. 240-2. 

1925 Stromgren, E. Om bevaegelses mulighederne i stjernehobe. Nord. A. 
Tids., v. 6, pp. 21-8. 

1928 Schilt, J. The distribution of light in the central part of the globular cluster 
co Centauri. A. J., v. 38, pp. 109-15; (Abs.) Pop. Astr., v. 30, p. 296. 

1931 Mineur, H. Mises au point d'astronomie stellaire. Ill Cepheides et amas. 
Soc. Astr. France, Bull., no. 45. p. L94. 

1932 Grossc, E. Untersuchungen iiber die veranderlichen Sterne im Kugel- 
sternhaufen Messier 53. A. N.. v. 246, pp. 401-5; Hamh.-Berg. Abh., 
no. 4, p. 2. 

1H32 Sawyer, H. B. Periods and light curves of thirty-two variable stars in the 
globular clusters N.G.C. 362, 6121, and 6397. Sec4. Additional observations 
on the long period Cepheids in Omega Centauri. Harv. Circ, no. 366. 
(Abs.) The periods of thirty-six variable stars in tour globular clusters. 
Am. A. S.Pub.,x. 7, p. 35, 1931. 

1933 Hertzsprung, E. Discussion of observations made by H. van Gent of the 
variable star Bailey 65 in co Centauri. of which the period i- the shortest 
known. B.A.N. , v. 7, pp. 83-4. 

1937 Martin, \V. Chr. Photographische photometric van veranderlijke sterren 
in co Centauri. Leiden. Drukkerij "Luctor et Emergo." 80 pp. 

1938 Cluster-type variable in co Centauri. Obs., v. 61, pp. 168-9. 

1938 Martin. W. Chr. Photographic photometry of variable stars in the globular 
cluster co Centauri. Leiden Ann., v. 17, pt. 2. (Plates). 

1938 Martin, W. Chr. The brightest variable star in co Centauri. B. A. X., 
v. 8, pp. 290-2. 

1939 Christie, W. H. The distribution of the integrated absolute magnitude- oi 

the globular clusters. (Abs.) A. S. P. Pub., v. 51, p. 217. 

1940 Martin, W. Chr. New observations of the variable co Centauri No. 1. 
B. A. N.. v. 0, p. 60. 






A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 405 

NGC 5139 (Cont.) 

19-40 Ekenberg, B. Estimates of the total magnitudes of £ Tucanae, co Centauri, 
M 6, and M 7. Lund. Medd., ser. I, no. 156. 

1940 Hertzsprung, E. Report for the year 1939. B. A. N., v. 9, p. 117. (A new- 
variable.) 

1940 Schwarzschild. M. On the variables in Messier 3. Harv. Circ, no. 437. 
1H40 Wright, F. \V. Seventeen variables in co Centauri with changing periods. 

Harv. Bull., no. 912. 

1941 Oosterhoff, P. Th. The variable stars in Messier 5. Leiden Ann., v. 17, 
pt. 4, pp. 1-48. (Comparison.) 

1942 Kooreman, C. J. Photographic photometry of two variable stars in the 
globular cluster w Centauri. B. A. N., v. 9, pp. 271-3. 

1942 Martin, YV. Chr. Note on the periods of the variable stars in the globular 

cluster Messier 3. Ap. J., v. 95, pp. 314-18. 
1945 Galli, J. Fotografia Astronomica. Buenos Aires, 1945. Plate 16, 30 m exp. 

of co Cen with Bosque Alegre reflector. 

1916 Steinmetz, C. H. D. Photographic observations of DY Pegasi. B. A. N., 
v. 10, p. 179. (Comparison with No. 65 in w Centauri.) 

1715 Hallev, 1746 de Cheseaux. 1755 Lacaille I 5, 1828 Dunlop 440, 1847 J. 
Herschel 3504 (drawing), 1861 J. Herschel, 186277c Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 
3531, 1867a Chambers, 1868 Webb, 1881 Smvth and Chambers, 1882ao Flam- 
marion, 1894 Gore, 1897, 18987, II Pickering. \9Q2abc Bailer, 1903 Clerke 
(plate), 1904a Webb, 1908 Bailev (plate), 1909 Perrine, 1910 See (plates), 1911a 
Hinks, 1912 Curtis. 1913 Bailey, 19136 von Zeipel, 1913 Chapman, 1914 
Stromgren and Drachmann, 19157, II Plummer, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailev, 

1917 Pease and Shaplev, 1918 Curtis. 1918c Charlier, 19187a6c, Ilabdg, IVa, Vb, 
VI Shaplev. 1919a Bailey, Leland, and Woods, 1919a Lundmark, 19197«c, He 

Shaplev and Shaplev. 1920 Hoffmeister. 1920 Hopmann, 1920 Lous, I920ab 
Lundmark, 19227/ Becker (plate), 1922 Kostitzin, 1923 Lundborg, 1923 von 
Zeipel, 1925 Larink, 1925 Nabokov, 1925/ Doig, 1926ce/, 1927c Parvulesco, 
1927a/* ten Bruggencate, 1927 Sawver and Shaplev, 19277, II Shaplev and 
Sawyer, 1928 van Rhijn, 1929aa Shaplev and Sawver, I930afklnpt Shaplev, 1931 
Nabokov, 1932 Hogg, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1932ab Sawver, 1933a Grosse, 
1935a Sawver, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 19396 Hachenberg, 1939a6 Sawver, 1939 
Oosterhofl, 1940 Cl ristie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1943 Shaplev (figs.), 
l'.)42a, 19447, 77 Sawyer, 1946a 7 Mayall, 1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 5272 (Messier 3) a 13 h 39 m .9 5 + 28° 38' 17°, b + 77° 

1771 Messier, C. First observation, 1764 May 3, on map of comet of 1779, 

Mem. 177'.». 
1844 von Humboldt, A. Cosmos. Milan, 1851 edition, v. 3, p. 114. Amasd'etoiles. 
1847 Laugier, E. Sur le mouvement propre de trois amas du Catalogue de 

Messier. C. R., v. 24, p. 1021. 
1889 Pickering, E. C. Variable star in cluster G.C. 3636. A. N., v. 123, p. 207. 
1891 Porro, F. Yariabli sospettate. A. N., v. 127, p. 197. 

1894 Swift, L. Suggestions to amateurs: nebulae and clusters. Pop. Astr., v. 1, 
pp. 369-71. 

1895 Belopol.-^ky, A. Ueber die Yeranderungen in dem Sternhaufen NGC 5272. 
A. TV., v. 140, p. 23. 

1898 Bailey, S. I. Variable stars in clusters. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 49. 



406 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 5272 (Cont.) 

1899 Barnard, E. E. Triangulation of star clusters. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 77; 
Science, v. 10, p. 789. 

1899 Holetschek, J. Ueber den Helligkeitseindruck von Nebelflecken und 
Sternhaufen. A. G. Viert., v. 33, p. 270. 

1900 Bailey, S. I. The rate of increase in brightness of three variable stars in 
the cluster Messier 3. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 100; Science, v. 12, p. 122. 

1900 Pickering, E. C. Variable stars in clusters. Rate of increase in light. 

Harv. Circ, no. 52; A. N., v. 153, p. 115; Ap. J., v. 12, p. 159. 
1902 Barnard, E. E. Micrometrical measures of individual stars in the great 

globular clusters. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 193; Science, v. 17, p. 330, 1903. 
1905 Bailey, S. I. Variable stars in the clusters Messier 3 and Messier 5. Harv. 

Circ, no. 100. 

1905 Bailey, S. I. Some variable star problems. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 234. 

1906 Barnard, E. E. Visual observations of a variable star in the cluster M 3 
(N.G.C. 5272). A. N., v. 172, p. 345. 

1907 von Zeipel, H. La theorie des gaz el les amas globulaires. C. R., v. 144, 
p. 361-4. 

1908 von Zeipel, H. Catalogue de 1571 etoiles contenues dans l'amas globulaire 
Messier 3 (N.G.C. 5272). Ann. I'Obs. Imp. Paris, Mem., v. 25, F 1-101. 

1911 Bailey, S. I. Note on the magnitudes of the stars in the cluster Messier 3. 

Science, n.s., v. 34, p. 532; R. A. S. C. Jour., v. 5, p. 337. 
1911 Bickerton, A. W. The new astronomy. III. Star clusters and nebulae. 

(Photo by Ritchcy). Knowledge, n.s., v. 8, p. 414. 
1911 1'lummer, H. C. On the problem of distribution in globular star clusters. 

.l/..V.,v. 71, pp. 460-70. 

1913 Bailey, S. I. Variable stars in the cluster Messier 3. Harv. Ann., v. 78, 
pt. 1, pp. 1-98. (Plate). 

1914 Pickering, K. C. The study of the stars. Science, v. 39, pp. 1-9. 

1914 Shapley, H. New variables in the center of Messier 3. .1//. IV. Cont., 
no. 91; Ap. J., v. 40, p. 443. (Abs.) Pop. Astr., v. 23, p. 20, 1915. 

1915 Bailey, S. I. Globular clusters: distribution of stars. Harv. Ann., v. 76, 
pp. 43-82. 

1915 Hertzsprung, E. Comparison between the distribution of energy in the 
spectrum of the integrated light of the globular cluster Messier 3 and of 
neighboring >tars. Ap. J., v. 41, pp. 10-15. 

1915 Wright, W. H. Abstracts from astronomical publications. (Comments on 
Hertzsprung's paper, Ap. J., v. 41). .4. S. P. Pub., v. 27, pp. 89-91. 

1916 Bailey, S. I. Cluster variables with double maxima. Han. Circ. no. 193. 
1916 Shapley, II. Studies. III. The colors of the brighter stars in four globular 

systems. Mt. II". Comtn., no. 34; Nat. Acad. Sci. Proc, v. 2, p. 525. 
1916 Shapley, H. The colors of fifteen variables in Messier 3. .4. 5. P. Pub., 
v. 28, p. 81; (Abs.) Pop. Astr., v. 24, p. 257. 

1916 von Zeipel, H. La loi des luminosites dans l'amas globulaire M 3. Ark. 
Mat. Astr. Phys., v. 11, p. 22. 

1917 Hertzsprung, E. The nature of globular clusters. Obs., v. 40, pp. 303-4. 
1917 Eddington, A. S. Researches on globular clusters. Obs., v. 40 , pp. 394-401. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 407 

NGC 5272 (Cont.) 

1917 Lundmark, K., and Lindblad, B. Photographic effective wave-lengths of 

some spiral nebulae and globular clusters. Ap. J., v. 46, pp. 206-18; A. N., 

v. 205, pp. 161-70. 
1917 Shapley, H. Studies. V. Further evidence of the absence of scattering of 

light in space. Mt. W. Cotnm., no. 44; Nat. Acad. Set. Proc.,v. 3, pp. 267-70. 
1917 Shapley, H. Studies. VII. A method for the determination of the relative 

distances of globular clusters. Mt. W. Comm., no. 47; Nat. Acad. Set. Proc, 

v. 3, pp. 479-S4. 
1917 Shapley, H. Light elements of variable no. 37 in Messier 3. A. S. P. Pub., 

v. 29, pp. 110-12. 
1917 Shapley, H. The dimensions of a globular cluster. (Photograph). A.S.P. 

Pub., v. 29, pp. 245-8. 

1917 Shapley, H., and Davis, H. On the variations in the periods of variable 
stars in Messier 3. (Abs.). A. S. P. Pub., v. 29, p. 140. 

1918 Hertzsprung, E. Photographische Messung der Lichtverteilung im 
mittleren Gebiet des kugelformigen Sternhaufens Messier 3. A. N., v. 207, 
pp. 89-96. 

1918 Reboul, M. La distance des amas d'etoiles. Sac. Astr. France, Bull., 
v. 32, p. 130. 

1918 Sanford, R. F. Spectroscopy of nebulae and star clusters. Mt. W. Rep., 
no. 14, p. 212. 

1918 Schouten, W. J. A. On the parallax of some stellar clusters. First com- 
munication. K. Ak. wetens. Amsterdam Proc, v. 20, pp. 1108-18. 

1918 Shapley, H. Studies. IX. Three notes on Cepheid variation. .1//. IF. 
Cont., no. 154; Ap. J., v. 49, p. 24. 

1918 Shapley, H.,and Davis, H. Note on the distribution of stars in the globular 
cluster Messier 5. A. S. P. Pub., v. 30, p. 164. 

1919 Kddington, A. S. The distribution of globular clusters. M.N., v. 79, pp. 
292-4. 

1919 Jeans, J. H. Problems of cosmogony and stellar dynamics, p. 243. (Stellar 

density of M 3). 
1919 Lundmark, K., and Lindblad, B. Photographic effective wave-lengths of 

nebulae and clusters. Second paper. Ap. J., v. 50, pp. 376-90. 
1919 Plummer, H. C. An analysis of the magnitude curves of the variable stars 

in four clusters. M. N., v. 79, pp. 639-57. 
1919 Sanford, R. F. Spectrum of Bailey's variable star no. 95 in the globular 

cluster M 3. Pop. Astr., v. 27, p. 99. 
1919 Sanford, R. F. Radial velocities of clusters. Mt. W. Rep., no. 15, p. 250. 

1919 Schouten, YV. J. A. The parallax of some stellar clusters. Obs., v. 42, 
pp. 112-19; A. N., v. 208, pp. 317-24. 

1920 Shapley, H., and Davis, H. N. Studies. XII. Summary of a photometric 
investigation of the globular cluster Messier 3. Mt. ]]'. Comm., no. 70; 
Nat. Acad. Set. Proc, v. 6, pp. 486-9. 

1920 Shapley, 11., and Davis, H. N. Studies. XVI. Photometric catalogue of 
848 stars in Messier 3. Mt. It'. Cont., no. 176; Ap. J., v. 51, p. 140. 

1921 Larink, J. Die veranderlichen Sterne im Kugelsternhaufen Messier 3. 
Hatnb.-Berg. Abh., v. 2, no. 6. 59 pp. 



408 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 5272 (Cont.) 

1921 Larink, J. Xeuer Veranderlicher 4.1921 Canum ven. vom XX Cygni- 
Typus im Sternhaufen Messier 3. A. N., v. 214, p. 71. 

1921 Shapley, H. Dimensions of Messier 3. Harv. Bull., no. 761; Pop. Aslr., 
v. 30, p. 130. 

1921 Shapley, H. The scale of the universe. Pt. I. Nat. Res. Conn. Bull., 
v. 2, p. 171. 

1922 Kapteyn, J. C, and van Rhijn, P. J. The proper motionsof 8 Cephei stars 
and the distances of the globular clusters. B. A. N., v. 1, p. 37. 

1922 Kiistner, F. Der kugelformige Sternhaufen Messier 3. Bonn Veroff., no. 
17, 45 pp. (Catalogue of 962 stars). 

1923 Freundlich, E., and Heiskanen, W. Uber die Verteilung der Sterne 
verscheidener Massen in den kugelfdrmigen Sternhaufen. Z. f. Phys., 
v. 14, p. 226. 

1923 Freundlich, E. Zur Dynamik der kugelfdrmigen Sternhaufen. Phys. Z., 

v. 24, pp. 221-3. 
1923 Hopmann, J. Ober die kosmische Stellung der Kugclhaufen und Spiral- 

nebel. A. N., v. 218, pp. 97-110. 
1923 Pannekoek, A. Luminosity function and brightness for clusters and 

galactic clouds. B. A. N., v. 2, pp. 5-12. 

1923 Pannekoek, A. New reduction of von Zeipel's magnitudes in Messier 3. 
B. A. N.,v. 2, pp. 12-14. 

1924 ten Bruggencate, P. Uber Reste einer Spiralstruktur in Sternhaufen. 
Z.f. Phys., v. 24, pp. 48-51. 

1925 Larink, J. Die kugelformigen Sternhaufen. Das Weltall, v. 25, pp. 1-4, 
18-21. 

1925 Guthnick, P. Kugclhaufen, inbesondere liber gemeinsam mit Herrn R. 
Prager begonnene Uniersuchungen an M 3, M 13, M 15, und M 92. (Abs.) 
K. Preuss. Ak. Wiss. Phys.-Math. Kl. Sit:., XXVIII, p. 508. 

1926 Bailey, S. I. Star clusters and nebulae. Science Monthly, v. 22, pp. 415-19; 
Harv. Repr., no. 29. 

1927 Heckmann, O. P. ten Bruggencate, Sternhaufen. A. C. Viert, v. 62, pp. 
180-191. (Analysis). 

1927 Kienle, H. Zur Entfernungsbestimmung von Sternsystem. A. N., v. 230, 
pp. 243-S. 

1927 Wirtz, C. Totalhelligkeit des Kugelsternhaufens M 3 = (NGC 5272). 
Kiel Pub., v. 15, pp. 59-62. 

1928 Baade, W. Der Sternhaufen NGC 5053. Hamb. Mitt., v. 6, no. 29; A.N., 
v. 232, p. 198. (Comparison of number of stars). 

1928 Schilt, J. The distribution of light in the central part of the globular 
cluster co Centauri. A. J., v. 38, pp. 109-15; (Abs.) Pop. Astr., v. 36, p. 296. 

1929 Wallenquist, A. An attempt to determine the mean masses of the stars in 
the globular cluster Messier 3. B. A. N., v. 5, pp. 67-70. 

1929 Wallenquist, A. On the masses of stars in stellar clusters and their relation 
to the theory of Eddington. Fourth Pac. Sci. Cong. Java Proc. v II A, 
pp. 181-185. 

1930 Rybka, E. Photographic magnitudes from Potsdam plates of 995 stars 
in or near the globular cluster Messier 3. B. A. N., v. 5, pp. 257-70. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 409 

NGC 5272 (Cont.) 

1930 Rybka, E. Gromada kulista gwiazd Messier 3. (Polish). Wszechswiat 

1930, pp. 279-83. 
1930 Shapley, H., and Sawyer, H. B. Variable stars in globular clusters. (Abs.) 

Pop. Astr., v. 38, p. 408. 
1930 de Sitter, A. A comparison of the angular dimensions of the globular 

clusters M 3 and M 13. B. A. N., v. 5, pp. 207-9. 
1930 Slavenas, P. A study of variable stars in the cluster M 3. A. X, v. 2-40, 

pp. 169-80. 

1930 Sticker, B. Uber die Farbenhaufigkeitsfunktion in Sternhaufen. Z.j.Ap., 
v. 1, pp. 174-91. 

1931 Barnard, E. E. Micrometric measures of star clusters. Yerkes Pub., v. 6, 
pp. 44-50. 

1931 Mineur, H. Mises au point d'astronomie stellaire. III. Cepheides et 
amas. Soc. Astr. France, Bull., v. 45, p. 194. 

1932 Grosse, E. Untersuchungen iiber die veranderlichen Sterne im Kugel- 
sternhaufen Messier 53. ,4. .V., v. 246, pp. 401-5; Hamb.-Bcrg. Abh., v. 4, 
no. 2. (Comparison). 

1933 Guthnick, P. Uber einen abnormen Veranderlichen im Kugelsternhaufen 
Messier 3. Berlin, A'. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Phys.-Math. Kl. Sit'., XXIV, 
pp. 724-45. 

1933 Miiller, Th. Xeue Untersuchungen uber die Veranderlichen im Kugel- 
sternhaufen Messier 3. Berlin-Babelsberg Verbff., v. 11, no. 1. 

1934 Schlesinger, F. Relative positions of 124 stars in the globular cluster 
Messier 3. (13 h 38 m , +28° 53', 1900) A. J., v. 43, pp. 161-3. 

1934 Guthnick, P. Ergebnisse Photometrischer und Spektroskopischer Unter- 
suchungen 1. Der Veranderliche Bailey 95 in Messier 3. A'. Preuss. Akad. 
Wiss. Phys.-Math. KL Sifz., XXX, p. 506. 

1934 Hoffmeister, C. Neue Untersuchungen iiber die Veranderlichen im Kug- 
elhaufen Messier 3. Die Sterne, v. 14, p. 62. 

1935 Greenstein, J. L. The periods and light curves of the variables in Messier 3. 
A. X, v. 257, pp. 301-30. 

1935 Greenstein, J. L. Two non-cluster type variables in Messier 3. Harv. 

Bull., no. 901, pp. 11-16. 
1935 Miczaika, G. R. The variable star Bailey Xo. 95 in M 3. Pop. Astr., 

v. 43, p. 260. 
1937 Joy, A. H. Spectrographic observations of Barnard's variable star in 

Messier 3. Am. A. S.Pub.,\\9, p. 45. 

1939 Kopal, Z. Investigation of large proper motions in the region of Messier 3. 
Harv. Bull., no. 911. 

1940 Joy, A. H. Spectrographic observations of Barnard's variable in Messier 3. 
Ml. W. Cont., no. 637; Ap. J., v. 1)2, p. 396. 

1940 Schwarzschild, M. On the variables in Messier 3. Harv. Circ, no. 437. 
1940 Schwarzschild, M. Recent studies of the pulsation theory. Am. A. S. Pub., 

v. 10, p. 117. 
1942 Helt, J. H. Photometric investigation of the variable stars in the outer 

regions of Messier 3. J. J., v. 50, pp. 77-91. 



410 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 5272 (Cont.) 

1942 Martin, W. Chr. Note on the periods of the variable stars in the globular 

cluster Messier 3. Ap. J., v. 95, pp. 314-8. 
1947 Popper, D. M. Spectral types of stars in the globular clusters Messier 3 

and Messier 13. Ap. J. v. 105, pp. 204-11; McDonald Cont., no. 131. 

1771 Messier, 1780 M,->sier, 1784 Messier, 1814,- W. Herschel, 1818afV W. 
Herschel, (1912) W. Herschel, 1833 }. Herschel 1663, 1852 Secchi. 1853 Laugicr 
42, 1856d'Arrest, 1861 T- Herschel, 1861 Earl of Rosse, 18627, lib Auwers, 1862 
Schonfeld, 1864 J. Herschel 3636, 1865 Auwers, L866 Rumker, 1866 Hugsins 
1867 Schmidt, 1867 Vogel, 1867 d'Arrest, 1867a/; Chambers, 1868 Webb, 1880 
Earl of Rosse, L881 Smyth and Chambers (fig. 29), 1882 Engelmann, 1882a/> 
Flammarion, 1884 Pickering, Searle and Wendell, 1886 d'Engelhardt, 1891-./' 
Bigourdan, Ism;; Roberts, L894 Gore, 1895, 1897, 18987, 77 Pickering, 1897 
Barnard, L899 Rabourdin, 1902a6c Bailey, 1902 Gore, 1903 Clerke, 1904 Perrine, 
1901 Webb, L904, L907 Holetschek, L908 Bailey (plate), 1908 Keeler (pi. 48), 
1909 Perrine. 1909 Winnecke, L9 10 See (plate), 1911 Path, 1911,/ [links, 1912 
See (plate-. 1913 Bailey, 1913a von Zeipel, 1913 Chapman, 1914 Stromgren and 
Drachm, nm, 19157, // Plummer (plate), 1915 Melon.-, L915aJ Bailey, 1915 
Kritzinger, 1916 leans, 1916 Wilson, 1916 Eddington. l916Shapley, 1917Slipher, 
1917 Shapley and Davis, 1917 Pease and Shapley, 1917 Shapley, 1917,7 Flam- 
marion. 1918 Curtis, L918 Slipher, 1918c Charlier, L9187o6c, Uabd (plate), 777, 
TVcd, I'-;. 17 Shapley, L919a Bailey, belaud and Wood-. L919ao Lundmark. 
I9197cc, I led Shapley and Shapley, L9196 Shapley, 1920 Hoffmeister, 1920 
Hopmann (plate), 1920 Lous (plati . L920oic Lundmark, 19206 Shapley, 1922/, 
II Becker, 1923 Lundborg, 1923 Win/. 1923 von Zeipel. 1921 ten Bruggencate, 
19247, // Silberstein, 192;. Nabokov, L925 Stromberg, 1925,;, 1926 Doig, 192(1 
Reinmuth, 19267 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1"- d Parvulesco, 1927 

abedefgiten Bru L927 Kienle, L927 Sawyer and Shapley, l927Lonnquist, 

1927/. 77 Shapley and Sawyer, L928van Rhijn, l928Voute, 1929 Cannon, 1929a/, 
Shaplev and Sawyer, 1930 Heckmann and Siedentopf, I930abefgijklnq Shapley, 
1931 Harrison, 1931 Nabokov, 1932 Bernheimer, 1932 Hogs;, 1932, 1933 van de 
Kamp, 1932 Moore. 1 932ao Sawyer, 1933 . 1933 Yyssotsky and Williams, 

1934, 1935 Lundmark, 1935a Baade, 1935a/> Edmondson, 1935 Shiveshwarkar, 
1935 Mineur, L935 Shapley and Sayer, 1936 Duryea, L936c6 Stebbins and 
Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, 1938, I939ai Sawyer, 1939c6 Hachenberg, 1939 
Oosterhoff, 19 10 Chri-tie, 1941 de Kort, 1911 Copeland, 19 12,; Sawyer, 1943a 
Oosterhoff, 1943 Cuffey, L943, 1944 Shapley, 194477, l945Sawyer, 1945Finlay- 
Freundlich, 1946a6c Mayall, 1946a6 Mowb 

NGC 5286 a 13 h 43 m .O, 5 - 51° 07' / 280°, b + 10° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1828 Dunlop 3S8, 1S47 I. Herschel 3533, 1864 J. Herschel 3642, 1881 Smyth 
and Chambers, 1908 Bailey, 1911a Hinks, 1915 Melotte, 1915,;. 1918/; Bailey, 
1918c Charlie.-. 191877c Shapley, 19197c, 77,- Shapley and Shapley, 1920a Lund- 
mark, 192:; Lundborg, 1925 Nabokov, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer and 
Shaplev, 1927/. //. 19296 Shapley ami Sawyer, 1929 Cannon, 1930a/~» Shaplev, 
1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1939a SawYer, 
1941 de Kort, 19460" Mayall. 

NGC 5466 a 14 h 03 m .2, 5 + 28° 46' / 8°, b + 72° 

1786 Herschel, W. First observation, 1784 May 17. 

1922 Hopmann, J. Der kugelformige Sternhaufen XGC 5466. .LA., v. 217, 
pp. 333-42. 






A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 411 

NGC 5466 (Cont.) 

1926 Baade, W. 5 isolierte Haufenveranderliche in der Umgebung des Kugel- 

haufens XGC 5466. Hamb. Mitt., v. 6, no. 27. 
1926 Baade, \V. Der kugelformige Stcrnhaufen XGC 5466. Hamb. Mitt., v. 6, 

no. 27. 
1027 Hopmann, J. Vergleich der Hamburger und Bonner Yermessungen des 

kugelformigen Sternhaufens XGC 5466. .4. TV., v. 229, p. 209. 
1945 Sawyer, H. B. Light curves of the variable stars in the globular cluster 

XGC 5466. Dunlap Pub., v. 1, no. 17. (Plate). 

1786 VV. Herschel VI 9, 1818a W. Herschel, 1833 J. Herschel 1746, 1856 
d'Arrest, 1861 Earl of Rosse, 18627/,; Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 3776, 1880 Earl 
of Rosse, 1891-/ Bigourdan, 1904 Webb, 1904, 1907 Holetschek, 1915 Melotte, 
1915 Kritzinger, 1918a6 Charlier, 1918/7/ Shaplev, \9l9IIabcd Shaplev and 
Shapley, 19206 Shaplev, 1925 Nabokov, 1925a Doig, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1926 
Reinmuth, 1027 Sawyer and Shaplev, 1927/, //, 1929a6 Shaplev and Sawyer, 
1930a fn Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 1932. 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Stebbins, 1934, 
1935 Landmark, 1936a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1939a Sawyer, 1940 Christie, 
1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1944 Shapley, 1945 Sawyer (plate), 1946d Mavall, 
1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 5634 a 14 h 27 m .0, 5 - 05 c 4.V / 311°, b + 48° 

1786 Herschel, W. First observation, 17S5 Mar. 5. 

1914 YYorssell, W. M. The Wolf-Palisa Chart No. 76: nebulae and condensed 

clusters. Union Circ. no. 20. 
1945 Baade. W. The globular clusters NGC 5634 and XGC 6229. .1//. II". 

Cont., no. 706; Ap. J., v. 102, pp. 17-25. (Plate.) 

1786 W. Herschel I 70, 1833 J. Herschel 1813, 1856, 1861 d'Arrest, 1861 Earl 
of Rosse. 186277a Auwers. 1862 Schonfeld, 1864 J. Herschel 3900, 1867 d Arrest, 
1867 Schmidt, 1867 Vogel, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 1881 Smyth and Chambers, 
1882 Engelmann, 18826 Flammarion, 1886 d'Engelhardt, 1891-f Bigourdan, 
1891 Kempt, 1893 Stone, 1895a6 Monnichmeyer, 1904 Webb, 1907 Holetschek, 
1909 IVrrin, , L909 Winnecke, 1910 Porter, 1915 Melotte. 1915a Bailey, 1918c 
Charlier, 19 18//e Shapley, 1919/Jcd Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark, 
19206 Shapley, 1923 Lundborg; 1923 Wirt/. 1925 Nabokov, 1925c Doig, 1926/ 
Parvulesco, 1926 Reinmuth, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 1927/, //, 19296 Shapley 
and Sawyer, 1930cm Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 
Stebbins, 1035 Shapley and Sayer, I936a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1939a Sawyer, 
.1941 de Kort, 1944 Shapley, 1945 Sawyer, 1946a6 Mavall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 5694 a 14 h 36 m .7, o - 2(1 19' / 299°, 6 + 29° 

1786 Herschel, W. First observation, 17S4 May 22. 

1932 Lampland, C. O., and Tombaugh, C. W. Object XGC 5694, a distant 

globular star cluster. A. N., v. 246, pp. 171-2. See also Obs., v. 55, p. 271. 
1934 H.i. de, W. The distance of the globular cluster N.G.C. 5694. A. S. P. Pub., 

v 16, pp. 52-3. 

1786 W. Herschel 11 196, 1847 [. Herschel 3576, 1856 d'Arrest, 1862/ia 
Auwers, lstil |. Herschel 3954, 1867 Schmidt, 1886 d'Engelhardt, 1891-/ Bigour- 
dan. 1893 Stone, 1910 Porter, I936a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1939a Sawyer, 1940 
Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1944 Shapley, 1945 Sawyer, I946a6c Mavall, 1946a6 
Mowbray. 



412 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

IC 4499 a 14 h 52 m .7, 5 - 82° 02' / 275°, b - 21° 

1908 Stewart, D. First observation, 1901. Nebulae discovered at the Harvard 
College Observatory. Table III. List of nebulae and clusters found by 
Delisle Stewart. Harv. Ann., v. 60, pp. 156-72. 

1908 Drever, 1915 Melotte, 1918a6 Charlier, 191977ac Shaplev and Shaplev, 
1022a Shaplev, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 19277, II, 19296 
Shaplev and Sawyer, 1930a « Shaplev, 1932, 1933 van de Kan p. 194] de Kort, 
1946a 7 Mayall. 

NGC 5824 a 15 h 00 m .9, 6 - 32° 53' / 300°, b + 21° 

1884 Barnard, E. E. First observation. Erroneous description of a nebula. 
Sid. Mess., v. 3, p. 189. 

1926 Innes, R. The globular star-cluster NGC 5824. Union Circ, wo. 66, 
p. 328. 

1910 Porter, 192777, 19296 Shapley and Sawyer, 1929 Cannon, L930a« 
Shapley, 1931 Nabokov. 1932. 1933 van de Kamp, 1935 Shapley and Saver, 
1936a Stebbins and Whitford, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1946a6 Mayall, 1 
Mowbray. 

NGC 5897 a 15 h 14 m .5, 8 - 20° 50' I 311°, b + 29° 

1786 Herschel, W. First observation, 1785 Mar. 10. 

1912 Dreyer, J. L. E. Corrections to the New General Catalogue. .1/. X., 

v. 73, p. 40. 
1915 Knox Shaw, H. Note on the nebulae and star clusters shown on the 

Franklin-Adams plates. .1/. .Y., v. 70, p. 105. 

1786 VY. Herschel VI 19, 1S47 J. Herschel 3596, 186277a Auwers, 1864 I. 
Herschel 1075, 1881 Smyth and Chambers, 1891-« Bigourdan, 1904 Webb, 1904. 
1907 Holetschek, 1915 Melotte, 1915c Bailey, 1915 Kritzinger, 1918c Charlier, 
191877c Shapley, L919776cd Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920c6 Lundmark, 19206 
Shaplev. 1925 Nabokov, 19256 Doig, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 

1927 7, 77, 1929a6 Shapley and Sawyer, I930ajfen Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 
1933 van de Kamp, 1935 Shapley and Sayer, I936c6 Stebbins and Whitford. 
1937 Wilkens, 1940 Christie. 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1944 Shaplev, 1945 
Sawyer, 1946d Mayall, 1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 5904 Messi< r 5 a 15 h 16 m .O, 5 + 02° 16' / 332°, b + 46' 

1702 Kirch, G. Discover}, 1702 May 5. Diary of Marie Margarethe Kirch- 

See Dreyer, R. Irish Acad. Trans., v. 26, p. 397, 1878. 
1771 Messier, C. Observation 1764, May 23. On chart of comet of 1763, Mem. 

1774. p. 10. 
1890 Common, A. A. Note on some variable stars near the cluster 5 M. M. X., 

v. 50, p. 517. 
1890 Packer, D. E. On a new variable star near the cluster 5 M Librae. Sid. 

.. v. 9, p. 381; Eng. Mech., v. 51, p. 378. 
1890 Packer, D. E. New variable stars near the cluster 5 M Librae. Sid. Mess., 

v. 10, p. 107. 
1890 Packer, D. E. The variable stars (true and false) near 5 M Librae. Eng. 

, Mech., v. 52, p. 80. 
1890 Fleming, W. P. Stars having peculiar spectra. (Contains note on Mr. 
Packer's variables near 5 M Librae). Sid. Mess., v. 9, p. 380. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 413 

NGC 5904 (Cont.) 

1S90 Fleming, W. P. Two new variable stars near the cluster 5 M Librae. 

A. N.,v. 12.3, p. 157. 
1891 Common, A. A. Mr. Common's Observatory, Ealing. M. N., v. 51, p. 226. 
1894 Sprague, R. Star clusters. Pop. Astr., v. 1, pp. 407-9. 
1S96 Pickering, E. C. The cluster Messier 5 Serpcntis, NGC 5904. .4. N., 

v. 140, p. 285. 

1897 Pickering, E. C. Measures of positions. Han. Ann., v. 26, pp. 226-48. 

1898 Barnard, E. E. Note on some of the variable stars of the cluster Messier 5. 
A. .V., v. 147, p. 243. 

1898 Bailey, S. I. Variable stars in clusters. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 49. 

1898 Shilow, M. Positionen von 1041 Sternen des Sternhaufens 5 Messiers, aus 
photographisches Aufnahmen abgeleitet. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Peters- 
bourg, Bull., V ser., Bd. S, Xo. 4. 

1899 Bailey, S. I. The periods of the variable stars in the cluster Messier 5. 
Ap. J., v. 10, p. 255; Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 96. 

1899 Bailey, S. I. Note on the relation between the visual and photographic 

light-curves of variable stars of short period. Ap. J. v. 10, pp. 261-5; 

Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 97. 
1899 Barnard, E. E. Variable stars in clusters. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 77; 

Science, n. s., v. 10, p. 789. (The cluster is referred to as M 13, but from 

internal evidence M 5 must be meant). 
1899 Barnard, E. E. Triangulation of star clusters. Am. A. S. Pub., v. I, p. 77; 

Science, v. 10, p. 789. 
1902 Barnard, E. E. On some of the variable stars in the cluster M 5 Librae. 

Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 193; Science, n.s., v. 17, p. 330, 1903. 
1902 Barnard, E. E. Micrometrical measures of individual stars in the great 

globular clusters. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 193; Science, n. s., v. 17, p. 330, 

1903. 
1905 Bailey, S. I. Variable stars in the clusters Messier 3 and Messier 5. Harv. 

Circ, no. 100. 
1905 Bailey, S. I. Some variable star problems. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 234. 
1908 Barnard, E. E. On the constancy of the period of the variable star, M 5 

(Librae) Xo. 33. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 298. 
1910 Barnard, E. E. On the period and light curve of the variable star no. 33, 

M 5 (Libra) and on the possible use of such a star as a time constant. 

A. N., v. 184, p. 273. 

1912 Barnard, E. E. The period of the variable star no. 33, M. 5 (Libra). 
A. N.,v. 191, pp. 439-42. 

1913 Barnard, E. E. The variable star no. 33 in the cluster M 5. A. N., v. 196, 
pp. 11-14. 

1914 Stromgren, E., and Drachmann, B. Cber die Verteilung der Sterne in 
kugelformigen Sternhaufen, nut besonderer Riicksicht auf Messier 5. 
Kobenhavns Pub., no. 16. 

1916 Bailey, S. I. Cluster variables with double maxima. Harv. Circ, no. 193. 

1916 Shapley, H. Studies. III. The colors of the brighter stars in four globular 

systems. Aft. W. Comm., no. 34; Nat. Acad. Sci. Proc, v. 2, p. 525. 



414 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 5904 (Cont.) 

1917 Bailey, S. I. Variable stars in the cluster Messier 5. Hare. Ann., v. 7s, 

pt. 2, pp. 103-93 (Plate). 
1917 Bailey, S. I. Note on the form of the light curve of variable stars of cluster 

type. (Abs.) Pop. Astr., v. 25, p. 307. 
1917 Eddington, A. S. Researches on globular clusters. Obs., v. 40, pp. 394-401 . 
1917 Shapley, H. Studies. V. Further evidence of the absence of scattering of 

light in space. Mt. W. Com in., no. 44; Nat. Acad. Soc. Proc, v. 3, pp. 267-70. 
1917 Shapley, H. Studies. VII. A method lor the determination of the relative 

distances of globular clusters. Mt. II'. Comni., no. 47; Nat. Acad. Sci. Proc, 

v. 3, pp. 479-84. 

1917 Lundmark, K., and Lindblad, B. Photographic effective wave-lengths 
of some spiral nebulae and globular clusters. Ap. J., v. 46, pp. 206-18; 
A. N., v. 205, pp. 161-70. Second paper, Ap. J., v. 50, pp. 376-90, 1919. 

1918 Schouten, W. J. A. On the parallax of some stellar clusters. First com- 
munication. Amst. Proc, v. 20, pp. 1108-18. Second communication, 
Amst. Proc, v. 21, pp. 36-47, 1919. 

1918 Shapley, II., and Davis, H. Note on the distribution of stars in tin- globular 
cluster Messier 5. . 1 . .V. P. Pub., v. 30, p. 104. 

1919 Barnard, E. E. On the change in the period of the variable -Mr Bailey no. 
33 in the cluster M 5. Pop. Astr., v. 27, p. 522. 

1919 Plummer, H. C. An analysis of the magnitude curves of the variable stars 
in four clusters. M. V., v. 79, pp. 639-57. 

1919 Schouten, W. J. A. The parallax of some stellar clusters. Obs., v. 42, pp. 
112-19; .1. V., v. 208, pp. 317-24. 

1920 Turner, H. H. Xote on the changes of period in the variable Bailey no. 33 
in the cluster M 5. M. X., v. SO, pp. 640-42. 

1920 Turner, 11. 11. Further note on Barnard's observations of variable Bailey 
no. 33 in the cluster M 5, with a suggestion that the comparison star k i- a 
short -period variable. M. X., v. SI, pp. 71-83. 

1921 Shapley, H. The scale of the universe. I't. I. Nat. Res. Conn. Bull., 
v. 2, p. 171. 

1922 Barnard, E. E. On the change in the period of the variable star Bailey 
no. 33 in the cluster M 5. (Abs.) Pop. Astr., v. 30, p. 54S; Am. A. S. Pub., 
\ . 4, p. 351. 

1922 Kapteyn, J. C, and van Rhijn, P. J. The proper motion of 8 Cephei stars 

and the distances of the globular clusters. B. A. X., v. 1, p. 37. 
1922 Shapley, H. Xote on the velocity of light. Hare Bull., no. 763; Pop. Astr., 

v. 30, p. 192. 
1922 Shapley, II. Parallax of Messier 5. Han: Bull., no. 763; Pop. Astr., 

v. 30, p. 193. 
1925 Stromgren, E. Om bevaegelses mulighederne i stjernehobe. Nord. A. 

Tids., v. 6, pp. 21-8. 
1927 Shapley, H. The periods of seventy-three variables in Messier 5. Harv. 

Bull., no. 851. See also summary, The periods of variable star? in M 5. 

Obs., v. 50, p. 390, 1927. 
1931 Barnard, E. E. Micrometric measures of star clusters. Yerkes Pub., 

\ ■ 6, pp. 52-61. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 415 

NGC 5904 (Cont.) 

1931 Mineur.H. Misesau point d'astronomie stellaire. III. Cepheideset amas. 
Soc. Astr. France, Bull., v. 45, p. 194. 

1932 Grossc, E. Lntersuchungen iiber die veranderlichen Sterne im Kugel- 
sternhaufen Messier 53. A. N., v. 246, pp. 401-5; Hamb.-Bcrg. Abh., v. 4, 
no. 2. (Comparison of clusters). 

1932 Hogg, F. S. The distribution of light in six globular clusters. <!./., v. 42, 
pp. 77-87. 

1933 Kiistner, F. Die kugelformigen Sternhaufen Messier 12 und Messier 5. 
Bonn. Veroff., v. 20, 57 pp. (Catalogue of 1144 stars in M5). 

1935 Greenstein, J. L. Two non-cluster type variables in Messier 3. (Com- 
parison with Var. 50 in M 5). Harv. Bull., no. 901, p. 14. 

1936 Lohman, \V. Die Yerteilung des Lichtes in den kugelformigen Sternhaufen 

M 5, M 15 und M 92. Z.f. Ap. v. 12, no. 1, pp. 1-39. 
1941 Opsterhoff, P. Th. The variable stars in Messier 5. Leiden Ann., v. XVII, 
pt. 4, pp. 1-4S. (Plates). 

1771 Messier, 1777 Bode 29, 1780, 1784 Messier, 1800, lS14r, lSlSafc, (1912) 
W. Herschel, 1833 J. Herschel 1916 (fig.), 1852 Secchi, 1853 Laugier 43, 1855, 
1856 d'Arrest, 1861 Earl of Rosse, 1861 J. Herschel, 18627, lib Auwers, 1864 J. 
Herschel 4083, 1865 Auwers, 1867 Schmidt, 1867 Vogel, 1867 d'Arrest, 1867a» 
Chambers, 1868 Webb, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 1881 Smyth and Chambers (fig. 31), 
1882 Engelmann, 1882a/) Flammarion, 1888 Ginzel, 1890 d'Engelhardt, 1891-a 
Bigourdan, 1803 Roberts, 1894 Gore, 1895, 1897, 18987, II Pickering, 1897 
Barnard, 1895a/; Monnichmever, 1902a/>c Bailey, 1902 Gore, 1903 Clerke, 1904, 
1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailey (plate), 1908 Keeler (plate 52), 1909 Perrine, 
1910 See (plate), PHI Wirtz, 1911a Hinks, 1912 See (plate), 1913 Bailey, 1913 
Fath, 1913 Chapman, 11)14 Stromgren and Drachmann, 19157, 77 Plummer, 
1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailey, 1915 Kritzinger, 1916 Wilson, 1916 Shaplev, 1917 
Slipher, 1917 Shaplev and Davis, 1917 Shaplev, 1917a Flammarion, 1918 Curtis, 
1918 Slipher, 1918c Charlier, UnSIabc, Ilabd, III, Va Shapley, 1919a Bailey, 
Leland, and Woods, 19196 Lundmark, 19197ar, 77a/ Shaplev and Shapley, 1920 
Hoffmeister, 1920 Hopmann (plate), 1920 Lous, 1920aoc Lundmark, 1920o 
Shapley, P.I227 Becker, 1922 Kostitzin, 1923 Lundborg, 1923 Wirtz, 1923 von 
Zeipel, 1924 Vogt, 11)25 Larink, 1925 Nabokov, 1925 Stromberg, 1925/), 1926 
Doig, 1926 Reinmuth, 1926 acdef, 1927a/>c Parvulesco (print), 1927W; ten 
Bruggencate, 1927 Kienle, 11)27 Sawyer and Shapley, 1927 Lonnquist, 11)277, 77 
Shapley and Sawyer. 1928 van Rhijn, 1928 Voute, 1929 Cannon, 1929a/) Shapley 
and Sawyer, 1930 Heckmann and SiedentOpf, \'.)S0afghklmnq Shaplev, 1930 
Parenago, 1931 Harrison, 1931 Nabokov, 1932 Bernheimer, 11)32 Moore, 1932, 
1933 van de Kamp, 1932a/; Sawver, 1933a Grosse, 1933 Stebbins, 1933 Yvssotsky 
and Williams, 1934, 1935 Lundmark, 1935a Baade, 1035a/) Edmondson, 1935 
Shiwshwarkar, 1935 Mineur, 1935a Sawyer, 11)35 Shaplev and Sayer, 1936 
Durvea, 11130a/) Stebbins and Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, 1939/) Hachenberg, 1939a/> 
Sawyer, 1939 Oosterhoff, 11)40 Christie, 11)41 de Kort, 11)41 Copeland, 1942a 
Sawyer, 1943a Oosterhoff, 11)44 Shapley, 19447, 11)45 Sawyer, 11)45 Finlay- 
Freundlich, I946a& Mayall, I946a6 Mowbray. ,11)04 Perrine, 1904 Webb]. 

NGC 5927 a 15 h 24 m .4, 5 - 50° 29' / 294°, b + 04° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1828 Dunlop 389, 1847 |. Herschel- 3604, isiil J. Herschel 1101, 1881 Smyth 
and Chambers, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailey, 1918c Charlier, 1919/lac Shapley and 
Shapley, 1920a Lundmark, 1926J Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer and Shaplt y, 1027/,//, 
19296 Shaplej and Sawyer, I930aw Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1033 van de 
Kamp, I '.1:5:. Shapley and Sayer, 1041 de Kort, I946d Mayall. 



416 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 5946 a 15 h 31 m .8. 5 - 50° 30' / 295°, b + 03° 

1847 Herschel, J. First observation, 1834 July 7. 

1847 T- Herschel 3607, 1864 J. Herschel 4108. 1881 Smyth and Chambers, 
1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailey, li)18i Charlier, 1919/iac Shaplev and Shaplev, 
1922a Shaplev, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 1927/, //, 19296 
Shaplev and Sawyer. I930c« Shapley, 1931 Nabokov. 1946a" Mayall. 

NGC 5986 a 15 h 42 m .S, 5 - 37° 37' / 305°, b + 13° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1915 Bailey, S. 1. Globular clusters: distribution of stars. Harv. Ann., v. 76, 
no. 4. 

1828 Dunlop 552, 1847 J. Herschel 3611, 1S61 J. Herschel, 1864 J. Herschel 
4132, 1881 Smyth and Chambers, 1897, 18987/ Pickering, 1902a, 1908 Bailey, 
1911a Hinks, 1915/ Plummer, 1915 Melotte, 1915a& Bailey, 1918c Charlier, 
1918//r Shaplev. 1919/c, He Shapley and Shapley, 1920 Hoffmeister, 1920a 
Lundmark, 1923 Lundborg, 1925 Nabokov. 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927a" ten Brug- 
gencate, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 19277, //. 1929* Shaplev and Sawyer, 1929 
Cannon, 1930a/n Shaplev. 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1935 
Shaplev and Sayer, 1936a Stebbins and Whitford, 1939a Sawver, 1940 Christie, 
1941 de Kort, 1941 Copi land, 1946ao Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6093 ( Messier 80) a 16 h 14 m .l, 8 - 22 52' / 321°, b + 18° 

1781 Mechain, P. F. A. First observation, 1781 Jan. 4, Jan. 27. 

1785 Herschel, W. On the construction of the heaven-. An opening in the 

heavens. Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., v. 75, pp. 213-66. 
1860 Luther, E. Aus einem Schreiben des Herrn Prof. Luther, Directors der 

Sternwarte in Konigsberg, an den Herausgeber. .1. N., v. 53, p. 293. 

(Auwers and Luther saw nova on May 21, mag. 6.5.). 
1860 Pogson, N. Remarkable changes observed in the cluster 80 Messier. M. X., 

v. 21, p. 32. 

1860 Smyth. W. H. Speculum Hartwellianum. London, 1860. Pp. 265-71, 
and p. 104. 80 M. Scorpii. (Observations on R and S Scorpii). 

1861 Schmidt, J. F. J. Ober einen neuen veranderlichen Nebelstern. A. N., 
v. 55, p. 93. 

1862 Auwers, A. Yer/cichniss der Orter von vierzig NcIk Iflecken, aus Beobach- 
tungen am Konigsberger Heliometer abgeleitct. A. N., v. 58, p. 374. 
(Accurate position of nova). 

1865 Schonfeld, F. Mittlere Oerter fur 1S55.0 von veranderlichen Sternen mit 
Einschluss derjenigen neuen Sterne, deren Positionen sich mit einiger 
Sicherheit bestimmen lassen. A. N., v. 64, p. 169. 

1867 Schmidt, J. F. J. Bemerkungen iiber Nebel und veranderliche Sterne. 
A. N., v. 70, p. 250. (Positions of nova and variables). 

1868 Schonfeld, E. Notiz iiber die Oerter der Veranderlichen R, S, T Scorpii. 
A. N., v. 70, p. 333. (Positions). 

1868 Schmidt, J. F. J. Leber veranderliche Sterne, R, S, T Scorpii. A. N., 

v. 72, p. 56. 
1868 Schmidt. J. F. J. Bemerkungen iiber einige veranderliche Sterne. A. N., 

v. 72, p. 141. (T Scorpii not seen since 1860). 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 417 

NGC 6093 (Cont.) 

1870 Schmidt, J. F. J. Beobachtungen von veranderlichen Sternen auf der 

Sternwarte zu Athen im Jahre 1870. A. N., v. 77, p. 123. (T Scorpii 

not seen since 1860). 
1877 Schmidt, J. F. J. Veranderliche Sterne, 1S76. A. N., v. 89, p. 159. (He 

observed this cluster at least a thousand times after I860, but never saw 

T Scorpii again after June I860). 
1881 Smyth, W. H., and Chambers, G. F. A cycle of celestial objects. P. 452, figs. 

32, 33. (Variable stars near 80 M Scorpii). 
1886 Auwers, A. Aus einem Schreiben des Herrn Geheimrath Auwers an den 

Herausgeber betr. die Erklarung der s.g. neuen Sterne, und Beobachtungen 

der Nova Scorpii von 1860. A. X., v. 1 14. p. 47. (Observations of the nova 

from Konigsberg records, 1860). 
1902 Baxendell, J. Notes on Pogson's observations of U Geminorum, T Scorpii, 

etc. .4. /., v. 22, p. 127. (The nova, or another variable, was seen in 1863.) 
1922 Slipher, V. M. Further notes on spectrograph ic observations of nebulae 

and clusters. (Abs.) Pop. Astr., v. 30, pp. 9-11. 
1930 Shapley, H., and Sawyer, H. B. Variable stars in globular clusters. (Abs.) 

Pop. Astr., v. 38, p. 408. 
1938 Sawyer, H. B. The bright nova of 1860 in the globular cluster Messier 80, 

and its relation to supernovae. R. A. S. C. Jour., v. 32, pp. 69-90; Diuilap 

Comm., no. 1. 
1942 Sawyer, H. B. Variable stars in the globular cluster Messier 80. Dioihip 

Pub., v. 1, no. 12. 

1781 Mechain, 1783 Bode 1784 Messier, 1814c, 1818a W. Herschel, 1847 J. 
Herschel 3624, 1855, 1856 d'Arrest, 1861 J. Herschel, 18627, lib Auwers, 1864 
J. Herschel 4173, 1865 Auwers, 1867 Schmidt, 1867 Vogel, 1867a6 Chambers, 
1868 Webb, 1875 Schonfeld, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 1882 Engelmann, 18826 Flam- 
marion, 18S6 d'Engelhardt, 1886- Weinek and Gruss, 1891-c/fe Bigourdan, 1891 
Kempf, 1895 Rumker, 1895ai Monnichmever, 1898/7 Pickering, 1902afec Bailey, 
1902 Gore, 1904 Webb, 1904, 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailev, 1909 Perrine, 1909 
Winnecke, 1910 Porter. 1911 Wirtz, 1911a Hinks, 1912 Curtis, 1913 Fath, 1915 
Melotte, 1915a Bailev, 1915 Kritzinger, 1917 Shaplev and Davis, 1 ( .)17 Pease and 
Shaplev, 1917a" Flammarion, 1918a Bailey, 1918 Curtis, 1918c Charlier, 1918- 
Ilbd Shaplev, 1919/c, lied Shapley and Shapley, 1920 Hoffmeister, 1920a 
Lundmark, 19206 Shaplev, 1922/ Becker, 1923 Lundborg, 1925 Stromberg, 
1925, 1926 Nabokov, 1925a 7 , 1926 Doig, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1926// Vorontsov- 
Velvaminov, 1927/? ten Bruggencate, 1927 Sawver and Shapley, 1927/, // 
Shapley and Sawyer, 1928 van Rhijn, 1928 Voute, 1929 Cannon, 1929a6 
Shaplev and Sawyer, 1929 Vorontsov-Yelvaminov, 1930a/gwa Shaplev, 1931 
Nabokov, 1932 Moore, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1935a6 Edmondson, L935 
Shiveshwarkar, 1935 Mineur, 1935 Shapley and Saver, 1936 Durvea, 1936a6 
Stebbins and Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, 1939a Sawyer, 1940 Christie, 1941 de 
Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1946«Z>c Mayall, 1946a/; Mowbray. 

NGC 6101 a 16 h 20 m .O, o - 72° 06' I 285°, b - 17° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1828~Dunlop 68, 1847 J. Herschel 3623, 1864 J. Herschel 1175, 1881 Smyth and 
Chambers, 1915Melotte, 1915a Bailey, 1918c Charlier, 1918J7e Shapley, 1919/Jc 
Shaplev and Shapley, 1920a Lundmark, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawver and 
Shapley, L9277, //. 19296 Shapley and Sawyer, 19Z0akn Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 
L932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1941 de Kort, L946d Mayall. 



418 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6121 (Messier 4) a 16 h 20 m .6, 5 - 26° 24' / 319°, 6 + 15* 

1746 de Cheseaux, L. Discovery. Letter to French Academy. Published by 

Bigourdan, Paris. Ann. Observations, 1884, G8-10, pub. 1891; Obs., 1907, 

E135-7, pub. 1917. 
1771 Messier, C. Observation 1764 May 8. 
1785 Herschel, W. On the construction of the heavens. Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., 

v. 75, pp. 213-66. An opening in the heavens. 
1904 Pickering, E. C, and Lcavitt, H. S. 105 new variable stars in Scorpius. 

Han: Circ, no. 90; A. N., v. 167, p. 161. 
1932 Sawyer, H. B. Periods and light curves of thirty two variable stars in the 

globular clusters N.G.C. 362, 6121, and 6397. Han. Circ, no. 366, pt. 2. 

(Plato. (Abs.) The periods of thirty-six variable stars in four globular 

cluster:-. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 7, p. 35. 

1932 Hogg, F. S., and Sawyer, H. B. A test of the constancy of light of the 
bright stars in Messier 4. A. S. P. Pub., v. 41, p. 258. 

1939 Greenstein, J. I.. Magnitudes and colors in the globular cluster Messier 4. 
A p. J., v. 90, pp. 387-413 (plat, s). 

1941 de Sitter, A. Note on variable stars in the globular cluster Messier 1. 
Natuur. Tijds. Ned. Indie, dl. 101, afl. 2, pp. 51-3. 

1942 Sawyer, H. B. A semiregular variable in Messier 4. R. .1. S. C. Jour., 
x. 36, p. 213; Dunlap Comm., no. 9. 

1946 Lohmann, \V. Die Yerteilung von Riesen und Zwergen im Kugelformigen 

nhaufen M 4. Konigstuhl-Heidelberg, no. 47; Z.J. Naturforschung, v. 1, 
no. 11, 12. 

1947 de Sitter, A; Oosterhoff, I'. Th. A study of the variable >tars in Messier 
4. B.A.N, v. 10, p. 287. 

17:..". Lacaille I 9, 1771 Messier, 1777 Bode 31, 1780, 1784 Messier, 1814a, 
ISIS*;, (1912) \V. Herschel, 1855, lS.-.fi d'.\rre>t, lSti2//6c Vuwers, 1864 J. 
Herschri lis:;, L867a Chambers, 1SS1 Smyth and Chambers, 18826 Flammarion, 
1891-c Bigourdan, 1902 Gore, 1904 Webb, L904, 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailey 
(plate), 1911a Hinks, L915 Melotte, 1915a Bailey, L916 Wilson, 1916 Shapley, 
1917 Shapk\ and Davis, L917 Shapley, L917a Flammarion, 1918a Bailey, 1918c 
Charlier, 1918i76d Shapley, L919/ac, I led Shapley and Shapley, 1920 Hoff- 
meister, 1920a Lundmark, 19206 Shapley, 1923 Lundborg, 1925 Nabokov, 1925d, 
1926 Doig, L926/i Vorontsov-Velyaminov, L926/, 1927a Parvulesco, 1927// ten 
Bruggencate, L927 Sawyer and Shapley, 19277, // Shaplej and Sawyer, 1928 van 
Rhijn, 1929 Cannon, 1929a.'. Shapley and Sawyer, 1929 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 
1930 Parenago, IQSOafknp Shaplev, L931 Nabokov, L932 Bernheimer, 1932 Hogg, 
1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1932a6 Sawyer, 1933 Stebbins, L933 Vyssotsky and 
Williams, 1935 Shapley and Saver, 1936 Duryea, 1936a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 
1937Wilkens, 1939a6 Sawyer, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 19 11 Copeland, 1944/7 
Sawyer, 1946d Mayall, 1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 6139 a 16 h 24 m .3, 5 - 38° 44' / 310 c , b + 06° 

1828 Dunlop. J. First observation. 

1919 Hubble, E. Two new globular clusters. Mt. W. Rep., no. 9, p. 233, accord- 
ing to Han\ Bull., no. 776, 1922. 

1828 Dunlop 536, 1847 J. Herschel 3628, 1864 J. Herschel 4189, 1881 Smyth 
and Chambers, 1922a Shaplev, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawver and Shaplev, 
19277, II, 19296 Shaplev and" Sawver, 1930oife« Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 

1933 van de Kamp, 1936a Stebbins and Whitford, 1941 de Kort. 1946d Mayall. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 419 

NGC 6144 a 16 h 24 m .2, 5 - 25° 56' / 320°, b + 14° 

17S6 Herschel, W. First observation, 17S4 May 22. 

1786 W. Herschel VI 10, 1818a W, Herschel, 1847 J. Herschel 3629, 186277a 
Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 4193, 1891-c Bigourdan, 1915 Melotte, 1918a6 Charlier, 
191877c Shaplev, 1919776c Shapley and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark. 1926 Doig, 
1926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 19277, 77, 1929a6 Shapley and 
Sawyer, 1929 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1930 Parenago, 1930a kn Shaplev, 1931 
Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Stebbins, 1935 Shaplev and" Saver, 
1936a Stebbins and Whitford, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 
1946^ Mayall, 1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 6171 (Messier 107) a 16 h 29 m .7, 5 - 12° 57' I 331°, b + 22° 

1783 Mechain, P.F.A. First observation, 17S2 April. 

1802 Herschel, \V. Independent observation, 1793 May 12. 

1827 Harding. Beobachtungen und Nachrichten. Berliner Jalirbuch, p. 134. 
(Letter to Dr. Westphal with list of 8 nebulae). 

1857 Winnecke, A. Notiz iiber Nebelflecke. A. N., v. 45, pp. 247-50. 

1938 Oosterhoff, P. Th. Variable stars in the globular cluster NGC 6171. 
B. A. N., v. 8, pp. 273-7. 

1947 Sawyer Hogg, H. Catalogues of nebulous objects in the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Diuilap Comm. no. 14; R.A.S.C. Jour. v. 41, p. 265. 

1783 Mechain, 1802 W. Herschel VI 40, 1847 J. Herschel 3637, 1856 d'Arre si , 
1861 J. Herschel, 186277a Auwers, 1862 Schonfeld. 1864 ]. Herschel 4211. 1867 
Vogel, 1867a Chambers, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 1881 Smvth and Chambers, 18826 
Flammarion, 1890 d'Engelhardt, 1891-c Bigourdan, 1904 Webb, 1904, 1907 
Holetschek, 190S Bailey, 1909 Perrine, 1910 Porter, 1911 Wirtz, 1911a Hinks, 
1912 Curtis, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailey, 1915 Kritzinger, 1918 Curtis, 1918c 
Charlier, 191877c Shaplev, 19197c, 77cd Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark, 
19206 Shapley, 19227 Becker, 1923 Wirtz, 1925 Nabokov, 19256 Doig, 1926/ 
Parvulesco, 1926 Reinmuth, 1927/; ten Bruggencate, 1927 Sawyer and Shaplev, 
19277, II, 1929a6 Shaplev and Sawyer, 1929 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1930a;/ 
Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1936 
Duryea, 1936a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, 1939a Sawyer, 1940 
Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1946a6 Mayall, 1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 6205 (Messier 13) a 10 h 39 m .9, o + 36° 33' I 26°, b + 40° 

1715 Halley, E. Discovery. 

1716 Pound. Positions of nebulae in Hercules and Antinous for 1690, by Pound's 
observations; deduced by Halley, 1716. Bradley's miscellaneous works 
[Rigaud] p. iii "Memoirs of Bradley," 1832. 

1771 Messier, C. Observation, 1764 June 1. On chart of comet of 1779, Mem. 

1779. 
1839 Bianchi, J. Schreiben des Herrn Bianchi, Directors der Sternwarte zu 

Modena, an den Herausgeber. A. N., v. 16, pp. 371-4. 

1843 Argelander, D. Fr. Uranometria Nova, p. 32, Berlin. 

1844 von Humboldt, A. Cosmos. Milan 1851 edition, v. 3, p. 114. Amas d'e- 
toiles. 

1852-5 Secchi, P. A. Osservazioni delle Nebulose. Memorie dell. Osservatorio 
del Collegio Romano, pp. 93-4. (Drawing lav. Y., tig. 5). 



420 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6205 (Cont.) 

1861 Rosse, Earl of. On the construction of specula of six-feet aperture, and a 
selection from the observations of nebulae made with them. Plate xxviii, 
fig. 33 drawing. Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., v. 151, pp. 681-745. (Dark lanes). 

1866 Schultz, H. Historische Notigen uber Xcbelflecke. A. N., v. 67, p. 4. 

1871 Vogel, H. Resultate spectralanalytischer Beobachtungen angestellt auf 
der Sternwarte zu Bothkamp. 2. Die Spectra einiger Xcbelflecke, Stern- 
haufen u. des Cometen I. 1871. A. N., v. 78, p. 245. 

1872 Vogel, H. Spectra einiger Xebclfleckcn und Sternhaufcn. Bothkamp 
Beobachtungen I, p. 56. 

1876 Trouvelot, L. Drawings of the clusters in Hercules Messier 13 and 92. 

Hare. Ann., v. 8, pt. 2, plate 25. 
1884 Pickering, E. C, Searle, A., and Wendell, O. C. Observations with the 

meridian photometer during tin- years 1879-S2. Hare. Ann., v. 14, pt. 1, 

p. 211. 
1887 Roberts, I. Photographs of the cluster M 13 Herculis. M. A., v. 48, p. 30. 
1887 Harrington, M. W. On the structure of 13 M Herculis. (Drawings). 

.4. /., v. 7, p. 156. 

1891 Holden, E. S. Characteristic forms within theclusnr in Ihrcules. A.S.P. 
Pub., v. 3, p. 375. 

1892 Scheiner, J. Der grossen Sternhaufcn im Hercules Messier 13 nach 
Aufnahmen am Potsdamer photographischen Refractor. A'. Prcuss. Ak. 
Wiss. Abhand., Abhang I, pp. 1-55. (Chart). 

1893 Ranyard, A. C. What is a star cluster? Knowledge, v. 16, pp. 90-2, 109-11. 
1893 Scheiner, J. Der grosse Sternhaufcn im Hercules. Hinunel und Erde, 

\ . 6, pp. 105-14. (Drawings of nebulositu - . 

1893 Scheiner, J. Ober die Liapunow'schen Messungen im Sternhaufcn Messier 
13. ,1. A., v. 132, p. 203. 

1894 Burnham, S. \\ . Seventeenth catalogue of new double stars discovered at 
the Lick Observatory. Lick Pub., v. 2, pp. 215-6. 

1894 Flammarion, C. L'amas erHcrculc. I.' Astronomic, v. 13, pp. 361-71. 
1894 Ranyard, A. C. What is a star cluster 5 Knowledge, v. 17, pp. 20-1-0 (Plates); 
p. 226. Photographs of the Milky Way and nebulae (Plate). 

1894 Swift, L. Suggestions to amateurs: nebulae and clusters. Pop. Astr., v. 1, 
pp. 369-71. 

1895 See, T. J. J. On the theoretical possibility of determining the elistances of 
star clusters, etc. A. N., v. 139, p. 161. 

1897 Pickering, E. C. Distribution of stars in clusters. Harv. Ann., v. 26, p. 213. 
1899 Barnard, E. E. Triangulation of star clusters. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 77; 

ence, v. 10, p. 789. 
1899 Palmer, H. K. The distribution of stars in the cluster Messier 13, in 

Hercules. Ap. J., v. 10, p. 246. 
1899 Rabourdin, L. Photographies de nebuleuseset d'amas d'etoiles. Soc. Aslr. 

France, Bull., v. 13, pp. 289-99 (photos). 
1899 Rabourdin, L. Sur des photographies de nebuleuses et d'amas d'etoiles 

obtenues a FObservatoire de Meudon. C. R., v. 128, p. 219. (Photos). 
1899 Scheiner, J. Uber das Spectrum des Andromedanebels. A. A., v. 148, 

p. 325. (Refers to Vogel's observations of spectrum of M 13). 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 421 

NGC 6205 (Cont.) 

1900 Barnard, E. E. Some abnormal stars in the cluster M 13 Herculis. Ap. J., 

v. 12, p. 17(3. 
1900 Barnard, E. E. Discovery and period of a small variable star in the cluster 
M 13 Herculis. Ap. J., v. 12. p. 182. 

1900 Hale, G. E. Photographs of star clusters made with the forty-inch visual 
telescope. Yerkes Bull., no. 15; (Plate), Ap. J., v. 12, p. 161. 

1901 Holetschek, J. Cber den Helligkeitseindruck von Sternhaufen. Vienna, 
A". Akad. Wiss. Math-Natur. Kl. Sitz. 110, abth. Ha, pp. 1253-97. 

1902 Barnard, E. E. Micrometrical measures of individual stars in the great 
globular clusters. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 193; Science, v. 17, p. 330, 1903. 

1903 Ritchey, G. W. Astronomical photography with the forty-inch refractor 
and the two-foot reflector of Yerkes. Yerkes Pub., v. 2, pt. 6, (Plate). 

1903 Schaeberle, J. M. On the physical structure of the great cluster in Hercules. 
A. J., v. 23, p. 226. 

1904 Plummer, H. C. The positions of seventy stars in the cluster M 13 Herculis. 
M. X., v. 65, pp. 79-83. 

1905 Ludendorff, H. Der grosze Sternhaufen im Herkules Messier 13. Potsdam 
Pub., v. 15, no. 50, pp. 1-56 (Catalogue of 1118 stars). 

1905 Perrine, C. D. Die Helligkeiten der Sterne in Sternhaufen. Himniel und 
Erde, v. 17, p. 330. 

1905 Plummer, \V. E. The great cluster in Hercules. M. N., v. 65, pp. 801-13. 

1906 Barnard, E. E. Visual observations of a variable star in the cluster M 3 
(NGC 5272). A. X., v. 172, p. 348. 

1908 Ludendorff, H. Xachtrag zu der Abhandlung "Der grosze Sternhaufen im 
Herkules Messier 13." .4. N., v. 178, pp. 369-79. 

1909 Barnard, E. E. On the colors of some of the stars in the globular cluster 
M 13 Herculis. Ap. J., v. 29, p. 72. 

1909 Fath, E. A. The spectra of some spiral nebulae and globular star clusters. 

Lick Bull., no. 149, pp. 71-7. 
1909 Kapteyn, J. C. On the absorption of light in space. Second paper. 

Ap. J., v. 30, p. 316. (Color-spectrum observations by Babcock and Fath). 
1911 Plummer, H. C. On the problem of distribution in globular star clusters. 

M. N.,v. 71, pp. 460-70. 
1913 Adams, W. S. The spectra of some individual stars in the Hercules cluster. 

A.S.P. Pub., v. 25, p. 260. 

1913 Chretien, H. Sur l'analyse statistique des amas d'etoiles. C. R., v. 157, 
pp. 1047-50. 

1914 Barnard, E. E. Photographic determination of the colors of some of the 
stars in the cluster M 13 (Hercules). Ap. J., v. 40, p. 173. 

191 1 Pease, F. G. Spectra of stars in the Hercules cluster M 13. A. S. P. Pub., 
v. 26, p. 204. 

1915 Bailey, S. I. Globular clusters: distribution of stars. Hare. Ann., v. 76, 
no. 4. 

1915 Shapley, H. Studies. II. Thirteen hundred stars in the Hercules cluster 

i Messier L3 . Ml. II'. Cont., no. 116. 
L915 Shapley, H. Four new variable -tars in the Hercules cluster. .1. 5. 1'. Pub., 

v. 27, p. 134; p. 23S. A seventh variable star in the Hercules cluster. 



422 Publications of the David D unla p Observatory 

NGC 6205 (Coat.) 

1915 Shapley, H. Magnitudes and colors in the Hercules cluster. (Abs.) 
Pop. Astr., v. 23, p. 640. 

1916 Shapley, H. Outline and summary of a study of magnitudes in the globular 
cluster Messier 13. A. S. P. Pub., v. 28, pp. 171-6. 

1916 Shapley, H. On the distribution of stars in globular clusters. Obs., v. 39, 

pp. 452-6. 
1916 Shapley, H. Studies. I. On the absorption of light in -pan. Mt. W. 

Connn., no. 18; Nat. Acad. Sci. Proc, v. 2, pp. 12-15. 
1916 Shapley, H. Studies. II. On the sequence of spectral types in stellar 

evolution. Mt. W. Comtn., no. 19; Nat. Acad. Sci. Proc, v. 2, pp. 15-1S. 
1916 Shapley, H. Studies. 111. The colors of the brighter star> in four globular 

systems. Mt. IF. Comm., no. 34; Nat. Acad. Sci. Proc, v. 2, p. 525. 
1916 Kohlman, A. F. Star clusters: some observations and comparisons. Soc 

Prac Astr., Monthly Reg., v. 8, pp. 25-6. 
1916 Kostitzin, V. Sur la distribution des etoiles dans les amas globulaires. 

Bulletin Astronomigue, \ . 33 I Mem. et obs.), pp. 289-94. 

1916 Eddington, A. S. The nature of globular clusters. Obs., v. 39, pp. .">13-14. 

1917 Hertzsprung, E. The nature of globular clusters. Obs. , v. 40, pp. 303-4. 
1917 Eddington, A. S. Researches on globular clusters. Obs., v. 40, pp. 394-401. 
1917 Maunder.E.W. Report of the meeting of the Association. B. A. A. Jour., 

v. 27, pp. 206-11. (Discussions of M 13). 
1917 Pease, F. G., and Shapley, H. Note on the elliptical form of Messier 13. 

(Abs.). Am. A. S. Pub., v. 3, p. 274; Pop. Astr., v. 25, p. 374. 
1917 Pease, F. G., and Shapley, 11. Axis of symmetry in globular clusters. 

Mt. W. Comm.. no. 39; Nat. Acad. Sci. J'roc, v. 3, pp. 96-101. 
1917 Shapley, H. Studies. V. Further evidence of the absence of scattering of 

light in space. Mt. W. Comm., no. 11 ; Nat. Acad. Sci. Proc, v. 3, pp. 267-70. 
1917 Shapley, II. Studies. VI. The relation of blue stars and variables to 

galactic planes. Mt. W. Comm., no. 45; Nat. Acad. Sci. J'roc, v. 3, pp. 

276-'.). 
1917 Shapley, H. Notes on stellar clusters. (Abs.) Pop. Astr ., v. 25, p. 379. 

1917 La distance des amas d'etoiles et des nelmleuses. Soc. Astr. France, Bull., 
v. 31, p. 237. 

191S Reboul, M. La distance des amas d'etoiles. Soc. Astr. France, Bull., 
v. 32, p. 130. 

1918 Zinner, E. Untersuchungen fiber die Farben und Grossen in den Stern- 
haufen. Sirius, v. 51, pp. 87-90. 

1918 Schouten, W. J. A. On the parallax of some stellar clusters. First com- 
munication. A". Ak. wetens. Amsterdam Proc, v. 20, pp. 1108-18. Second 
communication, A'. Ak. wetens. Amsterdam Proc, v. 21, pp. 36-47, 1919. 

1919 Schouten, W. J. A. The parallax of some stellar clusters. Obs., v. 42, 
pp. 112-19; A.N., v. 208, pp. 317-24. 

1919 Shapley, H. Star clusters and their contribution to knowledge of the 
universe. Am. Phil. Soc. Proc, v. 58, pp. 337-45. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 423 

NGC 6205 (Cont.) 

1921 Shapley, H. The scale of the universe. Pt. 1. Xat. Res. Conn. Bull., 
Wash., v. 2, p. 171. 

1921 Curtis, H. D. The scale of the universe. Pt. 2. Nat. Res. Conn. Bull., 
Wash., v. 2, p. 194. 

1922 Kapteyn, J. C, and van Rhijn, P. J. The proper motion of 8 Cephei stars 
and the distances of the globular clusters. B. A. X., v. 1, p. 37. 

1922 Trumpler, R. Comparison and classification of star-clusters. Allegheny 
Pub., v. 6, pp. 64-74. 

1923 Kopff, A. Uber die Haufigkeitsfunktion beim Sternhaufen M 13. A. X., 
v. 219, pp. 311-16. 

1923 Hopmann, J. Uber die kosmische Stellung der Kugelhaufen und Spiral- 

nebel. ,1. X., v. 218, pp. 97-110. 
1923 Freundlich, E., and Heiskanen, W. Uber die Verteilung der Sterne 

verschiedener Massen in den kugelformigen Sternhaufen. Z.f. Phys., v. 14, 

p. 226. 

1923 Freundlich, E. Zur Dynamik der kugelformigen Sternhaufen. Phys. Z., 
v. 24, pp. 221-3. 

1924 ten Bruggencate, P. Uber Reste einer Spiralstruktur in Sternhaufen. 
Z.f. Phys., v. 24, pp. 48-51. 

1924 Nabokov, M. La grandeur stellaire integrate d'amas et de nebuleuses. 

Rus. A. J., v. 1 (1), pp. 115-8. 
1924 Nabokov, M. La distribution de l'eclat de 1'image extrafocale de l'amas 

stellaire NGC 6205, Messier 13. Rus. A. J., v. 1, pp. 109-14. 
1924 Shapley, H. Photographic magnitudes in Messier 13. Hare. Bull., no. 797. 
1924 Barabascheff, N. Uber die Helligkeitsverteilung im Sternhaufen M 13. 

A. X., v. 200, pp. 299-300. 

1924 van Maanen, A. Investigations on proper motion. Eleventh paper: 
The proper motion of Messier 13 and its internal motion. .1//. W. Cont., 
no. 284; Ap. J., v. 61, pp. 130-6. 

1925 Guthnick, P. Kugelhaufen, inbesondere uber gemeinsam mit Herrn R. 
Prager begonnene Untersuchungen an M 3, M 13, M 15 und M 92. (Abs.) 
K. Preuss. Ak. Wiss. Phys.-Math. Kl. Sitz., no. 28, p. 508. 

1925 Stromgren, E. Om bevaegelses mulighederne i stjernehobe. Nord.A.Tids., 
v. 6, pp. 21-8. 

1926 Bailey, S. I. Star clusters and nebulae. Science Monthly, v. 22, pp. 415-19; 
Han: Repr., no. 29. 

1926 Pariisky, M. L'essai sur 1'estimation de la masse et du nombre d'etoiles de 
l'amas globulaire Messier 13. Rus. A. J., v. 3 (1), pp. 10-19. 

1927 Heckniann, O. P. ten Bruggencate, Sternhaufen. (Analysis). A. G. 
Viert., v. 62, pp. 180-91. 

1927 Parenago, P. Ober die Helligkeit der Sternhaufen. Moskau Bull. Obs* 

Corp., no. 9, pp. 60-2. 
1927 van Maanen, A. Investigations on proper motion. Twelfth paper. The 

proper motions and internal motions of Messier 2, 13, 56. Ap. J., v. 66, pp. 

89-112; Mt. W. Cont., no. 338; The proper motions of the globular clusters 

Messier 13, 56, and 2, and their internal motions. K. Ak. we tens. Amsterdam, 

Verslag., v. 30, no. 6, pp. (is()-4. 



424 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6205 (Cont.) 

1929 Hogg, F. S. A method for the photometry of surfaces, with an application 
to the globular cluster Messier 13. Han. Bull., no. S70. 

1930 Sticker, B. Uber die Farbenhaufigkeitsfunktion in Stcrnhaufen. Z.f.Ap., 
v. 1, p. 174. 

1930 Shapley, H., and Sawyer, H. B. Variable stars in globular clusters. Pop. 
Astr., v. 38, p. 108. (Abs.). 

1930 de Sitter. A. A comparison of the angular dimensions of the globular 
clusters M 3 and M 13. B. A. X.. v. 5, pp. 207-9. 

1931 Schmidt, B. Ein lichtstarkes komafreies Spiegelsystem. Hamb. Mitt., v. 7, 
no. 36. (Plate). 

1931 Barnard, E. E. Micrometric measures of star clusters. Yerkes Pub., v. 6, 
pp. 62-73. 

1932 Hogg, F. S. The distribution of light in six globular clusters. A. J., v. 42, 
pp. 77-87; Abs.) Intensity distribution in globular cluster-. Am. A. S. 
Pah., v. 7. p. 91. 

1934 Salceanu, C. and Popovici, Y. Etude photometriquc de 1 'eclat de l'amas 
d'etoiles M 13. C. R., v. 199, pp. 1020-22; Phys. Bcr., v. 16, p. 375. 

1934 Salceanu, C. and Popovici, Y. Photometric des nebuleuses et des amas 
d'etoiles. Eclat de l'amas M 13. Soc. Roum. Phys. Bull., v. 36, pp. 191-200; 
Phys. Bcr. Rcf., v. 17, p. 378. 

L934 Schlesinger, F. Relative positions of 216 stars in the globular cluster 
Messier L3 16 h 38 m , + 36° 39', 1900 . A. J.. \ . 43, pp. 97-101. 

1934 White. V. F. The proper motions of stars in the region of cluster M 13. 
N.G.C. 6205 . M.N., v. 94, pp. 783-7. 

193G Gabrielow, A. On the mean square velocities of stars of different bright- 
nesses in the globular cluster M 13. Leningrad Univ. Obs. Pub., v. 6, 
pp. 66-70. 

1939 A world of the Hercules cluster. (Plate). Griffith Observer, v. 3, p. 96. 

1940 Sawyer, H. B. Twelve new variable stars in the globular clusters NGC 
6205, NGC 6366, and XGC 6779. (Plate- Dunlap Pub., v. 1, no. 5. 

1940 Sawyer. H. B. Periods of variable stars in the Hercules cluster, Messier 13. 

Am.A.S.Pub., v. 10, p. 66. 
1942 Sawyer, H. B. The light curves of four variable -tar- in the Hercules 

cluster Messier 13. Dunlap Pub., v. 1, no. 11. 
1942 Kollnig-Schattschneider, E. Die veranderlichen Sterne im Kugelhaufeii 

M 13. Kdnigstuhl-Heidel. Veroff. Bd. 15, no. 2; A. A'., v. 273, Heft. 3. 
1946 Popper, D. M. Spectral types of stars in the globular clusters Messier 3 

and Messier 13. Ap. J. v. 105, pp. 204-11; McDonald Cont., no. 131. 

1715 Hallev, 1746 de Cheseaux, 1771 Messier, 1777 Bode 30. 1780, 1784 
Messier, 1S00, 1814c, ISlSab, (1912) W. Herschel, 1833 J. Herschel 1968 (fig.), 1852 
Secchi (drawinc . 1853 Laugier 44, 1861 J. Herschel (drawing;) 18627, lib Auwers, 
1862 Schonfeld, 1864 J. Herschel 4230, 1864 Rumker, 1865 Auwers. 1S66 Huggins, 
1861, 1867 Schmidt, 1867 Vogel, 1867 d'Arrest, lS67ab Chambers, 1868 Webb, 
1875Sch6nfeld.lSS0Earlot'Rosse, ISSlSmvthandChambers <hg. 34 1 1882a6Flam- 
mation, 18S4 Pickering, Searle and Wendell, 1886d'Engelhardt, 1891-cBigourdan, 
1893, 1899 Roberts, 1894 Gore, 1895 Monnichmever, 1897 Barnard, 1898/7 
Pickering, 1899 Rabourdin (photos), 1902a6c Bailey, 1902 Gore, 1903 Clerke, 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 425 

NGC 6205 (Cont.) 

1904 Perrine, 1904 Webb (photo), 1904, 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailev (plate), 
1908 Keeler (plate 53), 1909 Perrine, 1910 See (plate), 1911 Fath, 1911a Hinks, 
1912 See (plate), 1913a6 von Zeipel, 1913 Chapman, 1913 Fath, 1914 Stromgren 
and Drachmann, 19157, 77 Plummer (plate), 1915 Melotte, 1915a6 Bailev, L916 
Wilson, 1916 Eddington, 1916, 1917 Shaplev, 1917 Slipher. 1917 Shapley and 
Davis, 1917 Pease and Shaplev. 19176 Flammarion, 1918a Bailev. 1018 Curtis, 

1918 Slipher, 1918c Charlier. 19187ac, Ilabd, III, IVc, Va, VI Shapley, 1919a6 
Lundmark, 1919/ac, lied Shaplev and Shaplev, 1919a6 Shaplev (plate), 1920 
Hoffmeister, 1920 Hopmann, 1920 Loin. 1920a6c Lundmark. 1920') Shaplev, 
19227, 77 Becker, 1922 Kostitzin, 1923 Lundbor?. 1923 von Zeipel. 11)24 ten 
Bruggencate, 19247, 77 Silberstein, 1924 Vogt, 1925 Larink. 1925 Nabokov, 
1925 Strombenj, 19256, 1926 Doig, 1926 Reinmuth, 19267 Yorontsov-Yelvaminov, 
I926abcdef, 1927abcd Parvulesco. \927abcdeghi ten Bru^encai- 1927 
Kienle, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 1927 Lonnquist. 19277, 77 Shaplev and 
Sawver, 1928 van Rhijn, 1928 Voute, 11)29 Cannon, 1929a/) Shaplev and Sawver, 
1930 Heckmann and Siedentopf, 1930 Parenago. \9ZQaef«knq! Shapley, 1931 
Harrison, 1931 Nabokov, 1932 Bernheimer, 1932 Moore, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 
19326 Sawyer, 1933 Yvssotsky and Williams 1934, 1035 Lundmark, 1935a6c 
Edmondson, 1935 Shiveshwarkar, 1935 Mineur, 1935a Sawver, 1935 Shaplev 
and Saver, 1936 Durvea, 1936a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, 1939a 
Hachenberg, 1939a6 Sawver, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1943 
Cuffev, 1943, 1944 Shaplev, 1945 Finlav-Freundlich, 1945 Sawver, 1946a6Mayall, 
1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 6218 (Messier 12) a 16 h 44 m .6, 6 - 01° 52' I 343°, b + 25° 

1771 Messier, C. First observation, 1764 May 30. On second chart of comet 
of 1769, Mem, 1775, pi. IN. 

1919 Sanford, R. F. Radial velocities of clusters. Mt. II". Rep., no. 15, p. 250. 
1925 Parvulesco, C. Sur la distribution des etoiles dans les amas globulaires 

M 9, M 10, M 12 et la theorie cinetique des gaz. C.R., v. 181, pp. 500-2. 
1929 Heckmann, O.. and Siedentopf, H. Uber die Struktur der kugelformigen 

Sternhaufen. Gott. Veroff. no. 6; Z.f. Phys., v. 54, p. 183. 
1933 Kiistner, F. Die kugelformigen Sternhaufen Messier 12 und Messier 5. 

Bonn Veroff., no. 26, 57 pp. (Co-ordinates of 489 stars in M 12 . 
1938 Sawyer, H. B. One hundred and thirty-two new variable stars in five 

globular clusters. (Plate). Dom. Ap. Pub., v. 7, no. 5. 
1938 Sawyer, H. B. The light curves of two variable stars in the globular 

clusters NGC 6218 and NGC 6254. Dunlap Pub., v. 1, pp. 50-68. 
1942 Nassau, J. J., and Hynek, J. A. Magnitudes and colors in the globular 

cluster Messier 12 and Selected Area 108. Ap. J., v. 96, no. 1; Warner and 

Sivasey repr., no. 22. Summary, Federer, Sky and Telescope, v. 1, no. 4, p. 7. 

1771 Messier, 1777 Bode 32, 1780, 1784 Messier, 1818a6, (1912 W. Herschel, 
1833 J. Herschel 1971, 1S61 Ear! of Rosse, 1S627, lib Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 
4238, 1865 Auwers, 1866 Huggins, 1867 Vogel, 1867 d'Arrest, 1867a Chambers, 
1868 Webb, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 1881 Smyth and Chambers, 18826 Flammarion, 
1886 d'Engelhardt, 1886- Weinek and Gruss, 1891-c Bigourdan, 1891 Kempt", 
1893 Roberts, 1895 Pickering, 1897 Barnard, 1902 Gore, 1904 Perrine, l'.»04 
Webb. 1001, 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailev, 1908 Keeler (pi. 54), 1909 Perrine, 
1010 See (plate), 1011 Wirt;, 1911a Hinks, 1012 See (plate), L915 Melotte, 
1915a Bailev, 1015 Kritzinger, 1916 Wilson, 1017 Shapley and Davis, 1017 
IVa^e and Shaplev, 10176 Flammarion, 19186 Bailev, 1918 Curtis, L918c Charlier, 
1918776^ Shaplev, 1919/ac, 7/ca" Shaplev and Shapley, 1920a Lundmark, 19206 



426 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6218 (Cont.) 

Shapley, 1022/ Becker, 1923 Lundborg, 1923 Wirtz, 1925 Nabokov, 1925 Strom- 
berg, 19256, 1926 Doig, 1926 Nabokov, 1926 Reinmuth, 1926/7 Vorontsov- 
Velyaminov, 1926d/, 1927d Parvulesco, 1927g ten Bruggencate, 1927 Kienle, 

1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 19277, II Shapley and Sawyer, 1928 van Rhijn, 

1925 Yotite, 1929a6 Shapley and Sawyer, 1929 Vorontsov-Velvaminov, I930anq 
Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 1932 Bernheimer, 1932 Moore, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 
1933 Sawyer, 1933 Stebbins, 1933 Vyssotsky and Williams, 1935a6d Edmondson , 
1935 Shiveshwarkar, 1935 Mineur, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1936 Durvea, 
1936a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, 1939a6 Sawyer, 11)40 Christie, 
1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1944 Shaplev, 1945 Sawyer, 1946c6 Mavall, 
1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 6229 a 16 h 45 m .6, 6 -f 47° 37' / 40°, 6 4- 39° 

1789 Herschel, W. First observation 1785, May 12. 

1839 Bianchi, J. Schreiben des Herrn Bianchi, Directors der Sternwarte zu 

Modi n,i, an den Herausgeber. A. N., v. 16, pp. 371-4. 
1857 Winnecke, A. Notiz iiber Nebelflecke. A.N., v. 45, pp. 247-50. 
1864 1 [uggins, W. On the spectra of some of the nebulae. Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., 

v. 154, pp. 437-44; Phil. Mag., v. 31, p. 523; Am. Jour. SeL, 2nd sir., 

v. 40, p. t::. 
Is75 Bredichin, T. Spectre des nebuleuses. Soc. d. Spctt. Ital. Mem., Nov., 

1875, v. 4. p. 109. 
1881 Smyth, W. H., and Chambers, (i. I". .1 cycle of celestial objects, p. 472. 

(Discussion of this cluster as a "prize comet" of 1819). 
1917 Davis, H. Five new variable stars in globular cluster^ .1. S. P. Pub., 

v. 29, p. 260. 
1917 Shapley, 11. Descriptive notes relative to nine clusters. -1. .v. P. Pub., 

v. 21 I, p. L85. 
1919 Lundmark, K., and Lindblad, B. Photographic effective wave-lengths of 

nebulae and clusters. Second paper. Ap. J., v. 50, pp. 376-90. 
1922 Slipher, V. M. Further notes on spectrographs observations of nebulae 

and clusters. (Abs.) Pop. Astr., v. 30, pp. 9-11. 
1945 Baade, \V. The globular clusters XGC 5634 and XGC 6229. Mt. W. Cont., 

no. 706; Ap. J., v. 102, pp. 17-25. (Plate). 

1789 W. Herschel IV 50, 1856 d'Arrest, 186227a Auwers, 1862 Schonield, 
1864 J. Herschel 4244, 1865a kiimker, 1806 Huggins, 1867 Schmidt, 1867 Vogel, 
1867 d'Arrest, 1874 Schultz, 1876 Bredichin. L877a Holden, 1878a Drever, 1880 
Earl of Rosse, 18S2 Engelmann, 1886 d'Engelhardt, 1891-c Bigourdan, 1891 
Kempf, 1894 Loewy and Perigaud, 1895a6 Monnichmeyer, 1903 Merecki, 1904 
Webb, 1904, 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailey, 1909 Perrine, 1911 Wirtz, 1911 
Fath, 1911a Hinks, 1912 Curtis. 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailev, 1917 Pease and 
Shaplev, PUS Curtis, 191Sc Charlier. UHSIIbdg Shaplev, 19197/co' Shaplev 
and Shapley, 1920a Lundmark, 19206 Shaplev, 1922/ Becker, 1923 Lundborg, 
1924 Vogt, 1D25 Nabokov, 1925 Stromberg, 19256 Doig, 1926a/ Parvulesco, 

1926 Reinmuth, 1927 Sawyer and Shaplev, 19277, II Shaplev and Sawver, 

1928 Voute, 1929 Cannon, 1929a6 Shaplev and Sawyer, 1930a/wg Shaplev, 
1931 Nabokov, 1932 Bernheimer, 1932 Moore, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1934, 
1935 Lundmark, 1*)35<j6 Edmondson, 1935 Shiveshwarkar, 1935 Mineur, 1935 
Shaplev an.! Saver, 1036a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, 1939a Sawver, 
1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1944 Shapley, 1945 Sawyer, 1946a6c Mavall, 1946a6 
Mowbray. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 427 

NGC 6235 a 16 h 50 m .4. o - 22° 06' I 327°, 6 + 12° 

1789 Herschel, W. First observation, 17S6 May 26. 

1915 Knox Shaw, H. Note on the nebulae and star clusters shown on the 

Franklin-Adams plates. M. N., v. 76, pp. 106-7. 
1946 Mayall, X. U. Says probably NOT a globular cluster. 

1789 W. Herschel II 5S4, 1847 ]. Herschel 3653, 186277a Auwers, 1864 
J. Herschel 4246. 1S67 Schmidt, 1886 d'Engelhardt, 1891-e Bigourdan, 1898a 
Howe, 1904, 1907 Holetschek, 1909 Winnecke, 1910 Porter, 1915 JUelotte, 
191877^ Shaplev, 191977cd Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark, 19206 
Shaplev, 1926/" Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer and Shaplev, 19277, 77, 1929a6 Shaplev 
and Sawyer, I930akn Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1935 
Shaplev and Saver, 1936a6c Stebbins and Whitford, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 
1946/ Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6254 (Messier 10) a 16 h 54 m .5, o - 04° 02' / 343°, 6 + 22° 

1771 Messier, C. First observation, 1764 May 29. On second chart of comet of 

of 1769, MSm. 1775, pi. IX. 
1917 Pease, F. G., and Shaplev, H. Axes of symmetry in globular clusters. 

Mt. W. Comm., no. 39; Nat. Acad. Sci. Proc, v. 3, pp. 96-101. 
1925 Parvulesco, C. Sur la distribution des etoiles dans les amas globulaires 

M 9, M 10, M 12 et la theorie cinetique des gaz. C. R., v. 181, pp. 500-2. 
1929 Heckmann, O., and Siedentopf, H. Uber die Struktur der kugelformigen 

Sternhaufen. Gbtt. Verbff. no. 6; Z.f. Phys., v. 54, p. 183. 
1931 Barnard, E. E. Micrometric measures of star clusters. Ycrkes Pub., 

v. 6, pp. 74-5. 
1938 Sawyer, H. B. One hundred and thirty-two new variable stars in five 

globular clusters. Dom. Ap. Pub., v. 7. no. 5. 
1938 Sawyer, H. B. The light curves of two variable stars in the globular 

clusters XGC 6218 and XGC 6254. Dunlap Pub., v. 1, pp. 59-68. 

1771 Messier, 1777 Bode 33, 1780, 17S4 Messier, 1800, 1818ac, (1912) W. 
Herschel, 1S33 J. Herschel 1972, 1847 J. Herschel 3659. 1852 Secchi, 1853 
Laugier45, 1855, 1856d'Arrest, 1861 Earlof Rosse, 1861 Schmidt, 1862776 Auwers, 
1864 J. Herschel 4256, 1866 Huggins, 1867 Schmidt, 1867 Vogel, 1867 d'Arrest, 
1867a Chambers, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 1881 Smyth and Chambers, 18826 Flam- 
marion, 1890 d'Engelhardt, 1891-c Bigourdan, 1891 Kempf, 1893 Roberts, 1897 
Pickering 1897 Barnard, 1902 Gore, 1904 Webb. 1904. 1907 Holetschek, 1908 
Bailey, 1909 Perrine, 1911 YYirtz, I'll la Hinks, 1912 Curtis, 1913 Fath, 1915 
Melotte, 1915a Bailev, 1915 Kritzinger, 1916 Wilson, 1917 Shaplev and Davis, 
1917 Pease and Shaplev, 19176 Flammarion, 19186 Bailev, 1918 Curtis, 1918c 
Charli.r, 191S776d Shaplev, 19197ac, lied Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark, 
1920& Shaplev, 19227 Becker. 1923 Lundborg, 1923 Wirtz, 1925, 1926 Nabokov, 
19256, 1926, Doig, 192(k// Parvulesco, 1926 Reinmuth, 192677 Vorontsov- 
Velyaminov, 1927| ten Brugcencate, 1927 Sawver and Shaplev, 1927a 7 Parvulesco, 
L927J, II Shapley and Sawyer, 1928 van Rhijn, 1929 Cannon, 1929a6 Shaplev 
and Sawyer, 1929 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1930«w Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932 
Bernheimer, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Sawyer, 1933 Stebbins, 1933 
Vyssotsky and Williams, 1935a6 Edmondson, 1935 Shapley and Sayer, 1936 
Duryea, 1936-/6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, 1937 Mineur, 1939a6 
Sawver, 1940 Christie, 1911 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1944 Shaplev, 1945 
Sawyer, I946a6 Mayall, 1946c& Mowbray. 



428 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6266 (Messier 62) a 16 h 58 m .l, 5 - 30° 03' / 321°, 6 + 06° 

1780 Messier, C. Firsl observation. 1771 June 7. Position, June 4, 1779. 
1898 Pickering, E. C. Variable -tars in clusters. Harv. Circ, no. 33; A. N., 

v. 147, p. 347; A p. J., v. 8, p. 257. (Asymmetry). 
1915 Bailey, S. I. Globular cluster-: distribution of stars. Harv. Ann., v. 76, 

no. 4. 
1918 Shapley, H., and Davis, 11. Note on the distribution of stars in the 

globular cluster Messier 5. .1. 5. P. Pub., v. 30, pp. 164-5. 
1922 Slipher, V. M. Further notes on spectrographs observations of nebulae 

and clusters. (Abs.) Pop. Astr., v. 30, pp. 9-11. 

17S0 Messier, 1783 Bode, 1784 Messier, 1814<2, 1818a W. Herschel, 1S28 
Dunlop 627, L847 !. Herschel 3661 (drawing), 1856 d'Arrest, 1861 ]. Herschel, 
1862///; Auwers, 1864 j. Herschel 4261, 1867 Schmidt, L867a Chamber,. 1881 
Smyth and Chambers, !SS2/> Flammarion, 1886- Weinek and Gruss, 1891-c 
Bigourdan, L897, L898/7 Pickering, I902abc Bailey, 1902 Gore, L903 Clerke, 
1904 Webb. 1904, 1907 Holetschek, L908 Bailev, L909 Perrine. L909 Winnei 
1910 See (plate,) 1910 Porter, 1911a Hinks, 1912 Curti-. 1913 Chapman, 1913, 
1915a6 Bailey, 1915/ Plummer, 1915 Melotte, 1916 ban-. 1917 Shapley and 
Davis, 1917c Flammarion, 1918 Curtis. 1918c Charlier, I'.Ms/e. Tie, IVa, Vb 
Shapley, 1919/o6c, I led Shapley and Shaplev, P'20 Barnard, 1920 Hoffmeister, 
1920 Lou-, L920a Lundmark, 19206 Shapley, 1923 Lundborg, 1925 Nabokov, 
L925 Stromberg, 1925rf, 1926 Doig, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1 -. »_'7. -/,- ten Bruggencate, 
1927 Sawyer and Shank-.. 1927/, // Shapley and Sawyer, 1928 Voute, 1929 
Cannon, 1929a6 Shaplev and Sawver, 1929 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, I930abfklnq 
Shapley, 1931 Nabokov^ L932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1932 Moore, L933 Vyssotsky 
and Williams, I935a6 Edmondson, 1935 Shiveshwarkar, 1935 Mineur, 1935 
Shaplev and Saver, L936 Duryea, L9 '.bin- and Whitford, ( 937 Wilkens, 

1939a Sawyer, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, L941 Copeland, 1945 Finlay- 
Freundlich, I946a6i Mayall, 1946 b Mow 

NGC 6273 (Messier 19 a 16 h 59 m .5, S - 26° 11' 25°, b + 08° 

1771 Messier, C. First observation, 1764 Jui 

1922 Slipher, V. M. Further note- on spectrograph ic observations of neb 

and clusters. (Abs.) Pop. Astr., v. 30, pp. 9-11. 
1943 Sawyer, 11. B. New variable stars in four globular clusters in Ophiui 

Dunlap Pub., v. 1, no. 1-4 (plate). Investigations in four faint globular 

clusters in Ophiuchus. fAbs.i Am. A. S. Pub., v. 10, p. 334. Sunn 

Federer, Sky and Telescope, v. 2, no. 21, p. 12. 
1771 Messier, 1777 Bod,. 35. 1780, 1784 Messier, 1814c, 1818acW. Herschel, 
1833 I. Herschel 1975, 1847 1. Herschel 3663, 1855, 1856 d'Arrest, 1862//6 
Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 4264. 1867a Chambers, 1881 Smyth and Cham 
1SS26 Flammarion, 1890 d'Engelhardt, 1891-c Bigourdan, 1894 Loewy and 
Perigaud, 1902 Gore, 1904 Webb, 1004. 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailev, 1909 Per- 
rine, 1910 Porter, 1911a Hinks, 1915 Melotte, L915a Bailev, 1917 Shaplev and 
Davis, 19176 Flammarion, 19186 Bailev, 1918c Charlier, 1918//e Shapley, 
I919/a6c, lied Shaplev and Shapley, 1920 Barnard, 1920 Lous, 1920a Lundmark, 
19206 Shaplev, 1922// Becker, 1923 Lundborg, 1923 von Zeipel, 1925 Nabokov, 
1925 Stromberg, 19256, 1926 Doig. 1926 Nabokov, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927* 
ten Bruggencate, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 1927/, //Shapley and Sawyer, 1928 
Voute. 1929 Cannon, 19296 Shaplev and Sawver, 1929 Vorontsov-Velvaminov, 
1930 Parenago, 19S0abklnq Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932 Moore, 1932, 1933 
van de Kamp, 1933 Vyssotsky and Williams, 1935a6 Edmondson. 1935 Shivesh- 
warkar, 1935 Mineur, l'.)35 Shaplev and Saver, 1936 Durvea, 1936a6c Stebbins 
and Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, 1940 "Christie. 1941 de Kort,' 1941 Copeland, 1945 
Finlay-Freundlich, 1946a 6 Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 429 

NGG 6284 a 17 h 01 m .5, 5 - 24 : 41' I 326°, 6 - 09 c 

1786 Herschel, \V. First observation, 17S4 May 22. 

1943 Sawyer, H. B. New variable stars in four globular clusters in Ophiuchus. 
Diuilap Putt., v. 1, no. 14 (plate). (Abs.) Investigations in four faint 
globular clusters in Ophiuchus. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 10, p. 334. Summary, 
Federer, Sky and Telescope, v. 2, no. 21, p. 12. 

1786 W. Herschel VI 11. 1814d, 1818a W. Herschel, 1833 ]. Herschel 1976, 
1847 T. Herschel 3665, 1856 d'Arrest. 18627/a Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 4268. 
1867 Schmidt, 1867 d'Arrest, 1875 Schonfeld, 1878a Drever, 1 SSI Smyth and 
Chambers, 1888 Ginzel, 1891-c Bigourdan, 1894 Loewv and Perigaud, lS98a 
Howe. 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailev, 1909 Perrine, 1910 Porter. 1911 Wirtz, 
1911a Hinks, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailey, 1918c Charlier, 1918Iie Shaplev, 
1919/c, lied Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark, 1920o Shaplev. 1923 
Lundborg, 1926 Doig, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer and Shaplev. 19277. II, 
19296 Shaplev and Sawyer, 1929 Cannon, 1929 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1930 
Parenago. 1930a?? Shaplev. 1931 Nabokov, 1932. 1933 van de Kamp, 1935 
Shaplev and Saver, 1936ac Stebbins and Whitford, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 
1946a/3 Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6287 a 17 h 02 m .l, b - 22 a 38' I 328°, >> - 10 5 

1786 Herschel, \V. First observation, 1784 May 21. 

1943 Sawyer, H. B. New variable stars in four globular clusters in Ophiuchus. 
D.unlap Pub., v. 1, no. 14 (plate). (Abs.) Investigations in four faint 
globular clusters in Ophiuchus. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 10, p. 334. Summary, 
Federer, Sky and Telescope, v. 2, no. 21, p. 12. 

1786 W. Herschel II 195, 1847 J. Herschel 3666, 18627/a Auwers, 1864 J. 
Herschel 4269, 1867 Schmidt, 1881 Smvth and Chambers, 1S90 d'Engelhardt, 
1891-c Bigourdan, 1898a Howe, 1904, 1907 Holetschek, 1909 Perrine, 1910 
Porter, 1911 Wirtz, 1912 Curtis, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailev, 1918 Curtis, 1918c 
Charlier, 19187/eg Shaplev, \9l9IIcd Shaplev and Shaplev. 1920/3 Shaplev, 
1920a Lundmark, 1925, 1926 Nabokov, 1926/ Parvulesco. 1927 Sawver and 
Shaplev, 19277, II, 19296 Shaplev and Sawver, 1929 Yoromsov-Yelvaminov, 
1930 Parenago, 1930a?z Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1935 
Shaplev and Saver. 1936aftc Stebbins and Whitford, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 
1946a" Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6293 a 17 h 07 m .l, 5 - 26 30' / 325°, b + 07° 

1786 Herschel, W. First observation, 1784 May 24. 

1915 Knox Shaw, H. Note on the nebulae and star clusters shown on the 

Franklin-Adams plates. M. X, v. 76, p. 106. 
1943 Sawyer, H. B. New variable stars in four globular clusters in Ophiuchus. 

Dunlap Pub., v. 1, no. 14 (plate). (Abs.) Investigations in four faint 

globular clusters 'in Ophiuchus. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 10, p. 334. Summary, 

Federer, Sky and Telescope, v. 2, no. 21, p. 12, 

1786 W. Herschel VI 12, 1818a W. Herschel, 1833 I. Herschel 1977,1847 
J. Herschel 3667. 1855, 1S56 d'Arrest, 18627/a Auwers. 1864 ]. Herschel 4270. 
1881 Smvth and Chambers, 1890 d'Engelhardi, 1891-c* Bigourdan, 1894 Loewy 
and Perigaud, 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailey, 1909 Perrine, 1909 Winnecke, 
1910 Porter, 1911a Mink-. 1915 Melotte, 1915a, L918& Bailey, litis, Charlier. 
I9l811e Shapley, 1919/c, lied Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920 Barnard. 1920a 
Lundmark, L)20/; Shaplev. 1023 Lundborg, 1925, 1926 Nabokov, 1926 Doig, 



430 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6293 (Cont.) 

1926/7 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1926c/, 1927c Parvulesco, 1927/; ten Bruggencate, 
1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 1927/. //, 19296 Shaplev and Sawyer, 1929 Cannon, 
1929 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1930 Parenago, 1930a/« Shaplev. 1931 Nabokov, 
1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Stebbins, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1936ac 
Stebbins and Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, 1939a Sawver, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 
1941 Copeland, 1946a6 Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6304 a 17 h ll m .4, o - 29 c 24' / 324°, b + 04° 

1789 Herschel, W. First observation, 1786 April 30. 

1789 W. Herschel I 147, 1814e W. Herschel, 1847 J. Herschel 3670, 1856 
d' Arrest, 18627/a Auwers, 18(14 |. Herschel 4275. 18S1 Smyth and Chambers, 
1891-c Bigourdan, 1908 Bailev, 1909 Winnecke, 1910 Porter, 1911a Hinks. 1915 
Melotte, 1915a Bailev. 1918c Charlier, 1918/Je Shapley, 19197c, He Shaplev 
and Shapley, 1920 Barnard. 1920a Lundmark, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawver 
and S '277. //. L9296 Shapley and Sawver, 1929Cannon, 1929 Vorontsov- 

Velyaminov, L930an Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932. 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 
Stebbins. 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1936ac Stebbjns and Whitford, 1940 Christie, 
1941 de Kort, 1946a6 Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6316 a 17 h 13 m .4. 5 - 2S 05' / 325 c , 6 + 04° 

17S6 Herschel. W. First observation, 1784 May 24. 

L786 W. Herschel I 15, is.ll. W. Herschel. L847 |. Herschel 3671, 1856 
d'Arrest, 18627/a Auwers', L864 1. Herschel 4279. 1867 d'Arrest, 1881 Smyth 
and Chambers, 1891-c Bigourdan, 1909 Perrine, 1910 Porter, 1915a Bailev, 1918c 
Charlier, l'.ns//, . IVa Shapley, L919J.fr Shapley and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark, 
L926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 1927/, II, 19296 Shapley and 
Sawyer, 1929 Cannon, 1929 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1930 Parenago, 1930a » 
Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 19^33 Stebbins, 1935 Shapley 
and Sayer, 1936ac Stebbins and Whitford. 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1946d 
. 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6325 a 17 h 15 m .O, 5 - 23 12' / 329°, b + 07° 

1847 Herschel. J. First observation, 1835 May 24. 

1931 van Maanen, A. Photographs of a few nebulae and clusters. A. S. P. Pub., 
v. 13, pp. 351-2. Plate XIII. 

1847 J. Herschel 367G, 1864 J. Herschel 1283, L899 Howe. 1910 Porter, 1918 
Curtis. 19296 Shaplev and Sawver, 1930a«o Shaplev. 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 
1933 Stebbins, 1935 Shaplev and Saver. 1936a6c Stebbins and Whitford, 1940 
Christie, 1941 de Kort, 19KW Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6333 (Messier 9) a 17 h 16 m .2, 5 - 18° 28' I 333°, b + 09 ° 

1771 Messier, C. First observation, 1764 May 28. 
1916 Shapley, H. A new variable star. A. S. P. Pub., v. 28, p. 282. 
1925 Parvulesco, C. Sur la distribution des etoiles dans les amas globulaires 
M 9, M 10, M 12 et la theorie cinetique des gaz. C. R., v. 181, pp. 500-2. 

1771 Messier. 1777 Bode 36, 1780, 1784 Messier. 1800, 1814d, 1818a, (1912) 

W. Herschel, 1833 J. Herschel 1979, 1847 J. Herschel 3677, 1852 Secchi, 1861 

Earl of Rosse, 1862/76 Auwers, 1862 Schonfeld, 1864 J. Herschel 4287, 1867 

1. 1867 d'Arrest, 1867a Chambers, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 1881 Smvth and 

Chambers, 18S26 Flammarion, 1886d'Engelhardt, 1891-c Bigourdan, 1891 Kempf. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 431 

NGG 6333 (Cont.) 

1894 Loevvv and Perigaud, 1902 Gore, 1904 Webb, 1904, 1907 Holetschek, 1908 
Bailey, 1909 Perrine, 1909 Winnecke, 1910 Porter, 1911a Hinks, 1912 Curtis, 
1915 Melotte, 191.5a Bailev, 1916 Shapley, 1917 Shaplev and Davis, 1917 
Shaplev, 19176 Flammarion, 19186 Bailev, 1918c Charlier, 1918 Curtis, 1918 
Slipher, 1918776a', Va Shaplev, 19196 Lundmark, 1919//cd Shaplev and Shaplev, 
1920 Barnard, 1920ac Lundmark, 19206 Shaplev, 1922/ Becker, 1923 Lundborg, 
1923 Wirtz, 19247. II Silberstein, 1925 Stromberg, 19256, 1926 Doig. 1925, 
1926 Nabokov, 1926 Reinmuth, 1926/7 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1926a*/, 1927ad 
Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer and Shaplev, 1927/, // Shaplev and Sawyer, 1928 van 
Rhiin, 1928 Youte, 1929 Cannon, 1929a6 Shaplev and Sawyer, 1929 Vorontsov- 
Velyaminov. 1930a/ng Shapley, 1931 Harrison, 1931 Nabokov, 1932 Moore, 1932, 
1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Stebbins, 1935a6d Edmondson, 1935 Shiveshwarkar, 
1935 Mineur, 1935 Shaplev and Sayer, 1936 Durvea, 1936a6c Stebbins and 
Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, 1939a Sawyer, 1940 Christie, 1941 dc Kort, 1941 
Copeland. 1946a6 Mayall, 1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 6341 (Messier 92) a 17 h 15 m .6, 5 + 43° 12' / 35°, 6 +34° 

1779 Bode, J. E. First observation Dec. 27, 1777. Berliner Jahrbuch fitr 1782, 

p. 156. 
1781 Messier, C. Observed by him, 1781 March 18. 
1843 Argelander, D. Fr. Uranometria Nova, p. 33. Berlin. 
1848 Butillon. Sur une nebuleuse et une etoile qui paraissent devoir fixer 

l'attention des astronomes. C. R., v. 27, p. 112. 
1848 Babinet. Remarques sur la note de M. Butillon relative a la nebuleuse 

no. 92 de Messier. C. R., v. 27, p. 132. 
1848 Butillon. Note de M. Butillon en reponse a la note de M. Babinet inseree 

dans Ie dernier numero du Compte Rendu. C. R., v. 27, p. 188. 

1864 Huggins, W. On the spectra of some of the nebulae. Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., 
v. 154, pp. 437-44; Phil. Mag., v. 31, p. 523; Am. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, v. 40, 
p. 73 (1865 . 

1805 Schultz, H. Beobachtungen von Nebelflecken. A. N., v. 65, pp. 297-300. 

1865 Schultz, H. Schreiben des Herrn Dr. Herman Schultz an den Herausgeber. 
A. A'., v. 66, p. 47. (Correction to previous paper.) 

1876 Trouvelot, L. Drawings of the clusters in Hercules. Harv. Ann., v. 8, 

pt. 2, plate 25. 
1887 Schultz, H. Mikrometrische Bestimmung einiger teleskopischen Stern- 

haufen. Supp. to Svenska Ak. Proc, v. 12, I, no. 2, pp. 1-43. (Chart). 

1894 Swift, L. Suggestions to amateurs: nebulae and clusters. Pop Astr., 
v. 1, pp. 369-71. 

1895 Bobrinskoy, N. (la Comtesse). Etude sur l'amas stellaire C. G. 4294 = 
M. 92. Acad, des Sci. St. Petersbourg, Bull., ser. 5, v. 3, no. 2, pp. 163- 
72 (2 plates, one chart). 

1899 Barnard, E. E. Triangulation of star clusters. Am. A. S. Pith., v. 1, 

p. 77; Science, v. 10, p. 789. 
1899 Holetschek, J. Ueber den Helligkeitseindruck von Nebelflecken und 

Sternhaufen. A. G. VierL, v. 33, p. 270. 
1902 Kiistner, F. Bonn report. A.G. VierL, v. 36, p. 85(M6nnichmeyer's work). 
1902 Barnard, E. E. Micrometrical measures of individual stars in the great 

globular cluster-. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 193; Science, v. 17, p. 330, 1903. 



432 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6341 (Cont.) 

1906 Bohlin, K. Der zweite Sternhaufen ini Hercules, Messier 92. Stockholm 
Pub., v. S, p. 3. 

1907 Bohlin, K. Ausmessung des zweite Sternhaufens im Hercules Messier 92 . 
-4. N.,v. 174, p. 203. 

1907 Barnard, E. E. On the motion of the stars in the cluster M< ssii r 92. 

A. X.. v. 176, p. 17; p. 21, Second paper. 
1909 Barnard, E. E. On the proper motion of some of the small stars in the 

dense cluster M 92 Herculis. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 323. 
1909 Barnard, E. E. On the motion of some of the stars of Messier 92 Hercules). 

A. X.. v. 182, p. 305; Pop. Astr., v. 18, p. 3. 
1916 Kohlman, A. F. Star clusters: some observation- and comparisons. Soc. 

Pracl. Astr., Monthly Keg., v. 8, pp. 25-t). 
1919 Lundmark, K., and Lindblad, B. Photographic effective wave-lengths 

of nebulae and clusters. Second paper. Ap. J., v. 50, pp. 376-90. 

1923 Hopmann, J. Uber die kosmische Stellung der Kugelhaufen und Spiral- 
nebel. A. X.. v. 21S. pp. 97-110. 

1924 Nabokov, M. La grandeur stellaire integrate d'amas et de nebult 
Rus. A. J., v. 1 (1), pp. 115-18. 

1925 Guthnick, P. Kugelhaufen. inbesondere uber gemeinsam mit Herrn R. 
Prager begonnene Intersuchungen an M 3, M 13, M 1.1, und M 92. (Abs.) 
Preuss. Ak. U'iss. Phys.-Math. KI. Sit:., no. 28, p. 508. 

1928 Balanowsky, J. Die Eigenbewegung des kugelformigen Sternhaufens 
Mes J.G.C. 6341). Poulk. Bui!., v. 11, pp. 167-82; C. R. Acad. 

U.S.S.R., v. 21. p. 364. 

1930 de Sitter. A. A comparison of the angular din; thi globular 

cluster- M 3 and M 13. B. A. X.. v. 5, pp. 207-9. 

1930 Hopmann, J. Der kugelformige Sternhaufen M 92 im Hercules. Roma, 
Mem. Acad. S 2, v. 14, pp. 167-202. 

1931 Barnard. E. E. Micrometric measures of stai Yerkes Pub., 
v. 6, pp. 76-81. 

1932 Hogg, F. S. The distribution of light in six globular clusters. A. J., v. 42, 
pp. 77 87. 

1934 Schlesinger, F. Relative positions of 72 Mar- in the globular cluster 
.Messier 92 (17 h 14 m , + 43 T 15', 1900). A. J., v. 44. pp. 21-2. 

1930 Lohmann, \Y. Die Verteilung des Lichtes in den kugelformigen Sternhaufen 
M 5, M 15 und M 92. Z.f. Ap., v. 12, no. 1, pp. 1-39. 

1937 Guthnick, P. Berlin-Babelsberg report. A. G. Viert., v. 72. p. 160. 

1937 Nassau, J. J. Report of the Warner and Swasey observatory, 1936-1937. 
Am. A. S. Pub., v. 9. p. 92. 

1938 Nassau, J. J. A study of the globular cluster M< ssii r 92. Ap. J., v. 87, 
pp. 361-6; Perkins Cont., no. 9. 

1939 Hachenberg, O. Der Aufbau des kugelformigen Sternhaufen Messier 92. 
Z.f. Ap., v. IS, pp. 49-88. 

1914 Oosterhoft". P. Th. The periods of the variables S. 9. 11 and 12 in the 
globular cluster M 92. B. A. X.. v. 10. pp. 55-8. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 433 

NGC 6341 (Cont.) 

1781 Mechain, 1783 Bode, 1784 Messier, 1801 Lalande 31544, 1814c, ISlSabc 
W. Herschel. 18627, 776 Auwers. 1862 Schonfeld, 1864a J. Herschel 4294. 1864 
Riimker, 1865 Auwers, 1867 Schmidt, 1867 Vogel, 1867 d'Arrest, 1867a6 
Chambers, 1868 Webb, 1874 Schultz. 1876 Bredichin, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 1881 
Smyth and Chambers (fig. 36), 1882 Engelmann, 18826 Flammarion, 1890 
d'Engelhardt, 1891-c Bigourdan. 1893 Roberts, 1894 Loewv and Perigaud, 1894 
Gore. 1897 Barnard. 1899 Rabourdin, 1902 Gore, 1904 Webb, 1904, 1907 
Holetschek, 1908 Bailey, 1909 Perrine, 1911 Fath, 1911a Hinks, 1912 Curtis, 
19136 von Zeipel, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailey, 1916 Wilson, 1917 Shaplev and 
Davis, 1917 Pease and Shaplev, 1917d Flammarion, 19186 Bailev, 1918 Curtis, 

1918 Slipher, 1918c Charlier, 1918776a', Va Shaplev, 1919a6 Lundmark, 19197ac, 
Hal Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a6c Lundmark, 19206 Shapley, 1922/ Becker, 
1923 Lundbor?. 19247, II Silberstein, 1924 Vogt, 1925 Stromberg, 19256, 1926 
Doig. 1926a/ Parvulesco, 1926 Reinmuth, 1926/ Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1927/; 
ten Bruggencate, 1927 Sawver and Shaplev, 19277, II Shaplev and Sawver, 
1928 van Rhijn, 1928 Voute, 1929 Cannon," 1929a6 Shapley and Sawyer, 1930 
Heckmann and Siedentopf, 1930 afkng Shapley, 1931 Harrison, 1931 Nabokov, 
1932 Bernheimer, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1932 Moore. 1933 Vyssotsky and 
Williams, 1934. 1935 Lundmark, 1935a6c Edmondson, 1935 Shiveshwarkar, 1935 
Mineur, 1936a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, 1939a Sawver, 1940 
Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1944 Shaplev, 194477, 1945 Sawver, 
1946a6c Mayall, 1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 6342 a 17 h 18 m .2, 8 - 19° 32' I 333°, b + 08° 

1789 Herschel, W. First observation, 1786 May 28. 

1919 Hubble, E. (Two new globular clusters). Ml. W. Rep. no. 9, for 1919, 
p. 233, cited in Harv. Bull. no. 776, 1922. 

1789 W. Herschel I 149, 1856 d'Arrest, 186277a Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 
4293, 1875 Schonfeld, 1891-c Bigourdan, 1907 Holetschek, 1909 Winnecke, 1910 
Porter, 1922a Shaplev, 1923 Wirtz, 1926f Parvulesco, 1926 Reinmuth, 1927 
Sawver and Shaplev, 19277, 77, 19296 Shaplev and Sawver, 1930a wo Shaplev, 
1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Stebbins, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 
1936ac Stebbins and Whitford, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1946a 7 Mayall, 1946a 
Mowbray. 

NGC 6352 a 17 h 21 m .6, o - 48° 26' / 309°, 6 - 08° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1885 Barnard, E. E. Large nebula not in G.C. Sid. Mess., v. 4, p. 223. 

1828 Dunlop 417, 1908 Bailev, 1915 Melotte, 191877e Shaplev, 191977c 
Shaplev and Shaplev, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawver and Shaplev, '19277, 77, 
19296 Shaplev and Sawver, 1930acrc Shaplev, 1931 Collinder. 1931 Nabokov, 
1935 Shapley and Saver, 1946d Mayall. 

NGC 6355 a 17 h 20 m .9, 8 - 26° 19' / 327 G , b + 04° 

1786 Herschel, W. First observation, 1784 May 24. 
1946 Mayall, N. U. Cites this as a new globular cluster. 

1786 W. Herschel I 46, 1847 J. Herschel 3681, 186277a Auwers, 1864 J. 
Herschel 4295, 1910 Porter, 191977ac Shaplev and Shaplev, 19226 Shaplev, 
1926/ Parvulesco, 1931 Collinder, 1946oV Mavall. 



434 Publications of the David Dnnlap Observatory 

NGC 6356 a 17 h 20 n, .7, 5 - 17 r 46' / 334 3 , 6 + 09° 

1786 Herschel, W. First observation, 1784 June 17. 

1786 W. Herschel I 48. 1814e W. Herschel. 1S47 J. Herschel 3683. 1856 
d'Arrest, 1862 Schonfeld, 18627/a Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 4296, 1S67 Schmidt, 
1867 Vogel, 1867 d'Arrest. 1881 Smyth and Chambers, 1882 Engelmann, 1886 
d'Ensrelhardt. 1888 Ginzel, 1891 Kempf, 1891-c Bi^ourdan. 1894 Loewy and 
Perigaud, 1895a6 Monnichmeyer, 18986 How.-. L904, 1907Holetschek, 1908 Bailev, 
1909 Perrine, 1909 Winnecke. 1910 Porter, 1911a Hinks. 1912 Curtis. 1915 
Melotte, 1915a Bailey, 1918 Curtis. 1918c Charlier, VdlSIIbd Shapley ,1919IIed 
Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark, 19206 Shapley, 1922/ Becker. 1923 
Lundbor?, 1923 Wirt/. 1925, 1926 Nabokov, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1926 Reinmuth, 

1927 Sawyer and Shaplev, 19277. II, L929a6 Shapley and Sawyer, 1929 Cannon, 
1929 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1930afe»o Shaplev. 1931 Nabokov, 1933 Stebbins, 
1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1936a6c Stebbins and Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, 1940 
Christie. 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1945 Finlay-Freundlich, 1946afec Mayall, 
1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 6362 a 17 h 26 m .6, 8 - 67° 01' / 293°, 6 - 18° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1919 Wood.-, I. E. Variable stars in the cluster, X.G.C. 6362. Harv. Circ, 

no. 217. 
1922 Shapley, H. New faint cluster variable (near X.G.C. 6362). Harv. Bull, 

no. 777. 

1828 Dunlop 225, 1817 f. Herschel 3684, 1864 J. Herschel 4300, 1881 Smyth 
and Chambers 1915 Melotte. 1915a, 19186 Bailey, 1918c Charlier, 1918//e 
Shaplev, 1919/c. He Shapley and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark. 1926/ Parvulesco, 
1927/; ten Bruggencate, 1927 Sawyer and Shaplev, 19277. 77. 19296 Shaplev and 
Sawyer, 1930n/fe» Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Karap, 1935 
Shapley and Saver, 1939a Sawyer, 1941 de Kort, 1946a' Mayall. 

NGC 6366 a 17 1 ' 25 m .l, 5 - 05° 02' / 346°, 6 + 15° 

1862 Winnecke, A. First observation, 1S60 April 12. See Auwers, 18627/0". 

1928 Baade, W. Der Sternhaufen X.G.C. 5053. Hamb. Mitt., v. 6, no. 29; 
A. N., v. 232, p. 200. (Comparison). 

1940 Sawyer, H. B. Twelve new variable stars in the globular clusters XGC 
6205, XGC 6366, and XGC 6779. (Plate). Dunlap Pub., v. 1, no. 5. 

186277a" Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 4301, 1867 d'Arrest, 1891-c Bigourdan, 
1915 Melotte, 1918 Curtis, 191977a6c Shaplev and Shaplev. 1926/" Parvulesco, 

1926 Reinmuth, 1927 Sawyer and Shaplev, 19277. 77, 19296 Shaplev and Sawyer, 
1930a w Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov. 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Stebbins, 1936a6 
Stebbins and "Whitford, 1939a Sawyer, 1941 de Kort. 19460" Mayall, 1946a 
Mowbray. 

NGC 6388 a 17 h 32 m .6, 6 - 44 c 43' / 313°, 6 - 08° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1828 Dunlop 457 (tig. 18), 1847 J. Herschel 3690, 1864 J. Herschel 4307, 
1881 Smvth and Chambers, 1904a Webb, 1908 Bailev (plate), 1911a Hinks. 
1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailev, 1918c Charlier, 191877c Shaplev, 191977c Shaplev 
and Shapley, 1920a Lundmark, 1923 Lundborg, 1925/ Doig, 1926/ Parvulesco, 

1927 Sawyer and Shaplev, 19277, 77, 19296 Shaplev and Sawver, 1929 Cannon, 
1930a « Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1935 Shaplev and 
Saver, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland. 1945 Finlav-Freundlich, 1946a" Mayall. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 435 

NGC 6397 a 17 h 36 m .S, o - 53° 39' I 306°, 6 - 13° 

1755 Lacaille, Abbe de. First observation. 

1932 Sawyer, H. B. Periods and light curves of thirty-two variable stars in the 

globular cluster? X.G.C. 362. 6121, and 6397. Hare. Circ, no. 366. Pt. 3. 

(Abs.) The periods of thirty-six variable stars in four globular clusters. 

Am. A. S. Pub., v. 7, p. 35, 1931. 

1755 Lacaille III 11, 1828 Dunlop 366, 1847 ]. Herschel 3692. 1861 T. Herschel, 
186277c Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 4311, 1867a Chambers, 1868 Webb, 1881 
Smvth and Chambers, 18826 Flammarion. 1895, 1898/7 Pickering, 1902a6c. 190S 
Bailev, 1911a Hinks, 1915 Melotte, 1915a, 1918a Bailev. 1918c Charlier. 19187/?, 
F6 Shaplev, 1919/c. //cShaplev and Shaplev, 1020 Hoffmeister. 1020« Lundmark, 
1923 Lundborg, 1925 Nabokov, 1926c/, 1927c Parvulesco, 1927/? ten Bru<?gencate, 
1927 Sawver and Shaplev, 1927/, //, 1929a6 Shaplev and Sawyer, 1929 Cannon, 
l9S0afknp Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 19326 Sawver, 
1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1939a6 Sawyer, 1941 de Kort, 1946a 7 Mayall. 

NGC 6401 a 17 h 35 m .6, 6 - 23° 53' / 331°, b + 03° 

1786 Herschel, W. First observation, 1784 May 21. 

1919 ML W. Rep., no 9, p. 233, mentions photo by Pease. 

1946 Mayall, X. I". Cites this as a new globular cluster. 

1786 W. Herschel I 44, 1833 J. Herschel 1982. 1847 J. Herschel 3697, 1862//a 
Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 4314, 1910 Porter, 1918 Curtis, 1946aV Mayall, 1946a 
Mowbray. 

NGC 6402 (Messier 14) a 17 h 35 m .0, o - 03° 13' / 349°, b + 13° 

1771 Messier, C. First observation, 1764 June 1. On chart of comet of 1769, 

Mem., 1775, pi. IX. 
1827 Harding. Beobachtungen und Xachrichten. Berliner Jahrbuch, p. 134. 

(Letter to Dr. Westphal with list of nebulae). 
1857 Winnecke, A. Xotiz iiber Xebelflecke. A. X, v. 45, pp. 247-50. 
1917 Shaplev, H. Descriptive notes relative to nine clusters. A. S. P. Pub., 

v. 29, p. 185. 

1937 Sawyer, H. B. Variable stars in the globular cluster X.G.C. 6402. 
R. A. S. C. Jour., v. 31, pp. 57-9. 

1938 Sawyer, H. B. One hundred and thirty-two new variable stars in five 
globular clusters. Dom. Ap. Pith., v. 7, no. 5. (Plate). 

1942 Scheuer, S. Some astronomical methods. Sky and Telescope, v. 1, no. 8, 
p. 9. (Photos). 

1771 Messier, 1777 Bode 37, 1780. 17S4 Messier, 1800, 1814a', 1818a. (1912) 
W. Herschel, 1833 J. Herschel 1983, 1S47 J. Herschel 3698, 1861 J. Herschel, 
1862 Schonfeld, 1862//6 Auwers, 1864 I. Herschel 4315, 1866 Huggins, 1867 
Schmidt, 1867 d'Arrest, 1867a6 Chamber-, 187.") SchonlVld. 18786 Drever, 1880 
Earl of Rosse, 1881 Smvth and Chamber-, (fig. 37), 1882a6 Flammarion, 1891-c 
Bigourdan, 1895 Monnichmever, 1S99 Roberts, 1902 Gore, 1904 Webb, loot, 
1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailey, 1909 Perrine, 1900 Winnecke, 1010 See plan , 
1910 Porter, 1911a Hinks, 1012 Curtis, L915 Melotte, 1915a Bailey, 1015 Krit- 
zinger, 1916 Shaplev, 1017 ShapleA and Davis, 1917 Pease and Shaplev, 1017 
Shaplev, 10176 Flammarion, 1918 Curii-. 1018c Charlier, l91BIIbd Shaplev, 
1919/ac, lied Shaplev and Shaplev, 1020a Lundmark, 10206 Shaplev. 1922/ 
Becker, 1923 Lundborg, 1023 Win/, 1025 Nabokov, 10256, 1926 Doig, 1026 



436 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6402 (Cont.) 

Nabokov,1926Reinmuth, 1926 77 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1926/, 1927a Parvulesco, 

1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 1927/; ten Bruggencate, 19277, 77 Shaplev and Sawver. 

1928 van Rhijn, 1929a& Shaplev and Sawver, 1929 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1930 
Parenago, 1930a6*» Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 1932 Bernheimer, 1932, 1933 van de 
Kamp, 1933 Sawver, 1933 Stehbins, 193oabd Edmondson, 1935 Shaplev and 
Saver. 1936 Durvea, 1936a7> Stebbins and Whitford. 1937 Wilkens, 193S. 1939a& 
Sawver, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1942a Sawver, 1946ai 
Mayall, 1946ai Mowbray. 

NGC 6426 a 17 h 42 m 4, 5 4- 03" 12' I 356°, b + 15° 

1789 Herschel, \V. First observation, 1786 June 3. 

l s 7ii Stephan, E. Nebuleuses decouvertes et observees a I'observatoire de 

Marseille. C. R., v. 83, p. 328. 

1789 W. Herschel II 587, 1862//,/ Auwers, 1864 I. Herschel 4325. 1867 
d'Arrest, 1878c Drover, 1891-c Bigourdan, 1909 Winnecke, 1918 Curtis, 191977ac 
Shaplev and Shaplev, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1926 Reinmuth, 1927 Sawver and 
Shaplev, 19277. // 19296 Shapley and Sawver, I930ac/?i Shaplev. 1931 Nabokov, 

1933 Stebbins, 1934. 1935 Lundmark, 1936a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1939a 
Sawyer, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1946d Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

No Number a 17 h 45 m .7, 8 - 60° 45' / 300°, b - 17° 

1936 Shapley, H, Five planetary nebulae and a globular cluster. Harv. Bull., 
no. 902, p. 26. (Object appear.- as faint, remote globular cluster). 

NGC 6440 a 17 h 45 m .9, 8 - 20° 21' / 335°, b + 02° 

• Herschel. W. First observation, 1786 May 28. 
1918 Curtis, H. D. A spiral nebula in the Milky Way. .4. S. P. Pub., v. 30, 

p. 161. 
1931 van Maanen, A. Photographs of a few nebulae and cluster-. A. S. P. Pub.. 

v. 43. pp. 351-2. Plate XIII. 

1934 Humason, M. L. The radial velocities of three globular clusters. A. S. P. 
Pub., v. 46. p. 357. 

1937 Baade, W. Stellar photography in the red region of the spectrum. Am. A.S. 

Pub., v. 9, p. 31; I. A. V. Trans., v. 6. p. 452, 1938. 

1789 W. Herschel I 150, 1833 J. Herschel 1985, 18627/a Auwers, 1S64 J. 
Herschel 4331, 1867 d'Arrest, 1874 Schonfeld, 1891-c Bigourdan, 1893 Stone, 
1907 Holetschek, 1909 Winnecke. 1910 Porter, 1918 Curtis, 1919i7ac Shaplev 
and Shapley. 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 19277, 77, 1929/; 
Shaplev and Sawyer, 1930aife»o Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 
1933 Stebbins, 1935a&d Edmondson, 1935 Shiveshwarkar, 1935 Mineur, 1936a6c 
Stebbins and Whitford, 1940 Christie. 1941 de Kort, 1946a6 Mayall, 1946a 
Mowbray. 

NGC 6441 a 17 h 46 m .S, 8 - 37° 02' / 321°, b - 06° 

1S2S Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1828 Dunlop 557. 1847 J. Herschel 3705, 1864 J . Herschel 4332, 1SS1 Smyth and 
Chambers, 1908 Bailev, 1910 Porter, 1911a Hinks, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailev, 
1918c Charlier, 19 lSITeg Shapley, 191977c Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark, 
1923 Lundborg, 1925 Nabokov, 1925/ Doig, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawver 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 437 

NGC 6441 (Cont.) 

and Shaplev, 1927/, II, 1929b Shaplev and Sawyer, 1929 Cannon. 1930cifen 
Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Stebbins, 1935 Shaplev 
and Saver, 1936ac Stebbins and Whitford, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 
Copeland, 1946a6 Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6453 a 17 h 48 m .O, 5 - 34° 37' / 323°, b - 05° 

1847 Herschel, J. First observation, 1837 June 8. 

1847 J. Herschel 3708, 1864 T. Herschel 4336, 1910 Porter, 1922a Shaplev, 
1927 Sawyer and Shaplev. 19277, 77, 19296 Shapley and Sawver, 1930a«o Shapley, 
1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Stebbins, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 
1936ac Stebbins and Whitford, 1941 de Kort, 1946d Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6496 a 17 h 55 m .5, o - 44° 15' / 316°, b - IV 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1828 Dunlop 460? (fig. 19), 1847 J. Herschel 3715, 1S64 J. Herschel 4347. 
1881 Smyth and Chambers, 1915 Melotte, 1918a6 Charlier. 191877/ Shaplev, 
191977ac Shaplev and Shaplev, 1922c Shaplev, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer 
and Shaplev, 19277, 77, 19296 Shaplev and Sawyer, 1930a» Shaplev. 1931a 
Collinder, 1932. 1933 van de Kamp, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1941 de Kort, 1941 
Copeland, 1946d Mayall. 

NGC 6517 a 17 h 59 m .l, 5 - 08° 57' / 347°, b + 05° 

1786 Herschel, \V. First observation, 1784 June 16. 

1922 Shapley, H. N.G.C. 2419. Harv. Bull., no. 776; Pop. Astr., v. 30, p. 590. 

1786 W. Herschel II 199, 1847 J. Herschel 3719, 186277a Auwers, 1864 J. 
Herschel 4357, 1866 Huggins, 1867 d' Arrest, 1874 Schonfeld, 1891-c Bigourdan. 
1909 Winnecke, 1910 Porter, 1912 Curtis, 1915 Melotte, 1918 Curtis, 191977cc 
Shaplev and Shaplev, 1923 Wirtz, 1925 Nabokov, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1926 
Reinmuth, 1927 Sawver and Shaplev, 19277, 77, 19296 Shaplev and Sawyer, 
1930akno Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Stebbins. 
1936a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1946d Mayall, 1946a 
Mowbray. 

NGC 6522 a 18 h 00 m .4, 5 - 30° 02' / 329°, b - 05° 

1786 Herschel, W. First observation, 1784 June 24. 

1946 Baade, W. A search for the nucleus of our galaxy. .4. 5.7". Pub., v. 58, pp. 
249-52. (Distance of 6522). 
1786 W. Herschel I 49, 1847 J. Herschel 3720, 1856 d Arrest, lS6277a Auwers, 
1864 J. Herschel 4359, 1867 Schmidt, 1881 Smvth and Chambers, 1891-c 
Bigourdan, 1909 Perrine, 1910 Porter, 1915a Bailey, 1918c Charlier, 1920a 
Lundmark, 19296 Shaplev and Sawyer, 1930a« Shaplev, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp. 
1933 Stebbins, 1936ac Stebbins and Whitford, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 
1946a 7 Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6528 a IS 1 ' 01 m .6, 5 - 30° 04' I 328°, 6 - 06° 

1786 Herschel, W. First observation, 1784 June 24. 

1786 W. Herschel II 200, 1847 J. Herschel 3723, 186277a Auwers, 1864 
J. Herschel 4364, 1867 Schmidt, 1891-c Bigourdan. 1910 Porter, 1915a Bailey, 
1918c Charlier, 1920 Barnard, L920a Lundmark, 19296 Shaplev and Sawyer, 
1930a«o Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp. 1933 Stebbins, 1936ac 
Stebbins and Whitford, 1940 Christie, l'.Ml de Kort, 1946d Mayall, L946a 
Mowbray. 



438 Publications of the David Dioilap Observatory 

XGC 6535 a 18 h 01 m .3, 5 - 00° 18' / 3.55°, b + 09° 

1852 Hind, J. R. New nebula. M. TV., v. 12, p. 208. 
1946 Mayall, X. U. Says probably not a globular cluster. 

186277J Auwers. 1864 T. Herschel 4369, 1890 d'Engelhardt, 1891-e Bigourdan, 
1909 Winnecke, 1910 Porter, 1915 Melotte, 1918/7/ Shaplev, 1919//ac"Shaplev 
and Shapley, 1926/' Parvulesco, 1926 Reinmuth, 1927 Sawyer and Shaplev, 
19277, II, 1929c6 Shaplev and Sawyer, 1930acw Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 1933 
Stebbins, 1936a/> Stebbins and YVhitford, 1939a Sawyer, 1941 de Kort, 1946/ 
Mayall. 

NGC 6539 a 18 h 02 m .l, o - 07° 35' / 349°, b + 05° 

1S56 Brorson, T. Entdeckung und Beobachtungen von Herrn Observator 
Theodor Brorson. John's Unterh., p. 292. 

1928 Baade, W. Der Sternhaufen NGC 5053. Hamb. Mitt., v. 6, no. 29; 
A. N., v. 232. p. 200. (Comparison). 

rid Auwers, 1864 ]. Herschel 4370, 1890 d'Engelhardt, 1891-c Bigourdan, 
1909 Winnecke, 1910 Porter. 1911 Wirt/. 1915 Melotte, 1919i7ac Shaplev and 
Shapley, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1926 Reinmuth, 1927 Sawyer and Shaplev. 19277, II, 
19296 Shaplev and Sawyer, L930 5 1931 Nabokov, 1933 Stebbins, 

1936ao Stebbins and Whitford, 1939a Sawyer, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 
I946d Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

XGC 6541 a 18 h 04 m .4, 0-43 H' / 317°, b - 12° 

1826 Cacciatore, X. First observation, 1826 Mar. 19. SuW origine del 

sistema sola re, p. ].">. Palermo, 1S26. 
1826 Zach. Correspondence Astronomique, v. 14, p. 410. (On the new nebula). 
1S26 Olbers, W. Auszug aus einem Schreiben des Herrn Doctors und Ritters 

Olbers an den Herausgeber. A. N., v. .">. p. 121. (Questions whether new 

nebula may be a comet). 
1826 Cacciatore. N, Neuer Nebelflecke. -4. N., v. 5, p. 281. (Reprint of 

original article . 
1V_'7 von Biela, W. Schreiben des Herrn Hau'ptmanns und Ritters v. Biela an 

den Herausgeber. .1. A'., v. 5, p. 125. (Position of new nebula). 
1828 Olbers. W. Auszug aus einem Schreiben des Herrn Doctors und Ritters 

Olbers an den Herausgeber. .1. A., v. 7, p. 64. 
1922 Woods, I. E. Xew variable in X.G.C. 6541. Harv. Bull., no. 764; Pop. 

Astr., v. 30, p. 174. 
1922 Shapley, H. Xeuer Veranderlicher 2. 1922, Coronae Australis in XGC 

6541. ,4. .V.. v. 215. p. 391. 

Duniop 473. 1S47 [. Herschel 3726, 1864a J. Herschel 4372, 1868 Webb. 
1881 Smvth and Chambers, 1908 Bailev. 1911a Hinks, 1915 Melotte, 1915a 
Bailev, l918o Bailee . 1918c Charlier. 1918//e Shapley, 19191c, lie Shaplev and 
Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark, 1925 Nabokov, 1926 Parvulesco. 1927// ten Brug- 
gencate, 1927 Sawyer and Shaplev, 19277, II, 1929a6 Shaplev and Sawyer, 

1929 Cannon. 1930a/« Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932. 1933 van de Kamp, 1935 
Shapley and Saver, 1939a Sawyer, 1941 tie Kort, 1941 Copeland, 19460" Mayall. 

NGC 6544 a 18 h 04 m .3, 8 - 25° 01' / 334°, b - 04 = 

1786 Herschel. W. First observation, 1784 May 22. 
1946 Mayall, X. U. Cites this as a new globular cluster. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 439 

NGC 6544 (Cont.) 

1786 W. Herschel II 197, 1833 J. Herschel 1994. 186277a Auwers, 1864 
J. Herschel 4374. 1910 Porter, 1915 Melotte, 19226 Shaplev, 1931 Collinder, 
1946a&e Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6553 a 18 h 06 m .3, 8 - 25° 56' I 333°, 6 - 04° 

1786 Herschel. W. First observation, 1784 May 22. 

1893 Spitaler, R. Beobachtungen von Nebelflecken. A. N., v. 132, p. 375. 
1937 Adams, W. S. Report of Mount Wilson Observatory, 1936-37. Am.A.S. 

Pub., v. 9, p. 80. 
1937 Baade, W. Stellar photography in the red region of the spectrum. Am. 

A.S. Pub., v. 9, p. 31; I. A. U. Trans., v. 6, p. 452, 1938. 
1941 Photos by Baade. Bok and Bok, The Milky Way, p. 145. Harvard. 

1786 W. Herschel IV 12. 1847 1. Herschel 3730, 1856 d'Arrest, 186277a 
Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 4378, 1891-a* Bigourdan, 1910 Porter, 1911 Wirtz, 1915 
Melotte, 1915a Bailev, 1918c Charlier, 191977ac Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a 
Lundmark, 1926cf, 1927c Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer and Shaplev, 19277, 77, 
19296 Shaplev and Sawver, 1929 Yorontsov-Yelvaminov, 1930af« Shaplev, 1931 
Xabokov. 1932. 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Stebbins, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 
1936ac Stebbins and Whitford, 1939a Sawver, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 
1946d Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6569 a 18 h 10 m .4, 8 - 31° 50' I 328°, b - 08° 

1786 Herschel, W. First observation, 17S4 July 13. 

17S6 \V. Herschel II 201, 1828 Dunlop 619, 1847 J. Herschel 3736, 18627/« 
Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 4389, 1891-d Bigourdan, 1909'Perrine, 1910 Porter, 
1912 Curtis, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailev, 1918 Curtis, 1918c Charlier, 191877./ 
Shaplev, 191977ac Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark, 1926/ Parvulesco, 
1927 Sawver and Shaplev, 19277, II, 19296 Shaplev and Sawver, 1929 Yorontsov- 
Yelvaminov. 1930a w Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 
Stebbins, 1936 Durvea, 1936ac Stebbins and Whitford, 1940 Christie. 1941 de 
Kort. 19460* Mayall. 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6584 a 18 h 14 m .6, 8 - 52 c 14' / 310°, b - 18° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1828 Dunlop 376, 1847 J. Herschel 3737, 1S64 J. Hersche! 4393, 1881 Smyth 
and Chambers, 1908 Bailev, 1911a Hinks, 1915 Melotte, 1915a, 19186 Bailey, 
1918c Charlier, l<)1877s Shaplev, 19197c, 77c Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a 
Lundmark, 1926J Parvulesco, 1927 Sawver and Shaplev, 19277, 77, 19296 Shaplev 
and Sawver, 1930a/« Shaplev, 11)31 Xabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1935 
Shapley and Saver," 1939a Sawyer, 1941 de Kort, 1946d Mayall. 

NGC 6624 a 18 h 20 ra .5, 8 - 30° 23' / 330°, 6 - 09° 

1786 Herschel, W. First observation, 1784 June 24. 

1786 W. Herschel I 50, 1847 J. Herschel 3742, 186277a Auwers, 1864 J. 
Herschel 4404. 1881 Smvth and Chambers, lSDl-d Bigourdan, 1908 Bailev, 1909 
I-Vrrine, 1910 Porter, 1911a Hinks, PJ12 Curtis, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailey, 
1918 Curtis, l«)18c Charlier, 191877c Shaplev, 191977c Shaplev and Shapley, 
1920a Lundmark, PJ23 Lundborg, 1926 Nabokov, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1926/i 
Yorontsov-Yelvaminov, 1 ( .)27 Sawyer and Shapley, 11>277, 77, 19296 Shapley and 
Sawyer, 1929 "Cannon, 1929 Yorontsov-Yelvaminov, 11)30 Parenago, 1930aw 
Shapley, 1931 Xabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1936ac Stebbins and Whitford, 
1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1946a6 Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 



440 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6626 (Messier 28) a 18 h 21 m .5, 5 - 24° 54' / 335°, 6 - 07° 

1771 Messier, C. First observation, 1764 July 26. 

1847 Laugier, E. Sur le mouvement propre de trois amas du Catalogue de 
Messier. C. R., v. 24, p. 1021. 

1771, 1780, 1784 Messier, (1912) W. Herschel, 1833 J. Herschel 2010, 1847 
J. Herschel 3743, 1853 Laugier 46, 1856 d'Arrest, 1861 Schmidt, 1S62 Schonfeld, 
1862/76 Auwers, 1S64 J. Herschel 4406, 1867 Schmidt, 1867 Vogel, 1867a 
Chambers, 1881 Smvth and Chambers, 18826 Flammarion, 1886- Weinek and 
Gruss, 1891-7& Bigourdan, 1895a6 Monnichmeyer, 1895, L897, 1898/7 Pickering, 
1902a6c Bailey, 1902 Gore, 1904 Webb, 1904, 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailer, 
1909 Perrine, 1910 Porter, 1911 YYirtz, 1911a Hinks, 1912 Curtis, 1915 Melotte, 
1915a Bailev, 1917 Shaplev and Davis. 19176 Flammarion, 1918a Bailev. 191S 
Curtis, 1918Slipher, 1918c Charlier, 1918/c, Ilbd, Va Shaplev, 19196 Landmark, 
1919/ac, I led Shaplev and Shapley, 1920 Hoffmeister, 1920a< Lundmark, 19206 
Shaplev, 1923 Lundborg, 1925 Nabokov, 1925 Stromberg, 1925d Doig, 1926 
Nabokov, 1926/7 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1926c/, 1927* Parvulesco, 1927fc ten 
Bruggencate, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 192, /, II Shapley and Sawyer, 192S van 
Rhijn, 1928 Voute, 1929 Cannon, 1929a6 Shaplev and Sawver, 1929 Vorontsov- 
Velyaminov, 1930 Parenago, 1930a/* ho Shapley, 1931 Harrison, 1931 Nabokov, 
1932. 1933 van de Kamp, 1932 Moore, 1933 Stebbins, L< otsky and 

Williams, 1935a6 Edmondson, 1935 Shiveshwarkar, 1935 Mineur, 1935 Shapley 
and Saver, 1936 Durvea, 1936ac Stebbin- and Whitford, 19.37 Wilkens, 1939a 
Sawyer, 1940 Christie, 1911 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1946a6 Mayall, 1946a6 
Mowbray. 

NGC 6637 (Messier 69) a 18 h 28 m .l, 5 - 32 / 329°, 6 - 12° 

1781 Messier, C. First observation, 1780 Aug. 31. 

1781 Messier, 1783 Bode. 17M Messier, I814e, L818fl W. Herschel, 1828 
Dunlop613, 18627/6 Auwers, 1864a J. Herschel 4411, 1881 Smvth and Chambers, 
1891-d Bigourdan, 1902 Gore. 1904a Webb, 1904, 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailey, 
1909 Perrine, 1910 Porter, 1911a Hinks, 1912 Curtis, 1915 Melotte, 1915a 
Bailev, 1917 Shaplev and Davis. 1917a" Flammarion, 19186 Bailev, 1918 Curtis, 
1918c Charlier, 1918//e Shapley, 1919//cd Shapley and Shapley, 1920a Lundmark, 
L9206 Shapley, 1923 Lundborg, 1925/Doig, 1925, 1926 Nabokov, 1926 Doig, 1926/ 
Parvulesco, 1927 Sawver and Shapkv, 19277, //, 1929 Shapley and Sawyer, 
1929 Cannon, 1929 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1930a» Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 
1932, 1933 van de Kamp. 1933 Stebbins, 1935 Shapley and Sayer, 1936ac 
Stebbins and Whitford, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort. 1941 Copeland, 1946a6c 
Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6638 a 18 h 27 m .9, o - 25 / 336°, 6 - 09° 

1786 Herschel, W. First observation, 1784 July 12. 

1893 Spitaler, R. Beobachtungen von Nebelflecken. .1. A*., v. 132, p. 375. 

1786 W. Herschel 1 51, 1814c W. Herschel, 1847 J. Herschel 3748, 1855. 1856 
d'Arrest, 1861 Schmidt, 1862 Schonfeld, lS62//a Auwers, 1S04 J. Herschel 4412, 
1867 Schmidt, lS77a Holden, 1S81 Smvth and Chambers 1S91-7 Bigourdan, 
1904, 1907 Holetschek, 1909 Perrine, 1909 Winnecke. 1910 Porter, 1918c Charlier, 
19187/67 Shaplev, 191977c Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920« Lundmark, 1925, 1926 
Nabokov, 1926 Doig, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1926/7 Yorontsov-Yelyaminov, 1927 
Sawver and Shaplev, 1927/, //, 1929a6 Shaplev and Sawyer, 1929 Yoront-ov- 
Yelvaminov, 1930 Parenago, 1930a£?/ Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932. 1933 van de 
Kamp, 1933 Stebbins, 1935 Shaplev and Sayer, 1936ac Stebbins and Whitford, 
1937 Wilkens, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1946a6 Mayall, 1946a6 Mowbrav. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 441 

NGC 6652 a 18 h 32 ra .5, 8 - 33° 02' I 329°. b - 13° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1828 Dunlop 607, 1847 J. Herschel 3752, 1864 J. Herschel 4421, 1867 Schmidt, 
1881 Smyth and Chambers, 1908 Bailev, 1910 Porter, 1915 Melotte, 1915a 
Bailey, 1918c Charlier, 19187/e Shaplev, 1919/Jc Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a 
Lundmark. 1926f Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer and Shaplev, 19277, II, 19296 
Shaplev and Sawyer, 1929 Cannon, 1930a£» Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 
1933 van de Kamp, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1936ac Stebbins and Whitford, 
1940 Christie, 1041 de Kort, 1941 Copeland', 1946a6 Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6656 (Messier 22) a 18 h 33 m .3, 5 - 23° 58' I 337°, 6 - 09° 

1682 Ihle, A. Discovery, Aug. 26, 1665. Kirch in Ephemeriden, Appendix. 

According to Smyth and Chambers, 1881, seen by Hevelius before 1665. 
1759 LeGentil, G. H. J. J. B. Remarques sur les etoiles nebuleuses. Acad, des 

Set. Mem., pp. 453-71. (Drawing). 
1771 Messier, C. Observation, 1764 June 5. 

1866 Schultz, H. Historische Notigen iiber Nebelflecke. A. N., v. 67, p. 4. 
1881 Smyth, W. H., and Chambers, G. F. A cycle of celestial objects, p. 532. 

Fig. 39. (Variation in brightness of star noted by LeGentil). 

1918 Chevalier, A. Amas d'etoiles Messier 22 (N.G.C. 6656). Zo-Se Ann., 
v. 10, C, pp. 1-51. (Catalogue of 1019 stars). 

1919 Shaplev, H., and Duncan, J. C. The globular cluster Messier 22 (N.G.C. 
6656). (Abs.) Pop. Astr., v. 27, p. 100. 

1920 Duncan, J. C. Bright nebulae and star clusters in Sagittarius and Scutum 
photographed with the 60-inch reflector. Mt. W. Cont., no. 177; Ap. J., 
v. 51, p. 4. (Plate). 

1920 Bailey, S. I. Variable stars in M 22. (Abs.) Pop. Astr., v. 28, pp. 518-0. 

1923 Shaplev, H. Five new variable stars. Harv. Bull., no. 781. 

1927 Shaplev, H. The distance of Messier 22. Harv. Bull, no. 848. 

1930 Shaplev, H. The mass-spectrum relation for giant stars in the globular 

cluster Messier 22. Harv. Bull., no. 874. 
1930 Sticker, B. Uber die Farbenhaufigkeitsfunktion in Sternhaufen. Z. f. Ap., 

v. 1, p. 174. 
1932 Hogg, F. S. The distribution of light in six globular clusters. A. J., v. 42, 

pp. 77-87. 
1944 Sawyer, H. B. Variable stars in the globular cluster Messier 22. Ditnlap 

Pub., v. 1, no. 15. (Abs.) Lengths of cluster-type periods in Messier 22 

and other globular clusters. A. J., v. 51, p. 70. 

1715 Hallev, 1746 de Cheseaux, 1755 Lacaille I 12, 1771 Messier, 1777 Bode 
57, 1780, 1784 Messier, 1800, 1818ac W. Herschel, 1833 J. Herschel 2015, 1847 
I. Herschel 3753, 1855, 1856 d'Arrest, 1861 J. Herschel, 1862776c Auwers, 1862 
Schonfeld, 1864 J. Herschel 4424, 1867 Vogel, 1867a6 Chambers, 1868 Webb, 
18826 Flammarion, 1886 d'Engelhardt, 1891-0" Bigourdan, 1895, 1897, 1898/7 
Pickering, 1902a6c Bailey, 1902 Gore, 1903 Clerke, 1904 Webb, 1904 Perrine, 
1904, 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailev, 1909 Perrine, 1911 Fath, 1911a Hinks, 
1912 Curtis, 1913 Chapman, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailev, 1916 Wilson, 1917 
Shapley and Davis, 19176 Flammarion, 1918 Curtis, 1918c Charlier, 1918/c, 
Ilabd, IVa, Vb Shapley, 1919/afec, lied Shaplev and Shaplev, 1010a6 Shaplev, 
1020 Barnard, 1920 Hoffmeister, 1920 Lous, 1920a6 Lundmark, 10206 Shapley, 



442 Publications oj the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6656 (Cont.) 

1923 Lundborg, 1923 von Zeipel, 1925 Nabokov, 1925d, 1920 Doig, 192G Nabokov, 

1926 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1926ce/, 192<c Parvulesco, 1927<;// ten Bruggencate, 

1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 1927 Lonnquist, 1927/, II Shapley and Sawyer, 1928 
van Rhijn, 1929ofi Shaplev and Sawyer, 1929 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1930 
Parenago, 1930aefgjklnpr Shapley. 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 
1932afr Sawyer, 1933 Stebbins, 1933 Vyssotsky and Williams (exirafocal plate), 
1935g6 Edmondson, 1935 Shapley and Saver, 1936 Duryea, 1936aoc Stebbins 
and Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, L937 Mineur, L! yer. 1940 Christie. 1941 
de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1943 Shapley (fig. 126), 194477 Sawyer, 1945 Finlay- 
Freundlich, L946cfcc Maj ill, I946a6 Mow bra;/. 

NGC 6681 (Messier 70) a 18 h 40 m .O, 6 - 32° 21' I 330°, b - 14° 

1781 Messier, C. First observation, 1780 Aug. 31. 

1781 Messier, L783 Bode, L784 Messier, 1828 Dunlop 614, 1847 J. Herschel 
3756 1862/16 Auwers, 1864a J. Herschel 4428, L881 Smyth and Chambers, 
1891-rf Bigourdan, L902 Cor,-, 1904a Webb, 1904, 1907 Holetschek, L908 Bailey, 
1909 Perrine, 1910 Porter, 1911a 1 link-. 1912 Curtis, 1915 Melotte, L915a 
Bailev, 1917 Shaplev and Davis, 19186 Bailev, 1918 Curtis, L918c Charlier, 
L918//e Shapley, 19191c, Ucd Shapley and Shapley, L920a Lundmark, 19206 
Shaplev L925 Nabokov, 1925/Doig, 1926/' Parvulesco, I927h ten Bruggencate, 
1927 Sawyei and Shapley, 1927/. //. 19296 Shapley and Sawyer, 1929 Vorontsov- 
Velyaminov, 1930a« Shapley, L931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1935 
ShapU-v and Sawr, I936ac Stebbins and Whitford, 1940 Christie. 1941 de Kort, 
L941 Copeland, 1946ao Mayall, L946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6684 a 18 h 44 m .l, 5 - 65° 14' 7 ,b - 25° 

1847 Herschel, J. First observation, 1836 Aug. 31. 

1921 I nne-, K. T. A. Nebulae and clusters in the Melbourne zone). Union 
Circ, no. 53, p. 103. (Says fine globular cluster). 

1847 J. Herschel 3757. 1864 |. Herschel 1431, 1881 Smyth and Chambers, 

1923 Lundborg. 

NGC 6712 a IS 1 ' 50 m .3, 5 - 08° 47' / 353°, b - 06 3 

1786 Herschel, W. Firsl observation, 1784 June 16. 

1917 Shapley, H. Descriptive notes relative to nine clusters. A. S. P. Pub., 

v. 29, p. 186. 
1917 Davis, 11. Fi\e new variable stars in globular clusters. A. S. P. Pub., 

v. 29, p. 260. 

1924 Cannon, A. J. Fifty-nine new variable stars. Harv. Circ, no. 265. Ilarv. 
Var. 3832). 

1930 Harwood, M. A survey of the variable stars in the Scutum cloud; pre- 
liminary results. Harv, Bull., no. 880, p. 14. (AP Scuti). 

1943 Oosterhoff, P. Th. New observations and improved elements for twenty 
variable stars in or near the constellation Scutum. B. A. N., \ . 9, p. 411. 

1786 W. Herschel 1 47. 1S47 [. Herschel 3762, 1855, L856 d'Arrest, 1853 
Laugier47, 1862 Schonf eld, 1862 Ha Auwers,1864 ]. Herschel 4441, 1866 Huj . 

1867 Vogel, 1867 d'Arrest, 1881 Smvth and Chambers. 1886- Weinek and ( i 
1890d'Engelhardt. 1891-rf Bigourdan, 1903 Merecki, 1904 Webb, 1907 Holetschek, 
1908 Bailev (plate), 1909 Perrine, 1910 Porter, 1911 Win/, 1911a 1 links. 1912 
Curtis, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailey, 1915 Kritzinger, 1918 Curtis, 1918c Charlier, 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 443 

NGC 6712 (Cont.) 

1918//M Shapley, 1919//cd Shapley and Shapley, 1920 Barnard, 1920a Lund- 
mark, 19206 Shapley, 1922/ Becker, 1923 Wirtz, 1925 Nabokov, 1925c? Doig, 
1926/ Parvulesco, 1926 Reinmuth, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 19277, II Shapley 
and Sawyer, 1928 van Rhijn, 1929a6 Shapley and Sawyer, 1929 Vorontsov- 
Velyaminov, 1930 Parenago, 1930ac/« Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 1932 Bernheimer, 
1933 Stebbins, 1936a& Stebbins and Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, 1939a Sawyer, 
1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1942a Oosterhoff, 1943 Shapley 
(fig. Ill), 1946a6 Mayall, 1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 6715 (Messier 54) a lS h 52 m .O, 5 - 30° 32' I 333°, b - 16° 

1780 Messier, C. First observation, 1778 July 24. 

1780 Messier, 1783 Bode, 1783 Messier, 1828 Dunlop 624, 1847 ]. Herschel 
3763, 18627/6 Auwers, 1864 f. Herschel 4442, 1881 Smyth and Chambers, 18826 
Flammarion, \m\-d Bigourdan, 1902 Gore, 1904a Webb, 1908 Bailey, 1909 
Perrine, 1910 Porter, 1911a Hinks, 1912 Curtis, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailey, 
1917 Shapley and Davis, 1917c Flammarion, 1918 Curtis, 1918c Charlier, 1918/Je 
Shapley, 1919/c, 7/c Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark, 1923 Lundborg, 
1925/ Doig, 1925, 1926 Nabokov, 1926/ 'Parvulesco, 1927A ten Bruggencate, 
1927 Sawyer and Shaplev, 19277, //, 19296 Shaplev and Sawyer, 1929 Cannon, 
1929 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, I930a» Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 1932. 1933 van de 
Kamp, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1936a Stebbins and Whitford, 1940 Christie, 
1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland," I«.l46a6 Mayall, 1946a Mowbray. 

NGC 6723 a 18 h 56 m .2, 8 - 36° 42' I 328°, 6 - 19 : 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1924 Bailey, S.I. Variable stars in the cluster N.G.C. 6723. Harv. Circ, no. 266. 

1932 van Gent, H. Provisional ephemerides of 63 new and 3 known variable 
stars in or near the constellation Corona Australis. B. A. TV., v. 6, 
pp. 163-84. 

1933 van Gent, H. Discussion of 122, mostly new, variable stars in or near the 
constellation Corona Australis. B. A. TV., v. 7, p. 21. 

1828 Dunlop 573, 1S47 J. Herschel 3770, 1864 J. Herschel 4450, 1867 Schmidt, 
1881 Smyth and Chambers, 1897, 1898// Pickering, 1902a6c, 1908 Bailey, 1910 
Porter, 1911a Hinks, 1915 Melotte, 1915a, 1918a Bailey, 1918c Charlier, 1918/c, 
lie Shapley, 1919/c, lie Shapley and Shapley, 1920 Hoffmeister, 1920a Lundmark, 
1923 Lundborg, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 1927/, 77, I929a6 
Shapley and Sawyer, 1929 Cannon, 1929 Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1930a/« 
Shapley, 1931 Nabokov. 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1932a Sawyer, 1935 Shapley 
and Saver, 1936a Stebbins and Whitford. 1939a Sawyer, 1940 Christie, 1941 
de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1944// Saw yer, 1946a6c Mayall, 1946ao Mowbray. 

NGC 6752 a 19 h 06 n '.4, 5 - 60 04' / 304°, 6 - 27° 

1828 Dunlop, J. First observation. 

1828 Dunlop 295, 1847 J. Herschel 3778, 1861 J. Herschel, 1864 J. Hera he! 
4467, 186S Webb. 1881 Smyth and Chamber-, 1895, 1897, L898// Pickering, 
1902a, 1908 Bailey, 1911a Hinks, 1913 Chapman, 1915 Melotte, L915a Bailey, 
1918c Charlier, L918//e Shapley, 1919/c, 77c Shapley and Shapley, 1920 Hoff- 
meister, 1920a Lundmark, 1926J Parvulesco, 1927A ten Bruggencate, 1927 
Sawyer and Shapley, 1927/, //, L929a6 Shapley and Sawyer, 1929 Cannon, 
L930a/« Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, L933 van de Kamp, 1935 Shaplev and 
., 1939a Sawyer, 1941 de Kort, I'.MI Shapley, 1!'!:, Sawver, I946d M 11. 



444 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6760 a 19 h 0S ra .6, 8 + 00° 57' I 04°, b - 05° 

1846 Hind, J. R. Discovery, Mar. 30, 1845. Ephemeris of Biela's Comet, 1845. 

A. N., v. 23, no. 549, p. 356. 
1914 Pease, F. G. The star cluster N.G.C. 6760. A. S. P. Pub., v. 26, p. 204. 
1931 van Maanen, A. Photographs of a few nebulae and clusters. A . S. P. Pub., 

v. 43, pp. 351-2, Plate XIII. 

1855, 1850 d' Arrest, 1861 Schmidt, 1862 Schonfeld, 18627/d Auwers, 1864 
J. Herschel 4473, 1866 Huggins, 1867 Schmidt, 1867 Vogel, 1867 d 'Arrest, 1874 
Schultz, 187Sa Drover, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 1881 Smyth and Chambers, 1882 
Winlock and Pickering, 1886 d'Engelhardt, 1886- Weinek and Gruss, 1891-d 
Bigourdan, 1891 Kempf, L907 Holetschek, 1909 Winnecke, 1912 Curtis, 1915 
Melotte, 1918 Curtis 1918/7/ Shaplev, \9l9IIacd Shaplev and Shapley, 19206 
Shapley, 1923 Wirt/, 1926/ Parvulesco, 1926 Reinmuth, 1927 Sawyer and 
Shapley, 19277, //, 1929/- Shapley and Sawyer, 1930 Parenago, 1930am Shapley, 
1931 Nabokov, 1932 Bernheimer, 1933 Stebbins, 1934, 1935 Lundmark, 1936a& 
Stebbins and Whitford, 1939aSawyer, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, L946d Mayall, 
1946:; Mowbray. 

NGC 6779 i Messier 56) a 19 h 14 m .6, 5 + 30° 05' I 30°, b + 08° 

1780 Messier, C. First observation, 1779 Jan. 23. On map of comet of 1779. 
1902 Kiistner, F. Bonn report. A. G. Viert., v. 36, p. 85. (Work of Monnich- 
meyer). 

1916 Kohlman, A. F. Star clusters: some observations and comparisons. 
Soc. Prac. Astr., Monthly Reg., v. 8, pp. 25-6. 

1917 Shapley, II. Descriptive notes relative to nine clusters. A. S. P. Pub., 
v. 29, p. 186. 

1917 Davis, II . A bright variable star in X.G.C. 6779 (Messier 56). A. S. P. 

Pub., v. 29, p. 210. 
1920 Shapley, H. Studies. XVII. Miscellaneous results. Pt. 1. Position 

co-ordinates of new variable stars. (Plate). Mt. IF. Cont., no. 190; Ap. J., 

v. 52. p. 73. 
1920 Kiistner, F. Der kugelformige Sternhaufen Messier 56. Bonn Veroff., 

no. 14. 47 pp. (Catalogue of 532 stars). 
1927 van Maanen, A. Investigations on proper motion. Twelfth paper. The 

proper motions and internal motions of Messier 2, 13, 56. Mt. W. Cont., 

no. 338; Ap. J., v. 66, pp. 89-112. 
1927 van Maanen, A. The proper motions of the globular clusters Messier 13, 

56, and 2, and their internal motions. K. Ak. wetens. Amsterdam Verslag., 

v. 30. no. 6, pp. 080-4. 
1929 Heckmann, O., and Siedentopf, H. Ober die Struktur der kugelformigen 

Sternhaufen. Gott. Veroff., no. 6; Z.f. Phys., v. 54, p. 183. 
1940 Sawyer, H. B. Twelve new variable stars in the globular clusters NGC 

6205, NGC 6366, and NGC 6779. Dunlap Pub., v. 1, no. 5 (Plate). 
1942 Sawyer, H. B. Some interesting variable stars in the globular cluster 

Messier 56. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 10, p. 233. 
1944 Rosino, L. Sull' ammasso globulare NGC 6779 = M 56. Univ. Bologna 

Oss. Pub., v. IV, no. 7. 19 pp. (Plate). Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem. v. 16, no. 4. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 445 

NGC 6779 (Cont.) 

1780 Messier, 1783 Bode, 1784 Messier, 1814c, 1818a W. Herschel, 1833 
J. Herschel 2036, 1852 Secchi, 1855, 1856, 1861 d'Arrest, 1861 Earl of Rosse, 
1862 Schonfeld, 1862/76 Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 4485, 18656 Riimker, 1866 
Huggins, 1867 Schmidt, 1867 Oppolzer, 1867 Vogel, 1867 d'Arrest, 1867a6 
Chambers, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 1881 Smyth and Chambers (fig. 43), 1882 Engel- 
mann, 1882a6 Flammarion, 1890 d'Engelhardt, 1891-d Bigourdan, 1891 Kempf, 
1893 Roberts, 1895 Monnichmeyer, 1899 Rabourdin, 1902 Gore, 1904 Webb, 
1904, 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailey, 1909 Perrine, 1911a Hinks, 1912 Curtis, 1915 
Melotte, 1915a Bailey, 1915 Kritzinger, 1917 Shaplev and Davis, 1917 Pease and 
Shaplev, 1917c Flammarion, 1918 Curtis, 1918c Charlier, 1918//W Shaplev, 
1919/ac, lied Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920a Lundmark, 19206 Shaplev, 1922/, // 
Becker, 1923 Lundborg, 1923 YYirtz, 1924 Vogt, 19256, 1926 Doig, 1926 Reinmuth, 
1926c/, 1927c Parvulesco, 1927 Kienle, 1927? ten Bruggencate, 1927 Sawyer and 
Shaplev, 1927/, // Shaplev and Sawyer, 1928 van Rhijn, 1929a6 Shaplev and 
Sawyer, 1930 Heckmann and Siedentopf, 1930o/*« Shaplev. 1931 Nabokov, 1932 
Bernheimer, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Stebbins, 1934, 1935 Lundmark, 
1935a6co' Edmondson, 1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1936 Durvea, 1936a 6 Stebbins 
and Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, 1937 Mineur, 1939a Sawyer, 1940 Christie, 1941 
de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1945 Finlay-Freundlich, 1946c6 Mayall, 1946a6 
Mowbray. 

NGC 6809 (Messier 55) a 19 h 36 n, .9, 5 - 31° 03' / 337 c , 6 - 25° 

1755 Lacaille, Abbe de. First observation. 

1783 Messier, C. Observed by him, 1778 July 24. 

1915 Bailey, S. I. Globular clusters: distribution of stars.- Harv. Ann., v. 76, 

no. 4. 
1925 Bailey, S. I. Eight new variable stars near X.G.C. 6809. Harv. Bull., 
■ no. 813. 

1925 Paraskevopoulos, J. S. Five new variable stars. Harv. Bull., no. 813. 

1755 Lacaille I 14, 1777 Bode 63, 1780 Messier, 1783 Bode, 1784 Messier, 
1818a W. Herschel, 1828 Dunlop 620, 1847 J. Herschel 3798, 1856 d'Arrest, 
1862//6c Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 4503, 1881 Smyth and Chamber.-. 1SS26 
Flammarion, 1891-d Bigourdan, 1898// Pickering, 1902a6c Bailey, 1902 Gore 
1904a Webb, 1908 Bailey, 1909 Perrine, 1911a Hinks, 1912 Curtis, 1915/Plummer,' 
1915 Melotte, 1915a6 Bailey, 1916 Jeans, 1917 Shaplev and Davis, 1917c Flam- 
marion, 1918a Bailey, 1918 Curtis, 1918c Charlier, 19181 1 e Shaplev, 1919/c, lie 
Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920 Hoffmeister, 1920a Lundmark, 1923 Lundborg, 1925/, 

1926 Doig, 1926ac/, 1927c Parvulesco, 1927d/z ten Bruggencate, 1927 Sawyer and 
Shaplev, 1927/, //, 1929a6 Shaplev and Sawyer, 1930a/w Shaplev, 1931 Nabokov, 
1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Stebbins, 1933 Vyssotsky and Williams, 1935 
Shaplev and Saver, 1936a Stebbins and Whitford, 1939a Sawyer, 1940 Christie, 
1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1943 (fig. 4), 1944 Shapley, 1945 Sawyer, 1946d 
Mayall, 1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 6838 (Messier 71) a 19 h 51'". 5, + 18° 39' / 24°, 6 - 06° 

1779 Kohler. Discovery. Berliner Jahrbuch f. 1782, p. 155. 

1781 Mechain, P. F. A. Observation, 1780 June 28, Oct. 1. On charl mel 

of 1779. 
1917 Shaplev, H. Descriptive note- relative to nine clusters. .1. 5. P. Pub., 

v. 29, pp. 185-6. 



446 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6838 (Cont.) 

1936 Krug, W. Photometrische Bearbeitung der galaktischen Sternhaufen M 71 
und Harv. 20. (Plate). Z./. Ap., v. 13, pp. 205-14. 

Summary by Hartwig, G. Photometrische Untersuchung dreier offener 

Sternhaufen. Die Sterne, v. 17, pp. 161-3. 
1943 Cuffey, J. XGC 5053 ami XGC 6838. Ap. J., v. 98, pp. 49-53; Kirk- 

•wood Pub., no. 6. 
1946 Mayall, X. U. Cites this as a new globular cluster. 

1781 Mechain, ' 1783 Bode, 1784 Messier, 1833 J. Herschel 2056, 1862/76 
Auwers, 1864 f. Herschel 4520, 1867 d'Arrest, 1877a Holden, 1881 Smvth 
and Chambers, 1S90 d'Engelhardt, 1902 Gore, 1904 Webb, 1909 Perrine, 1912 
Curtis, 1915 Melotte, 1917 Shaplev and Davis, 1917d Flammarion, 1918 Curtis, 
V.)\8ab Charlier, 1923 Lundborg, 1925d Doig, 1926/Parvulesco, 1926 Reinmuth, 
1930s Shaplev, 1931 Collinder, 1931 Nabokov, 1936 Durvea, 1946a6e Mayall, 
1946a Mowbray. 

(References on this cluster are incomplete because of it- recent inclusion in 
the list of globular clusters . 

NGC 6864 | Messier 75 a 20 h 03 m .2, 8 - 22° 04' / 348°, b - 27° 

I7M Mechain, I'. F. A. Firsl observation, 1780 Augusl 27, Oct. 18. 
1920 Shapley, H. Sunlit-. XVII. Miscellaneous results. Pt. 1. Position 
ordinates ol new variable siar>. (Plate). Ml. II". Cont., no. 190; 
Ap. J., v. 52, p. 73. 

1781 Mechain, !7s:i Bode, 17M Messier, 181 Id, L818a6cd \\ . Herschel, 1833 
I. Hersch( 12064, 1855, L856 d'Arrest, L861 Earl of Rosse, 1862 Schf.nbld, 1862/76 
Auwers, 1864 |. Herschel 1543, 1867 Schmidt, 1807 Oppokcr, 1867 Vogel, 1867 
d'Arrest, 1S80 Earl of Rosse, 1SS1 Smyth and Chamber-, L882 Englemann, 
L8826 Flammarion, 1886-Weinek and Gruss, 1890 d'Engelhardt, 1891-< 
Bigourdan, L895ao Monnichmeyer, L902Gore, 1904 Webb, 1904, L907 Holetschek, 
L908 Bailey, L909 Perrine, 1909 Winnecke, L910 Porter, L911a Hinks, L915 
Melotte, 1915a Bailey, 1917 Shapley and Davis, I917d Flammarion, L918 Curtis, 
1918c Charlier, \.918IIbdg Shapley, 1919/Jcd Shapley and Shapley, 1920a 
1206 Shapley, 19227 Becker, 1923 von Zeipel, L925d, 1926 Doig, 
I926acf, 1927c Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 19277, 77, 1929a6 Shaplev 
.md Sawyer, 1929 Cannon, 1930a/»o Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 1933 Stebbins, 
1935 Shaplev and Saver. 1936 Duryea, I936a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1939a 
Sawyer, 1940 Christie, L941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1944 Shaplev, 1945 
Finlay-Freundlich, 1945 Sawyer, L946a6 Mayall, 1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 6^34 a 20 h 31 m .7, 8 + 07° 14' / 20°, b - 20° 

1789 Herschel, VV. First observation, L785 Sept. 24. 

1819 Olbers. W. Beobachtungen und Nachrichten. Berliner Jahrbuch fur 1 8 ip, 

p. 20. 
1917 Shapley, 11. Descriptive notes relative to nine clusters. .1. X P. Pub., 

v. 29, p. 186. 
1935 Sawyer, H. B. Variable stars in the globular cluster XGC 6934. Am. 

A. S. Pub., v. 8, p. 149. 

1937 Sawyer, H. B. Variable stars in the globular cluster X.G.C. 6402. R. A. 
S. C. Jour., v. 31, p. 59. (Comparison). 

1938 Sawyer, H. B. One hundred and thirty-two new variable stars in live 
globular clusters. Dom. Ap. Pub., v. 7, no. n. (Plate). 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 447 

NGC 6934 (Cont.) 

1789 W. Herschel I 103, 1833 ]. Herschel 2081, 1856 d'Arrest, 1861 Earl of 
Rosse, 18627. Ha Auwers, 1862 Schonfeld, 1864 J. Herschel 4585=4586, 1865 
Auwers, 1866 Rumker, 1866 Huggins, 1867 Schmidt, 1867 Oppolzer, 1867 Vogel, 
1867 d'Arrest, 1874 Schultz, 1876 Bredichin, 1878a Drover, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 
1881 Smvth and Chambers, 1882 Engelmann, 1886- Weinek and Gruss, 1888 
Ginzel, 1890 d'Engelhardt, 1891 -e Bigourdan. 1891 Kempf, 1895a6 Monnich- 
mever, 1904 Webb, 1904, 1907 Holetschek. 1909 Perrine, 1909 Winnecke, 1911 
Fath, 1912 Curtis, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailey, 1915 Kritzinger, 1917 Pease and 
Shaplev, 1918 Curtis, 1918 Slipher, 1918c Charlier, \9lSIIbd, Ya Shaplev, 19196 
Lundmark, 1919 lied Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920ac Lundmark, 1920ft Shaplev, 
1923 Lundborg. 1923 Wirtz, 19247, II Silberstein, 1924 Yogt, 1925 Nabokov, 
1925 Stromberg, 1925a Doig, 1926a/ Parvulesco, 1926 Reinmuth, 1927 Sawyer 
and Shaplev, 1927/, II Shaplev and Sawyer, 1928 van Rhijn, 1928 Youte, 1929 
Cannon, 1929a6 Shaplev and Sawver, 1930a«g Shaplev, 1931 Harrison, 1931 
Nabokov, 1932 Bernheimer, 1932 Moore, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Sawyer, 
1933 Stebbins, 1934, 1935 Lundmark, 1935a6 Edmondson, 1935 Shiveshwarkar, 
1935 Mineur, 1936a/) Stebbins and Whitford, 1939a Sawver, 1940 Christie, 1941 
de Kort, 1944 Shaplev. 1945 Sawyer, 1946a// Mayall, 1946-/// Mowbray. 



NGC 6981 ( Messier 72) a 20 h 50 m .7, 5 - 12° 44' / 03°, 6 - 34° 

17S1 Mechain, P. F. A. First observation, 1780 Aug. 29, Oct. -1. 

1917 Davis, H. Five new variable stars in globular clusters. A. S. P. Pub., 
v. 29, p. 260. 

1920 Shapley, H. Studies. XVII: Miscellaneous results.- Pt. 1. Position 
co-ordinates of new variable stars. (Plate). Mt. W. Cont., no. 190; Ap. J., 
v. 52, p. 73. 

1920 Shapley, H., and Ritchie, M. Studies. XVIII. The periods and light- 
curves of 26 Cepheid variables in Messier 72. Mt. W. Cont., no. 195; 
Ap. J., v. 52, p. 232. 

1931 Mineur, H. Mises au point d'astronomie stellaire. Cepheides et amas. 
Soc. Astr. France. Bull., v. 45, p. 194. 

1934 Humason, M. L. The radial velocities of three globular clusters. A. S. P. 
Pub., v. 46, p. 357. 

1781 Mechain, 1783 Bode, 1784 Messier, 1814c W. Herschel (drawing), 1818a, 
(1912) W. Herschel. 1833 J. Herschel 2090, 1855, 1856 d'Arrest, 1861 Earl of 
Rosse, 18627, lib Auwers, 1862 Schonfeld, 1S64 I. Herschel 4608, 1865 Auwers, 
1867 Schmidt, 1867 Vogel, 1867 d'Arrest, 1867a Chambers, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 
1881 Smyth and Chambers, 1882 Engelmann, 18826 Flammarion, 18S6- Weinek 
and Gruss, 1890 d'Engelhardt, 1891-e Bigourdan, 1895 Monnichmeyer, 18986 
Howe, 1902 Gore, L904, 1907 Holetschek, 1909 Perrine, 1909 Winnecke, 1910 
Porter, 1915 Melotte, 1915a Bailev, 1917 Shaplev and Davis, 1917d Flammarion, 

1918 Curtis L918c Charlier, 1918//W Shapley, VMVIIcd Shaplev and Shapley, 
1920a Lundmark, 19206 Shapley, 1923 Wirtz, 1920 Doig, 1926 Reinmuth, 
I926ac/, 1927c Parvulesco, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 19277, II Shaplev and 
Sawver, 1928 van Rhijn, 1929a6 Shaplev and Sawver, 1930a /"« Shaplev," 1931 
Nabokov, 1932 Bernheimer, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933a Sawver, 1933 
Stebbins, 1935a6 Edmondson, 1935 Shiveshwarkar, 1935 Mineur, 1935 Shapley 
and Sayer, 1936 Duryea, 1936a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1939a Sawyer, HMO 
Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1944 Shaplev, 1944/7 Sawver, 1945 
Sawver, 1946a6 Mayall, 1946a6 Mowbray. 



448 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 7006 a 20 h 59 m .l, 8 + 16° 00' / 32°, b - 20° 

1786 Herschel, W. First observation, 1784 Aug. 21. 

1920 Shapley, H. Studies. XVII. .Miscellaneous results. Pt. 5. Note on 
the distant cluster N.G.C. 7006. Mt. IF. Cont., no. 190; Ap. J., v. 52, p. S4. 

1921 Shapley, H., and Mayberry, B. W. Studies. XIII. Variable stars in 
N.G.C. 7006. Nat. Acad. Sci. Proc, v. 7, pp. 152-4. 

1931 van Maanen, A. Photographs of a few nebulae and clusters. A. S. P. Pub., 
v. 43, pp. 351-2. Plate XIII. 

1931 Hubble, E. Ml. IP. Rep. from Carnegie Yearbook 31, p. 158. (Fifteen new- 
variables and a photometric study). 

1934 Humason, M. P. The radial velocities of three globular clusters. A. S. P. 
Pub., v. 46, p. 357. 

1935 Baade, W. The globular cluster NGC 2419. Mt. IP. Cont., no. 529; 
Ap. J., v. 82, p. 462. (Correction to magnitudes of 7006). 

1786 W. Herschel 1 .V-', L833 {. Herschel 2097, 1855, 1856 d'Arrest, 1861 
Earl of Rosse, 1862 Schonfeld, 18627/a Amur-, 1864 ]. Herschel 1625. 1866 
Huggins, 1867 Schmidt, 1867 Vogel, L867 d'Arrest, 1S74 Schultz, 1876 Vogel, 
18S0 Earl of Rosse, 1881 Smyth and Chambers, 1882 Engelmann, 18S6- Weinek v 
and Gruss, 1890 d'Engelhardt, L891-e Bigourdan, lS'.U Kempf, 1895 Riimker, 
Monnichmeyer, L907 Holetschek, L909 Winnecke, 1911 Forenz, 1912 
Curtis 1915 Melotte, 1918 Curtis, I918i7e/g, IVabc, VI Shapley, 1919/e, lied 
ShapK-v and Shapley, 19196 Shapley, 1920 Hopmann, L920a Lundmark, L920J 
Shapley, 1922/i Becker, 1923 Wirtz, 1923 von Zeipel, 1924 Vogt, 1925 Parink, 
1925 Nabokov. 1926 Reinmuth, L926ce/, L927c Parvulesco, 1927A ten Bruggen- 
cate, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 19277, //. I929ac Shapley and Sawyer, 1930a/^/wo 
Shapley 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Stebbins, L934, 1935 
Pundmark, 1 935a J Edmondson, 1935 Shiveshwarkar, 1935 Mineur, 1936afr 
Stebbins and Whitford, 1939a Sawyer, HMO Christie. 1941 de Kort, 1944 
Shapley, 1945 Sawyer, 1946c6c Mayall, I946ai Mowbray. 

NGC 7078 (Messier L5 a 21 h 27 n, .6, 8 + 11° 57' / 33°, b - 2S° 

1716 Maraldi, G. C. (Discovery of N.G.C. 7078, 1746 Sept. 7). Observations 

de la comete qui a paru an mois d'aout 1716. Acad, des Sci. Mem., p. 58. 
1771 Messier, C. Observation, 1764 June 3. Also comments that this may be 

Hevelius no. 11 if position in error. 
1843 Argelander, P. Pr. Uranometria Nova, p. 81. Berlin. 

1865 Huggins, W. On the spectrum of the great nebula in the sword-handk of 
Orion. Roy. Sac. Proc, v. 14, p. 39; .17. .V., v. 25, p. 155. 

1866 Schultz, H. Historische Notigen iiber Nebelflecke. A. X.. v. 67, p. 4. 

1891 Denza, F. Gruppo Stellare di Pegaso. Rome. Specola Yaticana, Pub. 
Plate \ . 

1892 Roberts, I. Photographs of the region of the globular cluster 15 M Pegasi. 
M. X. v. 52, pp. 543-4. 

1898 Bailey, S. I. Variable stars in clusters. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, p. 49. 

1899 Barnard, E. E. Triangulation of star clusters. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 1, 
p. 77; Science, v. 10, p. 789. 

1900 Barnard, E. E. Some abnormal stars in the cluster M 13 Herculis. Ap. J., 
v. 12, p. 180. 

1902 Kustner, F. Bonn report. A. C. Yiert., v. 36, p. So. (Work of Monnich- 
me\er). 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 449 

NGC 7078 (Cont.) 

1903 Ritchey, G. W. Astronomical photography with the forty-inch refractor 

and the two-foot reflector of Yerkes. Yerkes Pub., v. 2, pt. 6, Plate XX. 
190S Perrine, C. D. Discovery of many small nebulae near some of the globular 

star clusters. A. S.P. Pub., v. 20, p. 237. 
1909 Fath, E. A. The spectra of some spiral nebulae and globular star clusters. 

Lick Bull, no. 149, pp. 71-7. (Spectrum plate). 
1909 Kapteyn, J.C. On the absorption of light in space. Second paper. Ap.J., 

v. 30, p. 316. (Color-spectrum observations by Babcock and Fath). 
1909 Bohlin, K. On the galactic system with regard to its structure, origin, and 

relations in space. Svenska Ak. Hand., v. 43, no. 10, Plate 6. 
1915 Hertzsprung, E. Comparison between the distribution of energy in the 

spectrum of the integrated light of the globular cluster Messier 3 and of 

neighboring stars. Ap. J., v. 41, pp. 10-15. 

1915 Bailey, S. I. Globular clusters: distribution of stars. Harv. Ann., v. 76, 
no. 4. 

1916 Shapley, H. Studies. III. The colors of the brighter stars in four globular 
systems. Mt. IF. Comm., no. 34; Nat. Acad. Set. Proc, v. 2, p. 525. 

1917 Pease, F. G., and Shapley, H. Axes of symmetry in globular clusters. 
Mt. W. Comm., no. 39; Nat. Acad. Sci. Proc, v. 3, pp. 96-101. 

1917 Eddington, A. S. Researches on globular clusters. Obs., v. 40, pp. 394-401. 
1917 Shapley, H. Studies. VII. A method for the determination of the relative 

distances of globular clusters. Mt. W. Comm., no. 47; Nat. Acad. Sci. Proc, 

v. 3, pp. 479-84. 

1917 Bailey, S. I. Note on the variable stars in the globular cluster Messier 15. 
Pop. Astr., v. 25, p. 520. 

1918 Bailey, S. I. Note on the magnitudes of the variables in Messier 15. 
Pop. Astr.. v. 26, pp. 683-4. 

1918 Shapley, H. Studies. IX. Three notes on Cepheid variation. Mt. W. 
Cont., no. 154; A p. J., v. 49, p. 24. 

1919 Bailey, S. I., Leland, E. F., Woods, I. E. Variable stars in the cluster 
Messier 15. Harv. Ann., v. 78, pt. 3, pp. 197-250. (Plate). 

1919 Plummer, H. C. An analysis of the magnitude curves of the variable stars 

in four clusters. M. N., v. 79, pp. 639-57. 
1921 Kiistner, F. Der kugelformige Sternhaufen Messier 15. Bonn Veroff., 

no. 15, 47 pp. (Catalogue of 1137 stars). 
1924 Nabokov, M. La grandeur stellaire integrate d'amas et de nebuleuses. 

Rus. A. J., v. 1 (1), pp. 115-18. 

1924 ten Bruggencate, P. fjber Reste einer Spiralstruktur in Sternhauten. 
Z.f. Phys., v. 24, pp. 48-51. 

1925 Guthnick, P. Kugelhaufen, inbesondere iiber gemeinsam mit Herrn R. 
Prager begonnene Untersuchungen an M3, M 13, M 15, und M 92. (Abs. 
K. Preuss. Ak. wiss. Phys.-Math. Ed. Sit:., XXVIII, p. 508. Berlin. 

L928 Pease, F. G. A planetary nebula in the globular cluster Messier 15. A. S. 

P. Pub., v. 40, p. 342. 
1929 Heckmann, O., and Siedentopf, II. I'ber die Struktur der kugelformigen 

Sternhaufen. Cott. Veroff., no. 6; Z.f. Phys., v. 54, p. 183. 



450 Publications of the David DunJap Observatory 

NGC 7078 (Cont.) 

1931 Barnard, E. E. Micrometric measures of star clusters. Yerkes Put). 
v. 6, pp. 92-5. 

1932 Wemple, L. A redetermination of the periods of nine variable stars in the 
globular cluster Messier 15. Harv. Bull., no. 889. 

1932 Grosse, E. Untersuchungen iiber die veranderlichen Sterne im Kugel- 
sternhaufen Messier 53. A. N., v. 2-46, pp. 401-5; Hamb.-Berg. Abh., 
v. 4, no. 2. 

1932 Hogg, F. S. The distribution of light in six globular clusters. A. J., 
v. 42, pp. 77-87. 

1933 Levy, M.J. A redetermination of the periods of fifteen variable stars in 
the globular cluster Messier 15. Harv. Bull., no. 893, pp. 24-9. 

1936 Lohmann, W. Die Verteilung des Lichtes in den kugelformigen Stern- 
haufen M 5, M 15 und M 92. Z.f. Ap., v. 12, no. 1. pp. 1-39. 

1940 Dodson, H. W., Cornwall, E. R., and Thorndike, S. L. Studies of 
variable stars in M 15. Am. A. S. Pub., v. 10, p. 48. 

1771 Messier, 1777 Bode 71, 1780 Messier, 1801 Lalande 40815, 1814c, 
1818aod,(1912)W. Herschel, 1833 J. Herschel 2120, 1852Secchi, 1853 Laugier 51, 
1855, 1856 d'Arrest, 1861 J. Herschel, 1861 Earl of Rosse, 18627, lib Auwers, 
1862 Schonfeld, 1864 J. Herschel 4670, 1865 Auwers, 1866 Rumker, 1867 Schmidt, 
1867 Vogel, 1867 d'Arrest, 1867a6 Chambers, 1868 Webb, 1874 Schultz, 1876 
Bredichin, 1876 Vogel, 1877a Holden, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 1881 Smvth and 
Chambers (fig. 46), 1882 Winlock and Pickering, 1882 Engelmann, 1882a6 
Flammarion, 1884 Pickering, Searle and Wendell, 1886 d'Engelhardt, 1886- 
\\ Vinek and Gruss, 1888 Ginzel, 1891-c- Bigourdan, 1891 Kempf, 1893 Roberts, 
1894 Gore, 1895a6 Monnichmeyer, 1897 Barnard, 1897, 18987, II Pickering, 
1899 Rabourdin, 1902a6c Bailev, 1902 Gore, 1903 Clerke, 1904 Perrine, 1904 
Webb, 1904, 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailev, 1909 Perrine, 1909 Winnecke, 1910 
See (plate), 1911 Fath, 1911a Hinks, 1912 Curtis, 1913 Bailey, 1913a von Zeipel, 
1913 Chapman, 1914 Stromgren and Drachmann, 19157, 77 Plummer, 1915 
Melotte, 1915a6 Bailey, 1916 Jeans, 1916 Wilson, 1916 Eddington, 1916 Shaplev, 
1917 Slipher, 1917 Shaplev and Davis, 1917 Pease and Shaplev, 1917 Shaplev, 
19176 Flammarion, 1918 Curtis, 1918 Slipher, 1918c Charlier, 19187ac, IlabJ. 
Ill, IVd, Va, VI Shaplev, 19196 Lundmark, 19197ac, I led Shaplev and Shaplev, 
1920 Hoffmeister, 1920 Lous, 1920a6c Lundmark, 19206 Shaplev, 19227, 77 
Becker, 1922 Kostitzin, 1923 Lundborg, 1923 Wirtz, 1923 von Zeipel, 1924 ten 
Bruggencate, 19247, 77 Silberstein, 1924 Vogt, 1925 Nabokov, 1925 Stromberg, 
1925c, 1926 Doig, 1926 Reinmuth, 19267 Yorontsov-Yelvaminov, 1926acoV/, 
1927a6ca" Parvulesco, 1927 Kienle, I927dfghi ten Bruggencate, 1927 Sawyer and 
Shaplev, 1927 Lonnquist, 19277, 77 Shaplev and Sawyer, 1928 van Rhijn, 1928 
Youte, 1929 Cannon, 1929a6 Shaplev and Sawver, 1930 Heckmann and Siedentopf, 
1930a/g/z£/«c Shaplev, 1931 Harrison, 1931 'Nabokov, 1932 Bernheimer, 1932, 
1933 van de Kamp, 1932 Moore, 1932a6 Sawver, 1933a Grosse, 1933 Stebbins, 
1933 Vyssotsky and Williams, 1934, 1935 Lundmark, 1935a Baade, 1935a6 
Edmondson, l935 Shiveshwarkar, 1935 Mineur, 1935 Shaplev and Sayer, 1936 
Durvea, 1936a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, 19396 Hachenberg, 1939a/> 
Sawver, 1939 Oosterhoff, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Cooeland, 1942a 
Sawyer, 1944 Shaplev, 19447, 77, 1945 Sawyer, 1946a6 Mayall. 1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 7089 (Messier 2) a 21 h 30 m .9, 5 - 01° 03' / 22°, b - 37° 

1746 Maraldi, G. C. (Discovery Sept. 11, 1746). Observations de la comete 
qui a paru au mois d'aout 1746. Acad, des Sei. Mem., pp. 55-62. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 451 

NGC 7089 (Cont.) 

1771 Messier, C. Observation 1760 Sept. 11. On map of Halley's comet 1759. 

Acad, des Set. Mem., 1760, p. 464. 
1844 Rosse, Earl of. Observations on some of the nebulae. Roy. Soc. Phil. 

Trans., v. 134, pp. 321-4. (Drawing, pi. XVIII, fig. 88). 

1865 Huggins, W. On the spectrum of the great nebula in the swordhandle 
of Orion. Roy. Soc. Proc, v. 14, p. 39; M. N., v. 25, p. 155. 

1866 Schultz, H. Historische Notigen iiber Nebelflecke. A. N., v. 67, p. 4. 
1891 Common, A. A. Proceedings of observatories: Mr. Common's observatory, 

Ealing. M. N., v. 51, p. 226. 
1898 Chevremont, A. Etoiles variables. Soc. Astr. France, Bull., v. 12, p. 16. 

1898 Chevremont, A. Decouverte d'une etoile variable dans l'amas Messier 2 
du Verseau. Soc. Astr. France, Bull., v. 12, p. 90. 

1899 Holetschek, J. Ueber den Heiligkeitseindruck von Xebelflecken und 
Sternhaufen. A. G. Viert., v. 33, p. 270. 

1908 Perrine, C. D. Discovery of many small nebulae near some of the globular 
star clusters. A. S. P. Pub., v. 20, p. 237. 

1909 Fath, E. A. The spectra of some spiral nebulae and globular star clusters. 
Lick Bull., no. 149, pp. 71-7. 

1909 Kapte>n, J.C. On the absorption of light in space. Second paper. Ap.J., 

v. 30, p. 316. (Color-spectrum observations by Babcock and Path). 
1915 Bailey, S. I. Globular clusters: distribution of stars. Harv. Ann., v. 76, 

no. 4. 
1917 Pease, F. G., and Shapley, H. Axes of symmetry in globular clusters. 

Alt. W. Comm., no. 39; Nat. Acad. Set. Proc, v. 3, pp. 96-101. 
1917 Shapley, H. Studies. VII. A method for the determination of the 

relative distances of globular clusters. Mt. W. Comm., no. 47; Nat. Acad. 

Set. Proc, v. 3, pp. 479-84. 
1925 Doig, P. The average distance apart of stars in a globular cluster. B.A.A. 

Jour., v. 35, p. 209. 
1927 van Maanen, A. Investigations on proper motion. Twelfth paper. The 

proper motions and internal motions of Messier 2, 13, 56. Mt. W. Cont., 

no. 338; Ap. J., v. 66, pp. 89-112. 

1927 van Maanen, A. The proper motions of the globular clusters Messier 13, 
56, and 2, and their internal motions. K. Ak. wetens. Amsterdam . Verslag., 
v. 30, no. 6, pp. 680-4. 

1928 ten Bruggencate, P. Bemerkungen iiber ellipsoidformige Sternhaufen. 
A. N., v. 232, p. 424. 

1932 Hogg, F. S. The distribution of light in six globular clusters. A. J., 
v. 42, pp. 77-87. 

1934 Sawyer, H. B. Periods of variable stars in the globular cluster Messier 2. 
Am. A. S.Pub., v. 8, p. 20. 

1935 Sawyer, H. B. Periods and light curves of the variable stars in tin globular 
cluster Messier 2. Dom. Ap. Pub., v. 6, no. 14. (Plate). 

1938 Sawyer, H. B. One hundred and thirty-two new variable stair- in live 
globular clusters. Dom. Ap. Pub., v. 7, no. 5. 



452 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 7089 (Cont.) 

1771 Messier, 1777 Bode 70, 1780, 1784 Messier, 1801 Lalande 41928, 1800, 
1814c, 1818a6fd, (1912) W. Herschel, 1833 J. Herschel 2125 (drawing), 1852 
Secchi, 1853 Laugier 52, 1855, 1856 d'Arrest, 1861 J. Herschel, 1861 Earl of Rosse, 
1861 Schmidt, 18627, lib Auwers, 1862 Schonfeld, 1864 J. Herschel 4678, 1865 
Auwers, 1866 Riimker, 1867 Schmidt, 1867 Vogel, 1867 d'Arrest, 1867a6 
Chambers, 1874 Schultz, 1876 Bredichin, 1877a Holden, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 

1881 Smyth and Chambers (fig. 47), 1882 Winlock and Pickering. 1882 Engel- 
mann, 1882n6 Flammarion, 1886- Weinek and Gruss, 1890 d'Engelhardt, 1891-e 
Bigourdan, 1891 Kempf, 1894 Gore, 1895 Monnichmeyer, 1895, 1897, 1898/7 
Pickering, 1899 Roberts, 1902a6c Bailey, 1902 Gore, 1904 Perrine, 1904 Webb, 
1904, 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailey, 1909 Perrine, 1909 Winnecke, 1910 See 
(plate), 1910 Porter, 1911 Fath, 1911a Hinks, 1912 Curtis, 1913a von Zeipel, 

1914 Stromgren and Drachmann, 19157, // Plummer, 1915 Melotte, 1915a6 
Bailey, 1915 Kritzinger, 1916 Jeans, 1916 Wilson, 1916 Eddington, 1917 Shapley 
and Davis, 1917a Flammarion, 1918a Bailey, 1918 Curtis, 1918 Slipher, 1918c 
Charlier, 19187c, Ilabcd, III, Va Shapley, 19196 Lundmark, 19197ac, lied 
Shaplev and Shapley, 1920 Hoffmeister, 1920oc Lundmark, 1920/; Shapley, 
19227 Becker, 1923 Lundbors?. 1923 Wirt/, L923 von Zeipel, 1925 Larink, 1925 
Nabokov, 1925 Stromberg, 1925a, 1926 Doig, L926 Reinmuth, 1926aa7 (plate . 
I9276d prim Parvulesco, 1927dgfa"ten Bruggencate, 1927 Sawyer and Shapley, 
1927 Lonnquist, 19277, // Shapley and Sawyer, 1928 van Rhijn, 1928 Voute, 
1929 Cannon. I929a6 Shapley and' Sawyer, 1930a/gjfeng Shapley, 1931 Harrison, 
1931 Nabokov, 1932 Bernheimer, 1932 Moor.-, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 19326 
Sawyer, 1933 Sawyer, 1933 Stebbins, L933 Vyssotsky and Williams, 1935a6e 
Edmondson, 1935 Shiveshwarkar, 1935 Mineur, 1935 Shapley and Saver, 1936 
Duryea, 1936a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1937 Wilkens, L938 Sawyer, I939a6 
Sawyer, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Cope land. 1942a Sawyer, 1944 
Shapley, 194477 Sawyer, 1945 Finlay-Freundlich, 1915 Sawver, 1916a6 Mavall, 
1946a6 Mowbray. 

NGC 7099 (Messier 30) a 21 h 37 m .5, 8 - 23° 25' / 355°, 6 - 48° 

1771 Messier, C. First observation, 1764 Aug. 3. Indicated on map of 

Hailey's comet 1759. Acad, des Sci. Mem., 1760, p. 464, Plate II. 
1856 Secchi, P. A. Descrizione del nuovo osservatorio del Collegio Romano, 

Plate IV, fig. I. Mem. dell. Oss. del Collegio Romano 1852-55. 
1891 Common, A. A. Mr. Common'- observatory, Ealing. M. TV., v. 51, p. 226. 
190S Perrine. C. D. Discovery of many small nebulae near some ol the globular 

star clusters. A. S. P. Pub., v. 20, p. 237. 

1915 Bailey, S. I. Globular clusters: distribution of stars. Harv. Ann., v. 76, 
no. 4. 

1922 Slipher, V. M. Further notes on spectrographs observations of nebulae 
and clusters. (Abs.) Pop. Astr., v. 30, pp. 9-11. 

1771 Messier, 1777 Bode 68, 1780, 1784 Messier, 181 la, !818a6cW. Herschel, 
1S33 J. Herschel 2128 (drawing), 1847 J. Herschel 3878, 1855, 1S56 d'Arrest. 
1861 Earl of Rosse, 1861 Schmidt, 1862 Schonfeld, 1862776 Auwers, 1864 J. 
Herschel 46S7, 1867 Schmidt, 1867 Oppolzer, 1867 Vogel, 1867 d'Arrest, lS67a6 
Chambers, 18786 Drever, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 1S81 Smyth and Chambers (fig. 48), 

1882 Engelmann, 1882a6 Flammarion, 1886- Weinek and Gruss, 1890 d'Engel- 
hardt, 1891-e Bigourdan, 1891 Kempf, 1895 Riimker, 1895a6 Monnichmever, 
1895, 1897, 189877 Pickering, 1898 Howe, 1902a6c Bailev, 1902 Gore, 1904 
Perrine, 1904 Webb, 1904, 1907 Holetschek, 1908 Bailey, 1909 Perrine, 1909 
Winnecke, 1910 Porter, 1911a Hinks, 1912 Curtis, 1915/ Plummer, 1915 Melotte, 
1915a6 Bailev, 1916 Jeans, 1916 Wilson, 1917 Shaplev and Davis, 19176 Flam- 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 453 

NGG 7099 (Cont.) 

marion, 1918a Bailey, 1918 Curtis, 1918c Charlier, l9lSTIbd Shaplev, 1919/c, 

I led Shaplev and Shaplev, 1920 Hoffmeister, 1920a Lundmark, 1920b Shaplev, 
1923 Lundborg, 1925 Nabokov, 1925 Stromberg, 1925a, 1926 Doig, 1926a/ 
Parvulesco, 1927/zten Bruggencate, 1927 Sawver and Shaplev, 19277, 77 Shaplev 
and Sawyer, 1928 van Rhijn, 1928 Youte, 1929 Cannon, 1929a6 Shaplev 
and Sawyer, 1930afnq Shapley, 1931 Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1932 
Moore, 1933 Stebbins, 1935afr Edmondson, 1935 Shiveshwarkar, 1935 Mineur, 
1935 Shaplev and Saver, 1936 Durvea, 1936a6 Stebbins and Whitford, 1937 
Wilkens, 1939a Sawyer, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1946a6c Mayall, 19±6ab 
Mowbray. 

NGC 7492 a 23 h 05 m .7, 8 - 15 : 54' / 22°, b - 65° 

1789 Herschel, W. First observation, 1786 Sept. 20. 

1920 Shapley. H. Studies. XVII. Miscellaneous results. Pt. 1. Position 

co-ordinates of new variable stars. (Plate). Mt. IF. Cont., no. 190; Ap. J., 

v. 52, p. 73. 
1939 Christie, W. H. The distribution of the integrated absolute magnitudes 

of the globular clusters. (Abs.) A. S. P. Pub., v. 51, p. 217. 

1789 W. Herschel III 558, 1833 J. Hersche! 2208, 1861 Earl of Rosse, 186211a 
Auwers, 1864 J. Herschel 4896, 1880 Earl of Rosse, 1891-6 Bigourdan, 1898 
Howe, 1912 Curtis, 1915 Melotte, 1918 Curtis, 191877/", VI Shapley, I9l911abc 
Shapley and Shapley, 1926 Reinmuth, 1926rf, 1927c Parvulesco, 1927 Sawver 
and Shapley, 19277, 77, 1929a& Shaplev and Sawver, 1930a/« Shapley, 1931 
Nabokov, 1932, 1933 van de Kamp, 1933 Stebbins, 1936 Durvea, 1936a5 Stebbins 
and Whitford, 1939a Sawyer, 1940 Christie, 1941 de Kort, 1941 Copeland, 1944 
Shapley, 1945 Sawyer, 19460" Mayall, 1946aZ> Mowbray. 



454 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



SECTION B. 

1679 Halley, E. Catalogus stellarum australium. Republished by F. Baily 

in The Catalogues of Ptolemy, Ulugh Beigh, Tycho Brahe, Halley, 

Hevelius. R. A. S. Mem., v. 13, 1843. 
1690 Hevelius. Prodromus astronomiae. (Includes in his star catalogue 

16 nebulae and clusters). Reprinted by Baily, op. cit. 
1715 Halley, E. An account of several nebulae, or lucid spots, like clouds, 

lately discovered among the fixed stars, by help of the telescope. 

Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., v. 29, p. 390. Abridged, v. 4, pp. 224-5, 1721; 

reprint, Halley's list of nebulous objects, H. B. Sawyer Hogg, R. A. 

S. C. Jour., v. 41, pp. 69-71, 1047. 

1733 Derham, \V. Observations of the appearances among the fix'd stars, 

called nebulous stars. Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., v. 38, p. 70; abridged 
v. 8, p. 132. (Catalogue of 16 nebulae from Hevelius' Prodromus). 
Reprint, H. Sawyer Hogg, R. A. S. C. Jour. v. 41, pp. 233-38. 

1734 de Maupertuis. Sur les figures des corps celestes. Acad, des Sci. Hist.. 

pp. 78-81. (French translation of Derham's article and catalogue of 

nebulae from Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., v. 38). 
L746 de Cheseaux, I.. Letter in archives of French Academy, listing nebulae, 

published by Bigourdan, Paris Ann., Observations 1884, G 8, pub. 

1891; Observations 1907, E 135, pub. 1917. 
17.V> Lacaille, Abbe de. Sur les etoiles nebuleuses du ciel austral. Acad, des 

Sci. Hist, el Mem., p. 194. This catalogue i- reprinted several times 

in Conn, des Temps; for 1783, p. 252; for 17S4, p. 270; for 1787, p. 280. 
1771 Mi -sii k, C. Catalogue de- nebuleuses et des amas d'etoiles que Ton 

decouvre parnii les etoiles fixes Mir l'horizon de Paris. Acad, des Sci. 

Men;., pp. 435-8. (Descriptions of 45 nebulae , 
1777 Bode, J. E. Ueber einige neuentdeckte Neb Isterne und einem voll- 

standigen Verzeichnisse der bisher bekannten. Berliner Jahrbuch 

fur i~?q, pt. 2, pp. 65-71. (List of 75 object-, including most of the 

first 45 nebulae of Messier, and the discoveries of Hevelius, Halley, 

Lacaille and Bode). 

1780 Messier, C. Catalogue des nebuleuses et des amas d'etoile> observees a 

Paris, par M. Messier, a l'Observatoire de la Marine, hotel de Clugni, 
rue des Mathurins. Conn, des Temps pour 1783, pp. 225-249. 
Reprinted in Conn, des Temps for 1784, pp. 227-254. (The first 68 
nebulae of Messier's catalogue). 

1781 Mechain, P. F. A.; Messier, C. Addition au Catalogue des nebuleuses 

et des amas d'etoiles de la Connoiss. des Temps de 1783, pag. 225 
suiv. Conn, des Temps pour 1784, pp. 255-267. (Numbers 69 to 103). 
17S3 Bode, J. E. Sternhauflein und Nebelflecken, von den Hrn. Messier und 
Mechain seit 1771 beobachtet, aus der Connaissance des Terns fur 
1783 und 1784. Berliner Jahrbuch fur 1786, pp. 164-6. (Messier's 
nebulae from 46 to 103). 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 455 

1783 Mechain, P. F. A. Entdeckung einiger Nebelsterne. Berliner Jahrbuch 

fur 1786, pp. 232-4. (Comments that Mechain 101 and 102 are the 
same, and lists four additional nebulae not on the Conn, des Temps 
list. These logically should be Messier 104, 105, 106 and 107. Re- 
print, H. Sawyer Hogg, R.A.S.C. Jour. v. 41, pp. 265-73. 

1784 Messier, C. Catalogue des nebuleuses et des amas d'etoiles observees a 

Paris. Conn, des Temps pour 1787, pp. 238-82. Pp. 238-63 give the 
first 68 nebulae as previously published. Pp. 264-82, Addition au 
Catalogue des Nebuleuses et des amas d'etoiles de M. Messier, 
inseree dans la Conn, des Temps del783,p. 225, et l'annee 1784, p. 255ff. 
P. 277. List of three nebulae observed by Mechain only, 101, 2, 3. 

1786 Herschel, W. Catalogue of one thousand new nebulae and clusters of 
stars. Roy. Soc. Phil Trans., v. 76, 1786, pp. 457-99. 

1789 Herschel, W. Catalogue of a second thousand of new nebulae and 
clusters of stars: with a few introductory remarks on the construction 
of the heavens. Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., v. 79, pp. 212-55. 

1800 Herschel, W. On the power of penetrating into space by telescopes, 

with a determination of the extent of that power in natural vision 
and in telescopes of various sizes and constructions; illustrated by 
select observations. Roy. Soc. Phil Trans., v. 90, pp. 49-85. 

1801 Lalaxde, J. J. L. F. de. Histoire Celeste Francaise. (Meridian ob- 

servations of some clusters). 

1802 Herschel, \V. Catalogue of 500 new nebulae and clusters, with remarks 

on the construction of the heavens. Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., v. 92, 
pp. 477-528. 
1814 Herschel, \Y. Astronomical observations relating to the sidereal part 
of the heavens, and its connection with the nebulous part: arranged 
for the purpose of a critical examination. Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., 
v. 104, pp. 248-84. 

a. Sec. 13. Of clusters of stars of a peculiar description. 

b. Sec. 15. Of the gradual concentration and insulation of clusters 
of stars. 

c. Sec. 16. Of globular clusters of stars. 

d. Sec. 17. Of more distant globular clusters of stars. 

e. Sec. 18. Of still more distant globular clusters of stars. 

1818 Herschel, W. Astronomical observations and experiments, selected for 
the purpose of ascertaining the relative distances of clusters of stars, 
and of investigating how far the power of our telescopes ma\ be 
expected to reach into space, when directed to ambiguous celestial 
objects. Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., v. 108, pp. 429-70. 

a. Sec. II. A series of observations of clusters of star^ from which 
the order of their profundity in space is determined. 

b. Sec. IV. Of ambiguous celestial object-. 

c. Sec. VI. Of the assumed semblance of clusters of stars, when seen 
through telescopes that have not light and power sufficient to show 
their nature and construction. 

d. Sec. VI I. Of the extent of the power of our telescopes to reach into 
space, when they are directed to ambiguous celestial objects. 



456 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

(1912) Herschel, \V. Unpublished observations of Messier's nebulae and 
clusters (with references to the observations published in the Philo- 
sophical Transactions 1800, 1814, and 1818). Coll. Sci. Papers, 
Sir Wm. Herschel, Appendix, v. II, pp. 651-60. Pub. 1912. 

1828 Dunlop, J. A catalogue of nebulae and clusters of stars in the southern 
hemisphere, observed at Paramatta in New South Wales. Roy. Soc. 
Phil. Trans., v. 118, pp. 113-151. (With figures). Ed. Jour. Sci., 
v. 10, p. 282. 

1833 Herschel, J. F. W. Observations of nebulae and clusters of stars, 
made at Slough, with a twenty-feet reflector, between the years 1825 
and 1833. Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., v. 123, pp. 359-505.(2307 obj« 

1844 Smyth, W. H. Cycle of celestial objects. 2 vol. (Smyth and Chambers, 
1881, edition was used for this paper). 

1847 Herschel, J. F. W. Results of astronomical observations al the Cape 
of Good 1 lope. 451 pp., plates. 

1850 Herschel, J. Outlines of Astronomy. (1861 edition used for this paper). 

1852-55 Si ccHi, P. A. Osservazioni delle nebulose. Mem. dell' Osserv. del 
Collegio Romano, p. 80. 

1853 Laugier, E. Sur un nouveau catalogue de nebuleuses observees a l'ob- 
servatoire de Pari-. (". R.. v. 37, p. 87!. 

1855 d'Arrest, H. Verzeichniss von fiinfzig Messier'schen und Herschel'schen 

Nebelflecken, aus Beobachtungen auf der Leipziger Sternwarte 
hergeleitet. .1. N., v. 42, p. 193. 

1856 d'Arrest, II. Resultate aus Beobachtungen der Nebelflecken und Stern- 

haufen. A". Saechs. gesell. wiss. Math-Phys. Kl. Abh., v. 3, p. 293. 
L859 Webb, T. W. Celestial objects lor common telescopes. (.1904 edition 

used for this paper). 
1861 Herschel, J. F. W. Outlines of astronomy. Chap. XVII. Sec. 867. 

List of principal globular clusters. (First edition of this work, 1850). 
1861 d'Arrest, 11. Uisputatio de instrumento magno aequatoreo in specula 

Universitatis Havniensis nuper erecto. Havniae 1861. 
1861 Rossi:, Earl of. On the construction of specula of six-feet aperture; 

and a selection from the observations of nebulae made with them. 

Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., v. 151, pp. 681-745. (The scientific papers 

of William Parsons, Third Earl of Rosse, 1800-1867, collected and 

republished by the Hon. Sir Charles Parsons, 1926). 
1861 Schmidt, J. F. J. Beobachtungen auf der Sternwarte zu Athen im Jahre 

1860. A. .V.. v. 51, p. 521. 
1862/ ArwERs, A. Verzeichniss der Orter von vierzig Nebelflecken, aus 

Beobachtungen am Konigsberger Heliometer abgeleitet. A. N., v. 58, 

p. 30! t. 
186227 Auwers, A. Astr. Beob. Koenigsberg, 34 Abt. 

a. Pp. 155-217, William Herschel's Verzeichnisse von Nebelflecke und 
Sternhaufen. 

b. Pp. 218-23, Messier's Xebelcatalog. 

c. Pp. 223-5, Lacaille's catalog. 

d. Pp. 225-9, Verzeichniss neuer Xebelfleckc. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 457 

1862 Schonfeld, E. Astronomische Beobachtungen auf der Grossherzoglichen 

Sternwarte zu Mannheim. Erste Abthcilung. Beobachtungen von 

Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen. 
1S64 Herschel, J. F. W. A general catalogue of nebulae and clusters of stars. 

Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., 1864, pt. 1. (5079 objects). 

a. Notes on the catalogue. 

1864 RtJMKER, G. Beobachtungen von Circumpolar-Nebeln auf der Hamburger 

Sternwarte. 

a. A. N., v. 63, p. 305, 1864. 

h. A. N., v. 64, p. 289, 1865. 

c. A. N., v. 66, p. 81, 1865. 

d. A. X., v. 67, p. 225, 1866. 

1865 Auwers. A Beobachtungen von Nebelflecken. Astr. Beob. Koenigsberg, 

35 Abt., pp. 193-239. 

1866 Huggins. W. Further observations on the spectra of some of the nebulae, 

with a mode of determining the brightness of these bodies. Roy. Soc. 
Phil. Trans., v. 156, pp. 381-97; Phil Mag., v. 31, p. 475. Observations 
of nebulae the spectra of which are apparently continuous. (The 
Scientific Papers of Sir William Huggins, 1909). 

1867 Schmidt, J. F. J. Mittlere Oerter von 110 Nebcin fur 1865. A. N., v. 70, 

pp. 343-52. 

1867 Oppolzer, T. Beobachtungen einiger Nebelflecken. A. N., v. 70, p. 155. 

1867/ Yogel, H. Beobachtungen von Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen, am 
Sechsfiissigen Refractor und zwolffussigen Aequatoreal der Leipziger 
Sternwarte. Leipzig. 

1867/7 Yogel, H. Yerzeichniss von hundert Nebelflecken abgeleitet aus 
Beobachtungen am sechsfiissigen Refractor und zwolffussigen 
Aequatoreal der Leipziger Sternwarte. A. N., v. 70, pp. 161-72. 

1867 d'Arrest, H. Siderum Nebulosorum observationes Havnienses. Copen- 
hagen, 1867, 415 pp. 

1867 Chambers, G. F. Descriptive Astronomy, Svo., 816 pp. 

a. Catalogue of 109 remarkable nebulae and clusters. 

b. Drawings, mostly by Smyth. 

1868 Webb, T. W. Globular clusters of stars. The Student, v. 1, pp. 454-61. 

1874 Schultz, H. Micrometrical observations of 500 nebulae. Roy. Soc. 

Uppsala Mem., v. 9, pp. 1-120; A preliminary catalogue of nebulae 
observed at Uppsala. M. X., v. 35, p. 135, 1875. 

1875 Schonfeld, E. Astronomische Beobachtungen auf der Grossherzoglichen 

Sternwarte zu Mannheim. Zweite Abthcilung. Karlsruhe, 4to, 
1875, 75 pp. 

1876 Bredichin, T. Observations des nebuleuses. Ann. de I'ob's. de Moscon, 

II, p. 114. 

1876 Yogel, H. C. Positionsbestimmungen von Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen 

zwischen + 9° 30' und + 15° 30' Declination. Leipzig. 32 pp. 4to. 

1877 Holden, E. S. Index catalogue of books and memoirs relating to nebulae 

and clusters. Smithsonian Misc. Collects., no. 311. 

a. References to unpublished drawings by Knobel and Trouvelot. 



458 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

1878 Drever, J. L. E. A supplement to Sir John Herschel's "General catalogue 
of nebulae and clusters of stars." Roy. Irish Acad. Trans., v. 26; 
Science 1S77, p. 381-426. 

a. Notes and corrections to the "General catalogue of nebulae and 
clusters of stars." 

b. References to figures of nebulae in various works, not included in 
John Herschel's Gen. Cat., p. 40. 

c. General catalogue ( Drever 's supplement). 

1880 Rosse, Earl of. (Lawrence Parsons, Fourth Earl). Observations of 

nebulae and clusters of stars made with the c i.\-foot and three-foot 
reflectors at Birr Castle, from the year 1S48 up to the year 187S. 
Roy. Dublin Soc. Trans., v. 2, pp. 132-310, read 1878. 

1881 Smyth, W. H., and CHAMBERS, G. F. A cycle of celestial objects. 

(Revised by Chambers) Oxford. (First edition by Smyth, 1S1 I . 

1882 Flammarion, C. Les etoiles et les curiosites du ciel, 7'.*2 pp. 

a. Careful drawings. 

b. Catalogue of important nebulae and clusters. 

1882 Winlock, J., and Pickering, E. C. Micrometric measures, chap. Ill, 

Nebulae. Harv. Ann., v. 13, pt. 1. 
1882 Engelmann, R. Meridianbcobachtungen von Nebclflecken. A. N., v. 104, 

pp. 193-208. 
1884 Pickering, E. C, and Searle, A. and Wendell, O. C. Observations 

with the meridian photometer during the years 1S79-82. Harv. Ann., 

v. 14, pt. 1. 
1886-90 d'Engelhardt, B. Observations astronomiques faites a Dresde. First 

part, 1886. Second part. 1890. 
1886 WEINEK, L., and Gruss. Beobachtungen von Nebelflecken. Astr. Beob. 

der K. K. Sternwarte zu Prag, Appendix zum 45 Jahrgang, 1886; 

to 46, 47, 48, 1890. 
1888 Drever, J. L. E. A new general catalogue of nebulae and clusters of 

stars. Roy. Astr. Soc. Mem., v. 49, pt. 1, pp. 1-237. 
1888 Ginzel, F. K. Beobachtungen von Nebelflecken. A. N., v. 118, pp. 

321-43. 
1891-1'. II 7 BlGOURDAN, G. Observations de nebuleuses et d'amas stellaires. 

Paris, Ann. de TObs. 

a. Observations 1884, Gl-103, pub. 1891 



b. 


1888, Dl-107, ' 


' 1896 


c. 


1890, D 1-241, ' 


' 1898 


d. 


1891, El-111, ' 


' 1907 


e. 


1897, Gl-136, ' 


' 1899 


f. 


1899, Fl-187, ' 


' 1903 


g- 


1900, Fl-207, ' 


' 1904 


h. 


1903, Fl- 75, ' 


' 1907 


i. 


1906, El-243, ' 


' 1912 


3- 


1907, El-422, ' 


' 1917 


k. 


1907, E358-97, ' 


1917 Mesures complementaires 



Description and discussion of entire work, with bibliography, is in 
Observations for 1907, pub. 1917. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 459 

1891 Kempf, P. Beobachtungen von Nebelflecken und Stcrnhaufen nut einem 
Lamellenmikrometer. A. XL, v. 120, pp. 223-40. Beobachtungen 
von Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen. Pub. Potsdam Astro. Obs. : v. 
8, no. 29, pp. 147-92. 1892. 

1893 Stone, O. Southern nebulae. Leander McCormick Pub., v. 1, pt. 6. 
1893-99 Roberts, I. Photographs of stars, star clusters and nebulae. Vol. I, 

1893. 

a. Vol. II, 1899. 

1894 Loewy and Perigaud. Observations de nebuleuses. Ann. de fobs, de 

Paris. (Tisserand, director) Observations 1887, F 48-54. 

1894 Gore, J. E. Globular star clusters. Knowledge, v. 17, pp. 232, 255. 

1895 Drever, J. L. E. Index catalogue of nebulae found in the years 1S88- 

1894. Roy. Astr. Soc. Mem., v. 51. 
1895 Rt'MKER, G. Positionsbestimnumgen von Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen. 

Hatnb. Mitt., no. 1. 
1895 Monnichmeyer, C. Beobachtungen von Nebelflecken angestellt am 

sechszolligen Refractor der Bonner Sternwarte. Bonn Veroff., no. 1, 

4to., pp. 1-97. 
1895 Pickering, E. C. Variable star clusters. Harv. Circ, no. 2; A. N., 

v. 139, p. 137; Ap. J., v. 2, p. 321. 
1897 Pickering, E. C. Variable star clusters. Harv. Circ, no. 18; A. X., 

v. 144, p. 191; Ap. J., v. 6, p. 258. 
1898/ Pickering, E. C. Variable star clusters. Harv. Circ, no. 24; A. X., 

v. 146, p. 113; Ap. J., v. 7, p. 208. 
1898/7 Pickering, E. C. Variable stars in clusters. Harv. Circ, no. 33; 

A. X., v. 147, p. 347; Ap. J., v. 8, p. 257. 
1897 Barnard, E. E. On the comparison of reflector and portrait lens photo- 
graphs. M. X., v. 57, p. 14. 
1898-1900 Howe, H. A. Observations of nebulae made at the Chamberlin 

Observatory, University Park, Colorado. M. X., v. 58, pp. 356-61, 

515-22. 1898. 

a. M. X., v. 60, pp. 130-40. ISO!). 

b. M. X., v. 61, pp. 29-51. 1000. 

1899 Rabourdin, L. Sur des photographies de nebuleuses et d'amas d'etoiles 
obtenues a l'observatoire de Meudon. C. R., v. 12S, p. 210. 

1902 Bailey, S. I. A discussion of variable >tars in the cluster a> Centauri. 
Harv. Ann., v. 3S, pt. 1. 

a. Table I. Variable stars in clusters. 

b. Table XXIY. Positions of >tars, by Winlock. 
c Plates on clusters. 

1902 Gore, J. E. Messier's Nebulae. Obs., v. 25, p. 264, 288, 321. Messier's 

Verzeichniss von Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen. Sirius, v. 35, pp. 
229-34, 247-50, 281-4, 1902. 

1903 Clerke, Agnes M. Problems in astrophysics. Chap. 30. Globular 

clusters. London. 
1903 Merecki, R. Observations micrometriques de nebuleuses. Pt. 1, Astr. 
Obs. Ledrzejewicz a Varsovie, pp. 285-330. (Without date. Observa- 
tions mad.- 1000-1002). 



460 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

1904 Holetschek, J. Die scheinbare Helligkeit von Nebelflecken und Stern- 
haufen. .Sin' us, v. 37, pp. 275-281; (jber den Helligkeitseindruck 
einiger Nebelflecke und Sternhaufen. Aslr. Kalender fiir 1004.114, 
Vienna. 

1904 Perrixe, C. D. A division of the stars in some of the globular clusters, 
according to magnitude. Lick Bull., no. 64; Ap. J., v. 20, pp. 354-7. 

1904 Webb, T. W. Celestial objects for common telescopes. Y. 2, pt. Ill, 

The starry heavens. 

a. Appendix II. Southern telescopic object-. 

1907 Holetschek, J. Beobachtungen iiber den Helligkeitseindruck von Nebel- 

flecken und Sternhaufen. Vienna, Ann. der K. K. Univ. Stem., 
v. 20, pp. 40-120. 

1908 Drever, J. L. E. Second index catalogue of nebulae and clusters of stars. 

Roy. Astr. Soc. Menu, v. 59, pt. 2. 
L908 Bailey, S. I. A catalogue of bright clusters and nebulae. Harv. Ann., 
v. HO. pp. L99-229. (Pla 

1905 KEELER, J. E. Photographs of nebulae and clusters. Lick. Pub., v. S. 

1909 Perrine, C. D. Some results derived from photographs of the brighter 

globular star clusters. Lick Bull., no. 155. 

1909-11 WlNNECKE, A. (Becker, director). Beobachtungen von Nebelflecken 
ausgefuhrt in den Jahren 1S75-80 am 6-zolligen Refraktor der provi- 
sorischen Sternwarte. A'. I 'niv. Stem, in Strassburg, Ann., v. Ill, 1909. 
Kobold, II., Winnei ki . A., and Schir, \Y. Beobachtungen von 
Nebelflecken ausgefuhrt in den Jahren 1880-1902 am 18-zolligen 
Refraktor der neuen Sternwarte. I, II Teil. 

Wirtz, C, and Bai SCHINGER, J. Beobachtungen von Nebelflecken 
am49cm. Refraktor. 1902 April bis 1910 Marz. Ann.,vA,pt. 1. 1911. 

L910 See, T. J. J. Researches on the evolution of the stellar systems. Y. 2, 
4to. (Plates). 

1910 Porter, J. G. Micrometrical measures of nebulae, 1905 to 1910. Cincin- 

nati Obs. Pub., no. 17. 

1911 Path, E. A. The spectra of spiral nebulae and globular star cluster-. 

Second paper. .1//. II'. Cont., no. 49; Ap. J., v. 33, pp. 58-63. 
1911 Hinks, A. R. On the galactic distribution of gaseous nebulae and of star 
clusters. M. X., v. 71, pp. 693-701. 

1911 Lorenz, W. Photographische Positionsbestimmungcn von 178 Nebel- 

flecken. Heidelberg Veroff., v. 6, no. 4, pp. 19-54. 

1912 Sir. T. J. J. Dynamical theory of the globular clusters and of the 

clustering power inferred by Herschel from the observed figures of 
sidereal systems of high order. Am. Phil. Soc. Proc. v. 51, pp. 118-66. 
(Photographs . 

1912 Curtis, H. 1). Descriptions of 132 nebulae and clusters photographed 

with the Crossley reflector. Lick Bull., no. 219, v. 7, p. SI. 

1913 Bailey, S. I. Globular clusters. A.G. Viert., v. 48, pp. 418-21. 

1913 Fath. E. A. The spectra of spiral nebulae and globular star clusters. 
Third paper. .1//. IP. Cont., no. 67; Ap. J., v. 37, pp. 198-203. 



A Bibliography oj Globular Clusters 461 

1913 von Zeipel, H. Recherches sur la constitution des amas globulaires. 
Svenska Vetens. Ak. Hand., v. 51, nr. 5, pp. 1-51. 

a. Star counts and photographs. 

b. References to other clusters. 

1913 Chapman, S. Globular clusters. Obs., v. 36, pp. 112-15. 

1914 Stromgren, E., and Drachmann. B. I'ber die Verteilung der Sterne in 

kugelformigen Sternhaufen, mit besonderer Riicksicht auf Messier 5. 

Kobenhavns Obs. Pub., no. 16, 19 pp. 
19157 Plummer, H. C. The distribution of stars in globular clusters. M. N., v. 

76, pp. 107-21. 
1915/7 Plummer, H. C. Star clusters. Nature, v. 94. p. 674. 

1915 Melotte, P. J. A catalogue of star clusters shown on Franklin-Adams 

chart plates. Roy. Astr. Soc. Mem., v. 60, pt. V, pp. 175-86. 
1915 Bailey, S. I. Globular clusters. Harv. Ann., v. 76, no. 4, pp. 43-82. 

a. Provisional catalogue of globular clusters. 

b. Distribution of stars by counts. 

1915 Kritzinger, H. H. Beobachtung der Helligkeit einiger Xebel und 

Sternhaufen. Sirius, v. 48, p. 111. 

1916 Jeans, J. H. On the law of distribution in star-clusters. M. N., v. 76, 

pp. 567-72. 
1916 Wilson, F. Clusters and nebulae visible with small optical means. 

B. A. A. Jour., v. 27, pp. 72-83. 
1916 Eddington, A. S. The distribution of stars in globular clusters. M. N., 

v. 76, pp. 572-85. 

1916 Shapley, H. Notes on stellar clusters. .4. 5. P. Pub., v. 28, p. 193. 

1917 Pease, F. G., and Shapley, H. On the distribution of stars in twelve 

globular clusters. ML W. Cont., no. 129; Ap. J., v. 45, pp. 225-43. 
1917 Shapley, H. The colors of the brighter stars in seven globular clusters. 

(Abs.). Pop. Astr., v. 25, p. 35. 
1917 Shapley, H., and Davis, H. Messier's catalog of nebulae and clusters. 

A. S. P. Pub., v. 29, pp. 177-9; Obs., v. 41, pp. 318-20. 

1917 Slipher, V. M. Spectrograph^ observations of nebulae and star clusters. 

(Abs.). Pop. Astr., v. 25, p. 36. 

1918 Slipher, V. M. Spectrograph ic observations of star clusters. (Abs.). 

Pop. Astr., v. 26, p. 8. 
1917-21 Flammarion, C. Nebuleuses et amas d'etoiles de Messier. Observa- 
tions methodiques faites a l'observatoire de Juvisy. (Drawings, 
photographs of the objects). Soc. Astr. France. Bull. 

a. V. 31, pp. 385, 449. 

b. V. 32, pp. 25, 56, 98, 123, 160, 196, 239, 267, 308, 340, 402. 446. 1918. 

c. V. 33, pp. 21, 79, 169, 206, 263, 318, 341, 383, 415, 455, 517. 1919. 

d. V. 34, pp. 34, 62, 132, 164, 222, 273, 323, 366, 416, 455, 498, 534, 
1920. 

e. V. 35, pp. 22, 60, 112, 143, 193, 243, 287, 306, 331. 355. 1921. 
1918 Bailey, S. I. Globular clusters. Harv. Circ, no. 211. 

a. Globular clusters for which photographs are needed. 

b. Globular clusters needing examination for variables. 

1918 Curtis, H. D. Descriptions of 762 nebulae and clusters photographed 
with the Crosslcy reflector. Lick Pub., no. 13, pp. 9-42. 



462 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

1918 Charlier, C. V. L. Studies in stellar statistics. IV. Stellar clusters and 

related celestial phenomena. Lund. Medd., (2) no. 19. 

a. Descriptions of six clusters of doubtful classification. 

b. Table 1. Clusters (galactic). 

c. Table 2. Globular clusters. (Catalogue). 

d. Table 6. Clusters not confirmed as globular clusters. 

1918/ Shapley, H. Studies based on the colors and magnitudes in stellar 
clusters. VI. On the determination of the distances of globular 
clusters. Aft. W. Cont., no. 151; Ap. J., v. 48, p. 89. 

a. Magnitudes of Cepheid variables. 

b. Median magnitude of cluster type variables. 

c. Parallaxes of clusters from their brightest stars. 

1918/7 Shapley, H. Studies. VII. The distances, distribution in space, and 
dimensions of 69 globular clusters. Aft. W. Cont., no. 152; Ap. J., 
v. 48, p. 154. 

a. Comparison of cluster parallaxes from variables, magnitudes and 
diameters. 

b. Photographic magnitude of 25 brighte-i stars, and diameters. 

c. Magnitudes of individual brightest stars. 

d. Parallaxes of 28 globular clusters from magnitudes and diameters. 

e. Parallaxes of 41 globular clusters from diameters. 
/. Possible new globular clusti rs. 

g. Distribution in space. 

19187/7 Shapley, H. Studies. X. A critical magnitude in the sequence of 
stellar luminosities. Aft. W. Cont., no. 155; Ap. J., v. 49, p. 96. 
(Frequency of magnitudes of bright stars). 

191S/I" Shapley, II. Studies. XI. A comparison of the distances of various 
celestial objects. .1//. W. Cont., no. 156; Ap. J., v. 49, p. 249. 

a. Comparison of distances. 

b. Magnitudes of the bright stars in N.G.C. 7006. 

c. Comparison of N.< r.C. 7006 with Messi( r 3 and 13. 

d. Diameter- of M 3 and M 15. 

1918F SHAPLEY, II. Studies. XII. Remarks on the arrangement of the sidereal 
universe. Mt. W. Cont., no. 157; Ap. J., v. 49, p. 311. 

a. Radial velocities and distances of globular cluster:-. 

b. Globular clusters nearest tin galactic plane. 

19181V SHAPLEY, H. Globular clusters and the structure of the galactic 
system. A. S. P. Pub., v. 30, pp. 42-54. 

1919 Bailey, S. I., Leland, E. F., and Woods, I. E. Variable stars in the 

cluster Messier 15. Han. Ann., v. 78, pt. 3, pp. 197-250. (Plate). 
a. Relation between magnitude and period. 

191'.) LuNDMARK, K. Die Stellung der kugelformigen Sternhaufen und Spiral- 
nebel zu unserem Sterns\ stem. .1. N., v. 209, p. 369. 

a. Corrections to Charlier's parallaxes from proper motions and 
magnitudes. 

b. Apex of solar motion from globular clusters and spiral nebulae. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 463 

1919/ Shapley, H., and Shapley, M. B. Studies. XIII. The galactic planes 
in 41 globular clusters. Mt. W. Cont., no. 160; Ap. J., v. 50, pp. 42-9. 

a. Comparison of counts and estimates. 

b. Counts by sectors. 

c. Results for 41 clusters. 

1919/7 Shapley, H., and Shapley, M. B. Studies. XIV. Further remarks on 
the structure of the galactic system. Alt. W. Cont., no. 161: Ap. J., 
v. 50, pp. 107-40. 

a. The distances of 17 additional globular clusters. 

b. Abnormal type of globular cluster. 

c. Pt. III. On the distribution in space of 86 globular clusters. 

d. Pt. VI. Total light as a measure of the distances of clusters. 

1919 Shapley, H. Starclusters and the structure of the universe. Scientia, 

v. 26, v. 27. 

a. Pt. II. Globular clusters as cosmic units, v. 26, pp. 353-61. 

b. Pt. III. On the dimensions and arrangements of the galactic 
system. V. 27, pp. 93-101. 

1920 Barnard, E. E. On the comparative distances of certain globular clusters 

and the star clouds of the Milky Way. A. J., v. 33, p. 86. Sur les 
distances comparatives de certains amas globulaires et des nuages 
de la voie lactee. Soc. Astr. Franc, Bull., v. 35, p. 334-5, 1921. 

1920 Hoffmeister, C. Veranderliche in Sternhaufen. Geschichte und Literatur, 
Anhang II, Leipzig. 

1920 Hopmann, J. Die Sternhaufen. Die Natunviss., v. 8, pp. 740-6. 

1920 Lous, K. De kugleformede stjernholer. Nord. A. Tids., v. 1, pp. 65-9. 

1920 Lundmark, K. The relations of the globular clusters and spiral nebulae 
to the stellar system. Svenska Ak. Proc, v. 60, no. 8, pp. 1-78. 

c. I. The parallaxes of globular clusters, Tables 1 and 2. 

b. Discussion of individual clusters. 

c. II. Determinations of the solar apex from the velocities of clusters 
and nebulae. 

1920 Shapley, H. Studies. XVII. Miscellaneous results. Mt. W. Cont., no. 
190; Ap. J., v. 52, pp. 73-85. 

a. Pt. 1. Position co-ordinates of new variable stars, with plates. 

b. Pt. 2. The absolute magnitudes of forty globular clusters. 

c. Pt. 5. Note on the distant cluster N.G.C. 7006. 

1922/ Becker, F. Sternhaufen und Nebelflecke. Hevelius-Handbuch fur 

Freunde der Astronomic und kosmischen Physik. Pp. 354-61. (Table 

of bright and important clusters). 
1922// Becker, F. Die kugelformigcn Sternhaufen. Die Himmelswelt, v. 32, 

pp. 103-12. 
1922 Kostitzin, W. Die Struktur kugelformiger Sternhaufen. Veroff. Russ. 

Astrophys. Hauptobs, pp. 28-46, Moskau (Russian), French summary. 

1922 Shapley, H. New globular clusters. (11 new clusters from Harvard 

photographs). Harv. Bull., no. 77* >. 

a. Globular. 

b. Not globular. 

1923 Lundborg, A. Nebulosor och stjarnhopar. Pop. A. Tids., v. 4, pp. 16-30. 

(Catalogue and descriptions). 



464 Publications of the David Ditnlap Observatory 

1923 Wirtz, C. Flachenhelligkeiten von 566 Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen 
nach photometrischen Beobachtungen am 49-cm Refraktor der Univ. 
Stern. Strassburg. (Elsass). Lund. Medd., ser. 2, no. 29, 63 pp. 

1923 von Zeipel, H. Om stjiirngruppernas natur. Pop. A. Tids., v. 4, pp. 1-15. 

1924 ten Bruggencate, P. Die Bedeutung von Farbenhelligkeitsdiagrammen 

fur das Studium der Sternhaufen. Probleme der Astronomie; 

Festschrift fur H. v. Seeliger, Berlin. Pp. 50-65. 
1924/ Silberstein, L. The curvature of de Sitter's space-time derived from 

globular clusters. M. N., v. 84, pp. 363-6. 
1924/7 Silberstein, L. The radial velocities of globular clusters, and de 

Sitter's cosmology. Nature, v. 113, pp. 350-1. 

1924 Vogt, H. Flachenhelligkeiten von Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen. A. .V., 

v. 221, pp. 11-14. 

1925 Larink, J. Die kugelformigen Sternhaufen. WeUatt, v. 25, pp. 1-4, 18-24. 
1925 Nabokov, M. L'eclat integral des amas stellaires. Rus. A. J., v. 2 

(1), pp. 51-68. 
1925 Stromberg, G. Analysis of radial velocities of globular clusters and non- 
galactic nebulae. ML IF. Cow/., no. 292; Ap. J., v. 61, pp. 353-62. 

1925 Doig, P. Notes on the nebulae and clusters in Webb's "Celestial objects 

for common telescopes". B. A. A. Jour. 

a. Pt. 1, v. 35, pp. 159-67. 

b. Pt. 2, v. 35, pp. 280-4. 

c. Pt. 3, v. 35, pp. 316-18. 

d. Pt. 4, v. 36, pp. 58-62, 1926. 

e. Pt. 5, v. 36, pp. 88-91, 1926. 

/. Pt. 6, Southern objects, v. 36, p. 91, 1926. 

1926 Doig, P. Sir William HerschcTs estimates of globular cluster distances. 

B. A. A. Jour., v. 37, pp. 99-102. 
1926 Nabokov, M. Ergebnisse von Beobachtungen iiber die Sternhaufen. 

A. N., v. 228, pp. 425-8. 
1926 Parvulesco, C. Sur les amas globulaires d'etoiles et leurs relations dans 

l'espace. Bull. Astronomique, Mem. et Var., ser. 2, v. 5, pp. 5-140. 

a. Spiral nebulae around clusters. 

b. Spectral type and absolute magnitude. 

c. The number of variables per 100 stars. 

d. Luminosity and density laws. 

e. Parallaxes. 

/. Table of 91 globular clusters. 
1926 Reinmuth, K. Die Herschel-Nebel nach Aufnahmen der Konigstuhl- 

Sternwarte. Verbff. der Badischen Sternwarte zu Heidelberg, no. 9; 

Heidel. Ak. iciss. Math.-Nat. Kl. Abhand., abhang 13. 
1926/ Vorontsov-Velyaminov, B. Catalogue of integrated magnitudes of star 

clusters. A. N., v. 226, pp. 195-8. 
1926// Vorontsov-Velyaminov, B. Integral magnitudes of south star clusters. 

A. N., v. 228, pp. 325-8. 



b. 


" 28 


c. 


" 35 


d. 


" 48 


e. 


" 57 


/• 


" 64 


g- 


" 74 


h. 


" 80 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 465 

1927 ten Bruggencate, P. Sternhaufen. Berlin. 158 pp. 

a. Page 26. Angular diameters by different observers. 
Comparison of parallaxes. 
Parallaxes from color-magnitude diagram. 
Stellar density in globular clusters. 

Distribution of stars of different spectral type in clusters. 
Remains of spiral structure in clusters. 
74, 79. Ellipsoidal clusters. 

Inclination of clusters to Milky Way. 
i. " 119ff. Color-magnitude diagrams. 
1927 Kienle, H. Die Gestalt der kugelformigen Sternhaufen. Naturwiss., 

v. 15, p. 243. 
1927 Sawyer, H. B., and Shapley, H. Photographic magnitudes of ninety- 
five globular clusters. Harv. Bull., no. 848. 
1927/ Shapley, H., and Sawyer, H. B. A classification of globular clusters. 
Harv. Bull., no. 849. See also Review by H. H., Einteilung der 
kugelformigen Sternhaufen. Die Himmelswelt, v. 38, p. 76, 1928. 
19277/ Shapley, H., and Sawyer, H. B. Apparent diameters and ellipticities 

of globular clusters. Harv. Bull., no. 852. 
1927 Lonnquist, C. On the evolution of the stars with mass reduction. Ark. 
Mat. Astr. Fys., 20A no. 21, Chap. 14, p. 84. 

1927 Parvulesco, C. Les amas globulaires d'etoiles et leurs relations dans 

1'espace. L'Astr., v. 41, pp. 49-74. 

a. Characteristics. 

b. Luminosity laws. 

c. Variables in clusters. 

d. Density laws. 

1928 van Rhijn, P. J. On the absorption of light in space derived from the 

diameter-parallax curve of globular clusters. B. A. N., v. 4, pp. 
123-8, no. 141. 

A 

1928 VouTE, J. Second catalogue of radial velocities. Ann. Boscha Stern. 

Lembang, v. 3, pp. Al-169. 

1929 Cannon, A. J. Spectral classes of globular clusters. Harv. Bull., no. 868. 
1929 Shapley, H., and Sawyer, H. B. The distances of ninety-three globular 

star clusters. Harv. Bull., no. 869. 

a. Table I. Magnitudes of variables and bright stars. 

b. Table III. Positions and distances of 93 globular clusters. 

1929 Yorontsov-Yelyaminov, B. Photographic magnitudes of globular clusters. 

A. N., v. 236, pp. 1-8. 

1930 Heckmann, O., and SlEDENTOPF, H. Zur Dynamik kugelformiger Stern- 

haufen. Z. /. Ap., v. 1, pp. 67-97; Gbtt Veroff., no. 13. 
1930 Parenago, P. Uberdie Helligkeit der Sternhaufen und Nebcin. Rus. A. J., 
v. 7, pp. 37-40. 



466 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

1930 Shapley, H. Star Clusters. Harv. Obs. Monograph No. 2. 273 pp. 

Stellar Clusters. Handbuch der Astrophysik, Band V, Zweite Halfte. 
Erster Teil. 1933. Pp. 698-773. 

a. Appendix A. Catalogue of globular clusters. Hd., App. A. 

b. Plate I. Photographs. 

c. Page 15. Doubtful globular clusters. 

d. " 18. N.G.C. 5053 and N.G.C. 2477. 

e. " 26. The color magnitude arrays. 

/. Table V, p. 45. Summary of variables in clusters. Hd., p. 719. 
(2419 and 6426 included in Hd. only). 

g. Notes on some individual variable stars. 

1. Messier 3; Variable Bailey No. 95. 2. Bailey'slong period variable 
in Messier 22. 3. Chevremont's variable in Messier 2. 4. Long- 
period variables in 47 Tucanae. 5. The nova in Messier 80. 
6. Messier 5, Variable 42. 7. Brightness of No. 49 in M 15, p. 55. 

h. Page 58. Assumption of differences in color. Variables in M 15 
and M 5. 

i. " 60. Concerning vestigial or incipient variation. 

j. " 72. Frequency distribution of giant stars. Hd., p. 723. 

k. " 87. Orientation and inclination of globular clusters. Hd., 
p. 727. 

/. " 89. Seven peculiar clusters. Hd., p. 729. 

m. " 108. Messier 5 and the relative speed of blue and yellow 
light. Hd., p. 735. 

n. " 173. Co-ordinates of globular clusters. Hd., p. 756. 

o. " 178. Galactic dimensions (most remote globulars). Hd.,p. 759. 

p. " 181. Nearest globular clusters. 

q. " 199. Radial velocities of globular clusters. Hd., p. 749. 

r. " 203. On the masses of giant stars. Hd., p. 714. 

5. Appendix B. Catalogue of galactic clusters. Hd., App. B. 

t. Hd., Fig. 1. co Cen. Fie. 2. M 13. 

1931 Collinder, P. On structural properties of open galactic clusters and their 

spatial distribution. Lund. Obs. Ann., no. 2. (Catalogue of 471 
objects). 

a. Objects examined but rejected. 
1931 Harrison, E. Globular clusters and the galaxy. Pop. Astr., v. 39, p. 368. 

1931 Nabokov, M. Eclat integral des amas stellaires. A. N., v. 241, pp. 289-96. 

1932 Bernheimer, W. E. Zur photometrischen Skala der visuellen Total- 

helligkeiten von N.G.C— Objekten. Lund. Circ, no. 5, pp. 85-100. 
1932 Hogg, F. S. The distribution of light in six globular clusters. A. J., 

v. 42, pp. 77-87. 
1932 Moore, J. H. A general catalogue of the radial velocities of stars, nebulae, 

and clusters. Lick Pub., v. 18, p. 217. 
1932 Sawyer, H. B. Periods and light curves of thirty-two variable stars in 

the globular clusters N.G.C. 362, 6121, and 6397. Harv. Circ, no. 366. 

a. Pt. 5. Frequency of periods of cluster type variables. 

b. Pt. 6. The period luminosity relation in globular clusters . 

1932 van de Kamp, P. On the absorption of light in the galactic system. 
A. J., v. 42, pp. 97-106. (Revised photometric distances of 83 
globular clusters). 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 467 

1933 van DE Kamp, P. Note on the space distribution of globular clusters. 

A. J., v. 42, pp. 161-4. (Distances of 83 clusters corrected for 

absorption). 
1933 Grosse, E. Uber die isolierten Haufenveriinderlichen in der Umgebung 

von M 53 nebst einer Bemerkung uber die Streuung der absoluten 

Helligkeiten der Haufenveranderlichen. A. N., v. 249, pp. 389-94. 

a. Mean magnitudes of cluster type variables. 
1933 Sawyer, H. B. New variable stars in globular clusters. Am. A. S. Pub., 

v. 7, p. 185. 
1933 Stebbins, J. Absorption and space reddening in the galaxy as shown by 

the colors of globular clusters. Nat. Acad. Sci. Proc, v. 19, p. 222; 

Mt. W. Comm., no. 111. 
1933 Vvssotsky, A. N., and Williams, E. T. R. Color indices and integrated 

magnitudes of fifteen bright globular clusters. Ap. J., v. 77, pp. 301-9; 

Leander McCormick Obs. Pub., v. 5, p. 8. 

1933 Shapley, H. Stellar clusters. Handbuch der Astrophysik, Band Y, 

Zweite Halfte, pp. 698-773. (Indexed with Shapley, Star Clusters, 
1930). 

1934 Lundmark, K. Forteckning over nebulosor och stjarnhopar ljusstarkare 

an 11.5. Nord. A. Tids., v. 15, pp. 129-41. (With magnitudes). 
Nord. A. Tids., v. 16, pp. 48-54, 91-101, 1935. (With diameters). 

1935 Baade, W. The globular cluster NGC 2419. Ap. J., v. 82, pp. 396-412; 

Mt. W. Cont., no. 529. 
a. Comparison with other clusters. 
1935 Edmondson, F. K. The motions of the globular clusters and the galactic 
rotation. A. J., v. 45, pp. 1-13. Lowell Bull., no. 88, v. 3, pp. 143-55. 
(Abs.) Am. A. S. Pub., v. 8, p. 111. 

a. Catalogue of 26 radial velocities. 

b. Absorption effect in distances. 

c. Proper motions. 

d. On the galactic rotation of the globular clusters; some comments 
on Dr. Mineur's paper. M. A"., v. 96, pp. 636-41, 1936. 

1935 Shiyeshwarkar, S. W. Radial velocities of globular clusters and nebulae. 

M. N., v. 95, pp. 555-8. 
1935 Minelr, H. On the galactic rotation of the globular clusters. M. N., 

v. 96, pp. 61-7; Recherches complementaires sur les mouvements des 

amas globulaires. Bull. Astr., ser. 2, v. 10, pp. 91-107, 1937. 
1935 Sawyer, H. B. Periods and Hght curves of the variable stars in the 

globular cluster Messier 2. Dom. Ap. Pub., v. 6, no. 14. 

a. Long period Cepheids in globular clusters. 

1935 Shapley, H., and Sayer, A. R. The angular diameters of globular 

clusters. Nat. Acad. Sci. Proc, v. 21, pp. 593-7; Harv. Repr., no. 116. 

1936 DURYEA, J. B. List of nebulae and star clusters for amateur telescope 

users. Pop. Astr., v. 44, pp. 136-40. 
1936 Stebbins, J., and VYhitford, A. E. Absorption and space reddening in 
the galaxy from the colors of globular clusters. .1//. II'. Cont., no. 547; 
Ap. J., v. 84, p. 132. 

a. Color and integrated magnitude of globular clusters. 

b. Character of field (nebular counts by Baade). 

c. Co-ordinates of clusters near the center of the galaxy. 



468 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

1937 Wilkexs, H. Untersuchungen uber interstellare Absorption auf Grund 

von Blau-, Gelb-, und Rot-Helligkeiten von 27 Kugelhaufen. Breslau 
Univ. St. Mitt., v. 4, pp. 1-41. 

1938 Sawyer, H. B. The light curves of two variable stars in the globular 

clusters N.G.C. 6218 and N.G.C. 6254. Dunlap Pub., v. 1, no. 2, 
pp. 59-68. 

1939 Hachenberg, O. Der Aufbau des kugelformigen Sternhaufens Messier 92. 

Z. f. Ap., v. 18, pp. 49-88. 

a. Page 77, Comparison with other clusters. 

b. Page 79, Comparison of variable stars. 

1939 Sawyer, H. B. A catalogue of 1116 variable stars in globular star 
clusters. Dunlap Pub., v. 1, no. 4. 

a. Catalogue. 

b. Table II. Periods greater than one day in globular clusters. 
1939 OOSTERHOFF, P. Th. Some remarks on the variable stars in globular 

clusters. Obs., v. 62, pp. 104-9. (Period frequency). 
1040 Christie, W. H. Integrated photographic magnitudes of sixty-eight 

globular cluster-. .1//. W. Cont., no. 620. Ap. J., v. 91, p. 8. 
1941 DE Kort, J. Some remarks on the system of galactic globular clusters. 

B. A. A'., v. 0, pp. 189-93. (Distances of 91 globular clusters). 

1941 Coi'eland, L. S. List of globular clusters for common telescopes. 

Telescope, v. 8, no. 1, pp. 20-1. 

1942 Sawyer, H. B. The light curves of four variable stars in the Hercules 

cluster Messier 13. Dunlap PuJk, v. 1, no. 11. 

a. Table III. Clusters in which a period-luminosity relation is 
established. 

1943 Cuffi.y, J. XGC 5053 and NGC 6838. Kirkwood Pub. no. 6; Ap. J., 

v. OS, pp. 10-53. 

a. Comparison of color-magnitude relations. 
1943 Oosterhoff, P. Th. A semi-regular variable in N.G.C. 288. B. A. N., 

v. 9, pp. 307-0, no. 355. 

a. Comparable variables in other clusters. 
1943 Shapley, H. Galaxies. Blakiston, 229 pp. (Recent photographs of 

many globular clusters.) 
1014 Shapley, H. Galactic and extragalactic studies. XVII. Revisions of 

the distances of thirty high-latitude globular clusters. Nat. Acad. 

Sri. Proc, v. 30, no. 3, pp. 61-68; Harv. Repr., no. 257. 
1944/ Sawyer, H. B. Lengths of cluster-type periods in Messier 22 and other 

globular clusters. (Abs.) A. J., v. 51, p. 70. Summary, Federer, 

Sky and Telescope, v. 3, no. 35, p. 12. 
1044/7 SAWYER, H. B. Distribution of periods of cluster type variables in 

globular star clusters. Dunlap Comm., no. 11; R. A. S. C. Jour., 

v. 38, p. 205. 
1945 Finlay-Freundlich, E. The structure of the globular star clusters. M.N., 

v. 105, pp. 237-43. 
10 1"> Sawyer, H. B. (H. Sawyer Hogg). The dimensions of the galaxy as 

defined by the system of globular clusters. R. A. S. C. Jour., v. 39, 

pp. 289-306. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 469 

1946 Mowbray, A. G. The diameters of globular clusters. Lick Cont., ser. 2, 
no. 14; Ap. J., v. 104, no. 1. 

a. Table I. Diameters and concentrations of globular clusters. 

b. Table II. Observational data for selected globular clusters. 
1946 Mayall, N. U. The radial velocities of fifty globular star clusters. Ap. J., 

v. 104, pp. 290-323; Lick Cont., ser. 2, no. 15. 

a. Radial velocities of 50 globular clusters. 

b. Spectral types, color classes, and nebular counts. 

c. Plate VIII, Spectra. 

d. Values of cos A for clusters of unknown velocity. 

e. Clusters added to list of globulars. 

/. Clusters rejected as globular. Lick Cont.. ser. 2, no. 15, p. 207. 
Ap. J., v. 104, p. 314. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

>TD DUNLAP OBSEE 

[IVERSITY OF TORONT 



THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 



Volume I Number 21 



SPURIOUS PERIODS IN SPECTROSCOPIC 
BINARIES, II 

By R. W. Tanner 



1949 
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 
TORONTO, CANADA 



SPURIOUS PERIODS IN SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES, II* 
By R. W. Tanner 

"\X7HEN radial-velocity measurements are always made at nearly 
the same time of day, the possibility arises of representing the 
observations equally well by alternative periods. To determine 
which of these related periods is the true one, other observations 
made at times differing as widely as possible from the usual time 
are needed. 

If such observations are not at hand, a study of the phase errors 
of the observations correlated with even slight variations in the time 
of observation may be informative. 

A detailed account of the method, with examples of its appli- 
cation, will be found in the Journal of the Royal Astronomical 
Society of Canada, vol. 42, p. 177, 1948 (Paper I). 

For each observation recorded a relative hour angle, a, measured 
in sidereal days, is calculated, together with the departure in phase, 
A<£, of the observation from the mean curve drawn through all the 
observations assembled using the published period. A correlation 
diagram of A<f> against a is made. It is readily shown that if the 
published period is the true one, A$ is independent of a, but if the 
period is spurious, A$ depends linearly on a. 

In view of the importance of the correct determination of period 
a systematic survey of a large number of published spectroscopic 
binary orbits has been made. 

The published orbits of 149 spectroscopic binaries have been 
surveyed for alternative periods. Four stars were found to have 
spurious periods, and one other was found to be better represented 
by an unrelated period. This paper supplements the Paper I by 
providing 

(1) a list of the stars examined, roughly classified according to 
reliability of period 

(2) notes on some individual stars of interest 

(3) revised orbits for the four stars whose periods were spurious. 



*From a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the 
degree of Master of Arts at the University of Toronto, May 1948. The investi- 
gation summarized in this and Paper I was carried out under a scholarship of 
the Ontario Research Council. 

473 



474 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

The periods of the stars investigated are not all equally well 
determined, and the following classification, while unfortunately 
rather vague and subjective, aims at furnishing some sort of index 
to the degree of confidence to be placed in the periods assigned. 

Class A. — If observations for radial velocity are numerous and 
well distributed in phase and hour angle, and if the errors of measure- 
ment are small compared with the amplitude of variation, then the 
correlation diagram based on the true period will show a strong 
concentration of points along the a-axis. Xo other period can so 
well represent the observations, and one may repose complete con- 
fidence in the published period. Such cases, 57 in number, are listed 
in A below. 

Class B. — Under B are listed 70 stars for which the clustering 
along the a-axis, while not so pronounced, is yet sufficient to leave 
very little possibility of an alternative period. It will be realized 
that the classes shade off insensibly one into another; the correctness 
of the A periods is more evident prima facie than that of the B. 

Class C. — In unfavourable cases the correlation figure may fail 
to give definite indication of the truth or otherwise of the published 
period. This may be due to a paucity of observations, large errors 
of measurement, little variation in the hour angle at which the star 
was observed, or to non-orbital variations in the lines. All such 
orbits were very carefully scrutinized, and although no better period 
than the published one could be found for 17 of them, it is believed 
that further observation would be desirable to put the periods 
beyond doubt. Perhaps some of these stars are not true binaries, 
and might be relegated to the appendix of Moore's Catalogue after 
further investigation. In concluding this explanation of the group- 
ing below, it should be mentioned that two stars at first placed in C 
have now been included in A in the light of evidence subsequently 
available. The stars for which new periods are found are also listed 
under C. 

The numbers are those of Moore's Fourth Catalogue up to 372; 
the others are H.D. numbers. 



1 


5 


6 


12 


13 


18 


30 


31 


34 


38 


46 


48 


50 


61 


62 


65 


67 


69 


71 


73 


80 


81 


92 


93 


106 


107 


108 


110 


111 


113 


116 


123 


126 


128 


129 


140 


148 


162 


171 


174 


180 


181 


182 


184 


193 


243 


270 


282 


301 


303 



331 336 367 22124 34762 93075 179094 



Spurious Periods in Spectroscopic Binaries, II 475 

2 3 9 16 17 21 24 29 33 40 

41 47 55 57 58 60 63 66 70 76 



83 


85 


86 


87 


88 


89 


91 


94 


96 


103 


109 


120 


125 


133 


134 


139 


141 


142 


144 


145 


149 


150 


159 


166 


167 


172 


183 


186 


203 


207 


227 


235 


246 


259 


260 


288 


311 


317 


324 


328 


361 


363 


364 


372 


9312 


96528 99967 


181144 





209813 213389 



27 


28 


32 


35 


49 


52 56 95 


161 


165 


221 


254 


325 


65626 218066 



99 105 



Spurious 68 230 278 1826 
Erroneous 340 



The following notes on some of the stars in the last class will 
perhaps make the basis of classification a little clearer. 

Moore 27. Although more than 100 observations with a variation in a of 
0.4 day are available, the period is still doubtful. Luyten has suggested a 2.34 
day period, and the Lick and Ottawa velocities indeed show "a trace of the cor- 
relation appropriate to this period, but the Victoria plates do not confirm this. 
The residuals are worse with this period than with the published period of 1.74 
days. Possibly the star is not binary? 

Moore 85. A little positive correlation was seen, but both Pi and %Pi fail to 
assemble the observations as well as the published period. There seems no 
possibility of a long period other than the published one. 

Moore 49. This is a southerly star for which the range in a is necessarily 
small for northern observers, and the errors of measurement are large. No 
correlation was evident, and the alternative periods do not improve the fit. 
Trials were made for unrelated periods without success. 

Moore 52. This is a double-line binary whose lines are resolved for only 
about 0.1 period; consequently a test for alternative period is inconclusive. The 
star might be examined profitably with higher dispersion. 

Moore 56. There is some evidence of correlation between large hour angles 
and large residuals, but of conflicting sign, so that this does not appear to be due 
to a short period; flexure in spectrograph, or other systematic observational error, 
perhaps? 

Moore 221. The scatter diagram vaguely suggests 2P1, and this period 
represented the published observations about as well as the longer period. When 
inquiry was made to Victoria, Dr. Pearce made available another 19 plates for 
examination and measurement here. It was concluded from a study of these 
that the two components could be differentiated pretty consistently, thus ruling 
out a 2.P1 period, but the representation is still not quite satisfactory, and the 
star should be further investigated. 



! 



476 



Publications of the David Diinlap Observatory 



Revised Orbit, H.D. 1826 

This star appeared in Pub. D.D.O., vol. I, no. 6, with period 3.28 
days. A strong positive correlation has indicated P 2 , 1.43 days. 
The fit with the new period was at first only slightly better. One 
plate omitted from the original orbit was found: 

J.D. 2429556.767 Velocity -24.3 km./sec. 

Three confirmatory plates were obtained in 1947: 

J.D. 2432516. o'lO Velocity +28.0 km./sec. 

2432518.402 4-40.4 

2432518.660 -01.2 

These enabled the period to be estimated at 1.43233 ±0.00002 days 
from observations over 3100 revolutions. 



40 



-40 

KM 
PER 
SEC 




40 




O PHASE, 02 



04 



06 



08 



A few preliminary trials showed a good fit with a circular orbit. 
Using the preliminary elements 

To 2429189.573 J.D., K = 53.3 km./sec, y = 4.5 km./sec, e = 
a least-squares solution by Sterne's method was made on the 48 
available plates. Equal weights were employed, and the obser- 
vations were not grouped. 



Spurious Periods in Spectroscopic Binaries, II 477 



The new elements with their mean errors follow; the former 
values are given on the right for comparison. 
Revised Elements 
P 1 . 43233 ± . 00002 days 
To 2429189.577 ±0.004 j.D. 
e 0.024 ±0.017 
w 202° ±39° 
7 +4.43 ±0.62 km. /sec. 
K 53.40 ± 0.92 km./sec. 
a sin i 1.05 X 10 6 km. 
mass function 0.023 O 
mean error single plate ±4.22 km./sec. 



Previous Elements 
3.28325 

0.056 
152° 
5.90 
54.5 
2.46 X 10 6 
0.055 O 
±6.1 



Revised Orbit, H.D. 29763, r Tauri 

The original orbit is by Parker, Report Chief Astronomer, Canada, 
vol. I, p. 166, 1910. The correlation figure showed a strong positive 
correlation, indicating the period 2.9572 days. The observations 
were reassembled with this period and the sum of the squares of the 









1 1 - 

• 




1 




1 


i 






IK 






V 

• • 


• ,. — 


• • 

• 






H.D 29763 

P 1-5047 days 


• 
• 




50 




• 




• 
• 




• 


• 




* 7 
• / 

/ • 


50 


35 






J • 

• 




• 
• 

• 




••• 




/ • 


25 





• 


• 
• 


• 

• • 

• 






• 


V * 


• 

•• 

• • J 


/ • 

/ % * 

'• • - 

• 

• • 





-25 






• 








• *\ 

• 

• • 


v»* / # 

• 
• 


• 


-25 


-JO 






1 




1 




i 


• 
• • • 

• 




-50 



2 day* 6 10 | + 

residuals was reduced by a quarter. Because of the large scatter 
of the observations, not much improvement could be made in the 
period, although the Ottawa observations covered a two-year 
interval. 



478 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Recourse was had to eight velocities given by Frost, Barrett and 
Struve, Ap. J., vol. 64, p. 1, 1926, obtained from 1903 to 1922. The 
number of cycles elapsed between the last Ottawa plate and the 
single plate of 1922 was doubtful, so three plates were taken here 
to help fix the period: 

J. D. 2432602.523 Velocity -44 (Call 4-22) km./sec. 

604.486 +61 

607.537 +65 (Call +25) 

By assuming the period to be constant, an estimate of 2.956524 
±0. 000050 days was derived. 



• • •:•+ + 




phase 



The present orbit is based on the Ottawa observations only. 
Parker's weights were adhered to, and his 104 plates were grouped 
into 9 normal places, using the first plate as origin, as follows: 



Phase 


Velocity 


Weight 


.1446 


+22.50 


0.4 


.2444 


+ 2.28 


1.2 


.2925 


-17.47 


1.4 


.3893 


-37.55 


1.6 


.5158 


-23.41 


1.0 


.6823 


+20.81 


0.8 


.7501 


+33.75 


0.7 


.8192 


+52.68 


0.9 


.9764 


+53.73 


2.2 



1.5047 


13.55 


44.34 


0.087 


243° 


0.9 X 10 6 


0.0135 O 


± 16 



Spurious Periods in Spectroscopic Binaries, II 479 

The uneven distribution of weights results largely from the nearness 
of the period to three days, which makes the observations fall into 
three groups. 

A couple of solutions by the Wilsing-Russell method suggested 
the preliminary elements: phase of periastron = 0.4110, y = 14.5 
km. /sec, K = 46.6 km. /sec, e = .13, co = 175°. A least-squares 
solution led to the following final elements; the original elements 
are given on the right for comparison. 

Revised Elements Previous Elements 

P 2.956524 ± 0.000050 days (not varied) 

7 + 14.56 ± 2.75 km. /sec. 

K 46.72 ± 1.73km./sec. 

e 0.128 ±0.040 

co 172° ± 18° 

T 2417898.451 ±0.020 J.D. 

a sin i 1.0 X 10 6 km. 

mass function 0.03 O 

mean error single plate ±12.3 km. /sec. 

It will be seen that the shape of the curve is somewhat altered 
by the change of period. Because of the drastic grouping, the 
elements are possibly even less reliable than the mean errors would 
suggest. In the diagram the solid circles represent Ottawa obser- 
vations; X's, Yerkes observations; and +'s, Dunlap observations. 

Revised Orbit, H.D. 146361, a- CrB 

Sixty-seven measures are given in Pub. D.A.O. vol. 3, p. 232, 
including four Mount Wilson plates; a further five plates appear in 
Pub. D.A.O. , vol. 6, p. 234. A strong positive correlation with unit 
slope indicated Pi. Dr. Pearce of Victoria kindly furnished a couple 
of corrections to the dates given in volume 3, as well as the velocity 
for an out of the meridian plate. All of these confirm the short 
period. With these data, the revised period is estimated at 
1.13980 ± 0.00001 days; the observations cover more than 6000 
revolutions. 

The present orbit is based entirely on these 73 plates. As a 
preliminary step y and the mass-ratio, r, were determined by the 
methods of Zurhellen, Paddock and O. C. Wilson (Bulletin L.O., 
vol. 8, p. 156; Ap. J., vol. 93, p. 30) applied to the 47 plates showing 
both spectra; this much reduces the subsequent labour in the least- 
squares determination of the remaining elements. 



480 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 




^25 pK»»c 50 75 25 

A circular orbit gave a good fit; preliminary elements were: 
Ki= 60 km./sec, K 2 = 67, km./sec, e = 0, T = 2423869.113 to- 
gether with 7 = —11.87 km./sec. (r = 1.12). The observations 
assembled on the period mentioned above were grouped into 10 
normal places as follows, the weights being roughly proportional 
to the number of plates in the group, and phases reckoned from 7V 



Phase 


Vi km./sec. V 2 


Weight 


.03312 


48.64 -76.95 


3 


.12200 


32.07 -61.77 


1 


.24856 


-13.72 


3 


.37320 


-54 11 39.58 


1 


.44937 


-68.93 53.07 


2 


.51115 


-72.13 57.38 


2 


.62500 


-52.85 31.82 


1 


.74886 


-12.96 


4 


.87137 


27.38 -61.75 


2 


.95360 


45.11 -77.06 


3 



7 and P as above were accepted ; a least-squares solution by Sterne's 
method was made for the remaining elements, including both K's 
as a check. It may be noted in passing that the forms of the 
equations of condition for double-line binaries as given in Pub. D.O., 
vol. 1, p. 327 and Pub. D.A.O., vol. 7, no. 17, p. 291, are at first 
sight a little misleading; each observation gives rise to two equa- 
tions of condition, e.g. for Sterne's method, 

5Fi= 8y+ cos L18K1+ sin LiKhjl8T + 
cos 2LiKi e cos coi+ sin 2L\K\ e sin coi 



Spurious Periods in Spectroscopic Binaries, II 



481 



8V 2 = 8y — cos Li8K 2 — sin LiKo^STq — 

cos 2LiK 2 e cos a>i— sin 2L\Ki e sin coi 
For markedly unequal components, Paddock's method, which leads 
to a single equation for each pair of measures would be preferable. 
The solution resulted in the following elements: 

Revised Elements Previous Elements 

P 1.13980 +0.00001 days 7.975 

To 2423869.1110 ±.0016 J.D. 

Ki 60.12 ±0.77 km./sec. 60.12 

Ks 68 . 18 ± . 77 km./sec. 68 . 77 

e 0.0166 ±0.011 0.081 

co 9-4° ± 29° 90° 

7 11.87 ± 0.50 km./sec. (Wilson's method) -10.63 
mean error single plate ±4.7 km./sec. about 10 

01 sinz 9.42 X 10 5 km. 6.57 X 10 6 

a 2 sin i 10.68 X 10 5 km. 7.52 X 10 6 

K1/K3 1.13 ±.02 (cf. 1.12 by Wilson's method) 
mi sin 3 * 0.133 O 0.94© 

m 2 sin 3 i 0.117 O 0.82 O 

Eight more measures were made available April 1948, after the 
orbit had been completed. 

By revising the period to 1 . 139789 ± 7 X 10 -6 , the plates, 
marked +, fit the curve, as shown above. T should be revised to 
3869.105; the other changes in the orbit are less than the mean 
errors of the elements. 

Revised Orbit, H.D. 174343-4, 205 Draconis 
The correlation in this case was positive, but one could not be 



km/ 






• 






^^4 * 






• 




too 












/ • \ 








- 




• 


••/ 




\ • 


• • / 


HO 174541-4 
P 3-76468 days 


\ • 


••/ 











/• 












•• 




- 






\ • 




• 1 


ry» 






\ • 






100 


• 


• \ 




/ • 


•\ 




/• 


* \ 




- 


IOC 








/• 


•\ 


N^» _^m 






• 


# 






as 


.-»■•■ 50 




75 


O 




IS 







482 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



certain from the figure whether iP 2 or 2-P2 was indicated. The lines 
of the two components are so alike that no reliable indication of 
phase can be drawn from them. On trial, 2^2= 4.24 days was 
found to give the greater improvement in fit. Only 105 cycles are 
covered by the observations, so that the period is not fixed with 
great precision. P = 4.2435 ±.003 days was finally adopted. 



km/ 


1 




1 

• 


1 




1 

/• \ 

/• \ 






►00 












HO I7434J-4- 
P 4-2435 d4ys 



























/\ 












*f\ 




wo 

200 


! 




• 


/• 

* * 

1 


•^ 


1 




•■ 



25 pK«j«. .50 75 XS 

In view of this uncertainty only the best circular orbit was 
sought. Five measures not used in the original solution were 
included as they now fit the curves tolerably well. Six plates nearer 
the 7-axis were omitted as before. The orbit then rests on 24 pairs 
of observations. Preliminary elements: K\= K 2 = 98 km. /sec, 
7 = - 19 km. /sec, T = J.D. 2,422,160.050, e = 0. A least-squares 
solution for the best values of K\, K2, 7 and T gave the following 
final elements with their mean errors: 

Revised Elements 

P 4.2435 ±0.0030 days 

7 -18.6 ±0.8 km. /sec. 

Kx 101.0 ± 1.5 km. /sec. 

K 2 100.2 ± 1.5 km. /sec. 

To 2422160.044 ±.009 J.D. 

mean error single plate ±5.7 km. /sec. 

ci sin i 5.89 X 10 6 km. 

a 2 sin i 5.85 X 10 6 km. 

mi sin 3 i 1.72 O 

ntz sin 3 i 1 . 73 O 

The changes in the elements, except for the period, are seen to be 
trifling. The component designated I, happens to have the larger 
amplitude. 



Previous Elements 
3.76468 
-18.8 
98.3 
97.7 

± 7.0 
5.09 X 10 6 
5.06 X 10 6 

1.47 
1.48 



Spurious Periods in Spectroscopic Binaries, II 



483 



H.D. 206874, Boss 5591 

This orbit appears in Ap. J., vol. 53, p. 218, based on only 19 
plates. The spectra are indistinguishable; the probable error of 




phija. .25 50 75 O 

Published velocity curve of H. D. 206874 

6 km. /sec. is a little large. Because of the sparseness of the 
observations, no conclusion can be drawn from a correlation dia- 
gram. The phase distribution obtained with the published period 
seemed unsatisfactory, and a thorough trial of alternative periods 
was made. None of the four simplest spurious periods showed any 
improvement. 



IOC 


. 




' 






• • 








• »^-- — •--. 






- 


kny 

it'. 








• 


» e 




\« 




• / 








i 


SO 




















H.D.206&74 













• 


X 










/• 






• 


/ T* 


- 


-i: 


• 








• N. 


• 


• 




•\ 








4 


■ICO 


- 




I 














• 




i 


- 



025 050 075 

Suggested alternative unrelated velocity curve. 



484 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

The distribution of observations in time seemed to allow the 
possibility of an alternative unrelated period, and after several trials, 
3.23 days was found to give a rather good fit to a circular orbit. 
The residuals are reduced by about one-half. 

Further observations are desirable to establish with certainty 
the period suggested. 

Diagrams of the representations obtained with the two periods 
are given. In the lower figure is shown the 3.23 day period; the 
curves are for symmetric circular orbits. Above are shown the same 
observations on the original period. 

The writer's thanks are due to Dr. F. S. Hogg, director of the 
David Dunlap Observatory, for several suggestions of basic impor- 
tance to this inquiry, and for guidance throughout. Acknowledg- 
ment is made also to Drs. J. A. Pearce and R. M. Petrie of Victoria, 
who provided material on some of the Victoria stars, and to Dr. 
R. F. Sanford of Mt. Wilson, who supplied information on Moore 
278 and gave permission to revise the orbit. 

The writer wishes to express his thanks to the Ontario Research 
Council for its grant in support of this study. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario, 
April 1949. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUXLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

Volume I Number 22 



THE ORBITS OF THREE SPECTROSCOPIC 
BINARIES H.D. 2019, H.D. 10588 and H.D. 14688 

By John F. Heard and Ruth J. Northcott 



1949 

THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 

TORONTO, CANADA 



THE ORBIT OF THE SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY H.D. 2019 

By John F. Heard 

npHE star H.D. 2019 (a 00* 19. m 4, 8 + 30° 49', vis. mag. 6. 8, type 
B9) was announced as a spectroscopic binary from seven plates 
taken at this observatory between 1935 and 1938, * using the 12^-inch 
camera of the one-prism spectrograph. Between 1945 and 1947, 32 
additional plates were obtained with the 25-inch camera. An orbit 
has been computed from these 32 plates, the earlier plates serving 
only to fix the period. 




The spectrum of H.D. 2019 is not of good quality for velocity 
measures, the lines being poor and few. Generally speaking, the lines 
measured were X3933, 4101, 4128, 4130, 4340, 4481, and 4549A. 
Probable errors for the plates ranged from 2 to 4 km. /sec. for the 
most part. 

On five of the plates faint components to some of the lines were 
measured. These were presumed to be due to the secondary star, 

l Pub. D.D.O., v. 1, no. 3, 1939. 



487 



488 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

a conclusion borne out by the accordance of the measures when later 
fitted to the orbit of the primary. That the components were not 
seen on more of the plates is attributed to their faintness which would 
mean that the density of the spectrum needed to be just right. 

A preliminary circular orbit was used and differential corrections 
to the elements were computed by least squares using the method of 
Sterne. 2 In the solution twenty of the observations were combined 
in pairs to give twenty-two normal places which were weighted 
1 or 2. Since the preliminary period was determined by the use of 
the early observations which were not used in the least-squares 
solution, no differential correction to the period was computed. 

After the solution for the primary orbit was computed, the velo- 
cities attributed to the secondary star were examined. Regarding 
all the other elements as already fixed by the solution for the pri- 
mary, a least-squares solution for the half-range of the secondary 
was made, weights being attributed to the five measures in pro- 
portion to the number of lines measured. From the value of K^ so 
derived the mass ratio and the value of (mi + m 2 ) sin H were derived. 

The results are summarized in table I, and table II lists the 
individual times, phases, computed and observed velocities and 
residuals. Figure 1 shows the individual observations plotted with 
the final curves. The probable error for a single observation for the 
primary is ± 5.0 km. /sec. and for the secondary ± 10.3 km. /sec. 

TABLE I 
Orbital Elements for H.D. 2019 

Preliminary Final P.E. 

Period P 3 d .11276 3 d .11276 

Eccentricity e 0.026 ± .015 

Angle of periastron co 339° ± 35° 

Velocity of system y + 5.0 km. /sec. + 4.76 km. /sec. ± 0.92 

Epoch of mean longitude... To J. D. 2431732. 17S J. D. 2431732.152 ±0.008 

Date of periastron T J.D. 2431731.970 

Semi-amplitude, primary. ... Ki 82 km. /sec. 79.6 km. /sec. ± 1.35 

Semi-amplitude, secondary . . A'^ 134.7 km. /sec. ±4.7 

ai sin » 3.41 X 10 6 km. 

a* sin i 5.76 X 10 6 km. 

wi 1.69 ± 0.07 

mi 

(wi+ m-i) sin 3 x • 1.70 O 

-Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc, v. 27, no. 3, 1941. 



The Orbits of Three Spectroscopic Binaries 489 

TABLE II 





Vo 


Phase from 


Vc 


Vo-Vc 


J.D. 


km. /sec. 


final T 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


2428770.805 


+ 82.4* 


2.183 


+ 90.7 


- 8.3 


2431733.717 


- 69.3 


1.747 


- 72.9 


+ 3.6 


1746.655 


- 29.2 


2.234 


- 39.6 


+ 10.4 


1751.683 


+ 3.8 


1.037 


- 9.2 


+ 13.0 


1756.657 


+ 59.0 


2.898 


+ 60.8 


- 1.8 


1757.690 


+ 18.4 


0.819 


+ 25.0 


- 6.6 


1764.633 


- 62.2 


1.536 


- 67.0 


+ 4.8 


1765.618 


+ 9.6 


2.521 


+ 3.6 


+ 6.0 


1790.567 


+ 13.8 


2.568 


+ 11.3 


+ 2.5 


1812.474 


+ 20.5 


2.685 


+ 30.3 


- 9.8 


2067.801 


+ 33.9 


2.766 


+ 42.8 


- 8.9 


2078.765 


- 54.8 


1.279 


- 42.8 


-12.0 




+ 113* 




+ 85.4 


+27.6 


2079 . 754 


- 48.8 


2.264 


- 35.6 


-13.2 


2386 . 868 


- 38.3 


1.219 


- 35.3 


- 3.0 


2390 . 866 


- 61.3 


2.104 


- 54.6 


- 6.7 




+ 115* 




+ 105.2 


+ 9.8 


2395.832 


+ 13.8 


0.844 


+ 21.2 


- 7.4 


2399.876 


- 75.8 


1.776 


- 72.8 


- 3.0 


2404.867 


+ 59.3 


0.541 


+ 63.7 


- 4.4 




- 88* 




- 94.9 


+ 6.9 


2407.878 


+ 80.9 


0.439 


+ 74.2 


+ 6.7 




-102* 




-112.6 


+ 10.6 


2409.875 


+ 2.4 


2.436 


- 10.2 


+ 12.6 


2421.805 


- 69.2 


1.915 


- 68.8 


- 0.4 


2425.869 


+ 56.2 


2.867 


+ 57.0 


- 0.8 


2428.682 


+ 13.9 


2.568 


+ 11.3 


+ 2.5 


2432.760 


+ 78.0 


0.319 


+ 82.5 


- 4.5 


2435.760 


+ 86.0 


0.306 


+ 83.1 


+ 2.9 


2441 . 822 


+ 99.2 


0.143 


+ 86.1 


+ 13.1 


2444.778 


+ 84.7 


3.099 


+ 80.1 


+ 4.6 


2467.726 


- 15.4 


1.143 


- 24.9 


+ 9.5 


2469.597 


+ 81.2 


3.016 


+ 73.5 


+ 7.7 


2469.730 


+ 78.4 


0.036 


+ 82.9 


- 4.5 


2470.842 


- 25.6 


1.149 


- 25.7 


+ 0.1 


2472.677 


+ 64.5 


2.983 


+ 70.4 


- 5.9 


2472.861 


+ 78.8 


0.054 


+ 83.8 


- 5.0 



"Secondary spectrum 



THE ORBIT OF THE SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY H.D. 10588 

By Ruth J. Xorthcott 

*T«HE star H.D. 10588, a(1900)01 h 38 m .2, 5(1900) 31°43', vis. mag. 
6.42, type G5, was announced as a binary from six plates taken at 
this observatory during 1936-1938. * Thirty-nine spectrograms were 
taken between the dates 1945 and 1947 ; these forty-five plates have 
been made the basis of a least-squares solution for the orbital ele- 
ments. The early plates were taken with the one-prism spectro- 
graph and the 12^-inch camera giving a dispersion of 66 A./mm. at 
H7; the rest of the plates were taken with the 25-inch camera giving 
33 A./mm. at H7. The data from the plates are given in table III. 




The observations were grouped into 33 observational equations; in 
no case did the observations to be grouped differ in time by more 
than one revolution. Weights (1, 2, 3) were assigned according to 
the number of plates. 

The preliminary elements were derived using R. K. Young's 
graphical method. A circular orbit was found to fit the observations 
reasonably well. Final elements were derived using T. E. Sterne's 
form of least-squares solution for very small eccentricities. All six 
elements were included in the solution. The observations were 



iPub. D.D.O., v. 1, no. 3, 1939. 



490 



The Orbits of Three Spectroscopic Binaries 491 

TABLE III 





Vo 


Phase from 




Vc 


Vo-Vc 


J.D. 242-243 


km. /sec. 


% final T 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


8412.820 


- 21.9 


36.585 


- 


23.0 


+ 1.1 


8763.842 


4- 16.7 


75.578 


+ 


16.4 


+ 0.3 


8794.798 


- 15.6 


28.526 


- 


16.9 


4- 13 


8838.674 


+ 19.1 


72.402 


+ 


14.6 


4- 4.5 


8894.490 


- 11.9 


50.211 


- 


16.3 


4- 4.4 


9188.716 


- 16.3 


32.408 


- 


20.7 


+ 4.4 


1687.897 


- 25.1 


35.355 


- 


22.6 


- 2.5 


1688.891 


- 24.7 


36.349 


- 


23.0 


- 1.7 


1694.883 


- 25.2 


42.341 


- 


22.8 


- 2.4 


1701.853 


- 15.8 


49.311 


- 


17.4 


+ 1.6 


1702.865 


- 16.2 


50.323 


- 


16.2 


0.0 


1703.842 


- 14.6 


51.300 


- 


15.0 


4- 0.4 


1704.868 


- 14.0 


52.326 


- 


13.6 


- 0.4 


1705.838 


- 13.4 


53.306 


- 


12.2 


- 1.2 


1708.835 


- 11.0 


56.293 


- 


07.7 


- 3.3 


1739.749 


+ 11.5 


9.200 


+ 


11.4 


4- 0.1 


1780.651 


- 17.1 


50.102 


- 


16.5 


- 0.6 


1786.639 


- 06.5 


56.090 


- 


08.0 


+ 1.5 


1793.614 


4- 02.3 


63.065 


- 


03.1 


- 0.8 


1802.575 


+ 15.0 


72.026 


+ 


14.3 


4- 0.7 


1840.506 


- 21.4 


31.950 


- 


20.3 


- 1.1 


2059.902 


- 00.8 


17.324 


- 


00.2 


- 0.6 


2062.869 


- 05.5 


20.291 


- 


05.0 


- 0.5 


2064.874 


- 05.1 


22.296 


- 


08.2 


- 3.1 


2076 . 835 


- 21.8 


34.257 


- 


21.8 


0.0 


2113.809 


+ 13.9 


71.231 


+ 


13.6 


4- 0.3 


2114.801 


4- 13.8 


72.223 


+ 


14.6 


- 0.8 


2115.759 


4- 13.0 


73.181 


+ 


14.0 


- 1.0 


2116.754 


+ 16.7 


74.176 


+ 


15.8 


4- 0.9 


2120.731 


4- 17.5 


0.146 


+ 


16.9 


4- 0.6 


2125.724 


4-15.1 


5.139 


+ 


15.1 


0.0 


2144.675 


- 10.0 


24.090 


- 


11.0 


4- 1.0 


2145.665 


- 13.9 


25.080 


- 


12.4 


- 1.5 


2165.590 


- 19.7 


45.005 


- 


21.4 


+ 1.7 


2173.707 


- 10.7 


53.122 


- 


12.5 


4- 1.8 


2190.552 


+ 13.4 


69.967 


+ 


12.4 


+ 1.0 


2228 . 509 


- 18.5 


29.916 


- 


18.4 


- 0.1 


2229.498 


- 24.2 


30.905 


- 


19.4 


- 4.8 


2392.856 


- 24.9 


38.249 


- 


23.4 


- 1.5 


2414.740 


- 02.9 


60.133 


- 


01.6 


- 1.3 


2420.897 


4- 08.8 


66.290 


+ 


04.8 


+ 4.0 


2422 . 836 


4- 08.1 


68.229 


+ 


10.4 


- 2.3 


2442.774 


4-09.1 


10.159 


+ 


10.3 


- 1.2 


2444.858 


4- 06.8 


12.243 


+ 


07.5 


- 0.7 


2445.809 


4-05.0 


13.194 


+ 


06.2 


- 1.2 



492 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

tested for a fictitious period by the method of R. W. Tanner. 2 
Reduction of Ipv"- was from 240 to 176. The following table IV 
gives the preliminary and final elements obtained. 

The individual observations are shown in figure 2. The prob- 
able error of a single plate is 1.4 km. /sec. 

TABLE IV 
Orbital Elements of H.D. 10588 

Preliminary Final P. E. 

Period P 77.98 days 78.0073 ±0.0128 

Eccentricity e 0173 ±0.0104 

Angle of periastron . w 3.")'.) ; !() ±28.34 

Periastron passage . T J.D. 2431730.549 ±0.160 

Velocity of system . 7 -03.5 km. /sec. -03.654 ±0.188 

Semi-amplitude A' 21.5 km. /sec. 20.142 ±0.270 

a sin* 2.160 X 10 7 km. 

W2 3 sin 3 i 0.0662 O 
(»Wi+ m 2 ) 2 

Absolute magnitude M (spectroscopic) +2.0 

Spectroscopic parallax 0"013 

"LComm. D.D.O., no. 16, 1948. 



THE ORBIT OF THE SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY H.D. 14688 

By John F. Heard 

'"THE star H.D. 14688 (a 02 h 17 m .l, 8 + 16°24', vis. mag. 7.8, typa 
Als) was announced as a spectroscopic binary from five plates 
taken at this observatory between 1935 and 1938. J The plates were 
taken with the 12|-inch camera of the one-prism spectrograph. 
During 1945 and 1946, 27 additional plates have been obtained with 
the 25-inch camera which gives a dispersion of about 33 A./mm. at Hy. 
From these latter plates an orbit has been computed. The earlier 
plates were used to fix the period but were not otherwise used 
in the solution. 




The spectrum of H.D. 14688 is of very good quality for mea- 
suring, the lines being numerous and sharp. Between 27 and 41 
lines were measured on each plate. The probable errors of the 
velocities from inter-agreement among the lines ranged from 0.6 to 
1.2 km. /sec. An apparent variation in the intensity of the line 4226 
reported earlier 1 was not confirmed on the plates of greater dispersion, 
and no other peculiarities of the spectrum were noticed. 



'Pub. D.D.O., v. 1, no. 3, 1939. 



493 



494 



Publications oj the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE V 
Orbital Elements for H.D. 14688 









Preliminary 


Final 


P. E. 




P 


U 


17140 days 


4.37140 days 




Eccentricity 


e 


0. 


05 


0.047 


± .007 


Angle of Periastron 


CO 


90 




90°. 00 


±7.45 


Velocity of system . 


7 


+ 13.7 km. /sec. 


+ 13.86 km. /sec. 


± .47 


Semi-amplitude. . . . 


K 


59 


.5 km. /sec. 


59.54 km. /sec. 


± .38 


Epoch of mean long 


itude. . . 7\ 


J 


D. 2431704.404 


J.D. 2431704.406 


± .005 


Date of periastron . 


T 


J 


.D. 2431705 L97 


J.D. 2431705.498 












3,574,000 km. 
0.092 O 




W2 3 sin 3 i 






(nii+ m 2 ) 2 












TABLE VI 




Vo 




Phase from 


Vc 


Vo-Vc 


J.D. 243 


cm./sec. 




final T 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


1701.881 


-37.3 




0.754 


-40.9 


+3.6 


1702.885 


-22.2 




1.758 


-18.3 


-3.9 


1703.884 


+53.3 




2.757 


+51 7 


-1.4 


1704.896 


+59.1 




3.769 


+01.9 


-2.8 


1705.874 


-23.7 




0.370 


-19.3 


-4.4 


1708.853 


+73.5 




3.355 


+73.4 


+0.1 


1728.831 


-38. 4 




1.476 


-34.3 


-4 1 


.1745.728 


-43.1 




0.887 


-44.4 


+ 1.3 


1740.717 


- 8.4 




1.876 


- 9.4 


+ 1.0 


17J7.708 


+60.0 




2.867 


+60.6 


-0.6 


1748.742 


+53.8 




3.901 


+53.9 


-0.1 


1751.718 


+39.2 




2.506 


+38.2 


+ 1.0 


1755.725 


+ 10.7 




2.141 


+ 10.2 


+0.5 


1757.756 


+30.8 




4.172 


+32.3 


-1.5 


1763.703 


-34.9 




1.370 


-38.7 


+3.8 


1764.659 


+28.0 




2.332 


+25.0 


+3.0 


1765.689 


+70.7 




3.362 


+ 73.4 


-2.7 


1766.690 


+ 17.9 




1 363 


+ 14.7 


+3.2 


1791.635 


+ 71.1 




3.080 


+69.3 


+ 1.8 


1795.578 


+50.4 




2.652 


+48.2 


+2.2 


1805.637 


+52.4 




3.968 


+49.1 


+3.3 


1813.590 


+71.8 




3.178 


+71.7 


+0.1 


1831.583 


+66.4 




3.685 


+66.0 


+0.4 


1836.483 


+28.1 




4.214 


+28.5 


-0.4 


1837.583 


-45.7 




0.943 


-45.2 


-0.5 


1843.536 


+36.2 




2.524 


+39.5 


-3.3 


1844.478 


+73.6 




3.466 


+72.5 


+ 1.1 



The Orbits of Three Spectroscopic Binaries 495 

A preliminary orbit was determined by the graphical method of 
R. K. Young and a least-squares solution was made using 19 normal 
places. Since the eccentricity is small, the method of Sterne was 
used in the least-squares solution, that is, a differential correction 
was computed for T , the date at which the mean longitude co + -1/ 
is zero. Both T and the corresponding T, time of periastron pas- 
sage, are shown in table V, which lists the preliminary and final 
elements and their probable errors. The period was not included 
in the least-squares solution since it was possible to fix it with con- 
siderable accuracy by use of the earlier observations. 

Table VI lists the individual times, phases, computed and ob- 
served velocities and residuals. 

Figure 3 shows the individual observations plotted with the final 
curve. The probable error of a single observation is ± 1.6 km. /sec. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

Volume I Number 23 



THE ORBITS OF FOUR SPECTROSCOPIC 

BINARIES, H.D. 3264, H.D. 158013, H.D. 170829 

and H.D. 201032 

By D. K. Norris, W. T. Sharp and R. W. Tanner 



1949 

THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 

TORONTO, CANADA 



THE ORBIT OF THE SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY H.D. 3264 



By William T. Sharp 



HP HE star H.D. 3264, a (1900) 00 h 30 ra .7, 5(1900) + 48°00', vis. mag. 
7.42, type B2, was found to have variable velocity in the course 
of the third radial-velocity programme at the David Dunlap Obser- 
vatory. 1 Four plates taken with the 12^-inch camera in the course 
of this programme between 1939 and 1941 showed a radial-velocity 
range of at least 30 km. /sec. Further observation was undertaken 
in 1945 and completed in 1946, 43 plates being obtained with the 
25-inch camera and one-prism spectrograph, giving a dispersion of 
about 33 A. /mm. at H7. The information obtained from these 
plates is summarized in Table I. Weights were assigned to each 




observation on the basis of the probable error of the measured radial 
velocity. The character of the spectral lines was generally good so 
that it was usually possible to measure ten or more lines on each 
plate with an average probable error of about 2 km. /sec. The 
observations with the 25-inch camera were then grouped according 
to phase as indicated in the accompanying table to form twenty 
normal places of equal weight. 

In Table I, V is the measured radial velocity, reduced to the 
sun and V c is the radial velocity computed from the final orbital 
elements. 

Preliminary elements were derived using R. K. Young's graphical 
method. A least-squares solution was carried through for T OI e, 



l Pub. D.D.O., v. 1, no. 13, 1942. 



499 



500 



Publications oj the David Dunlap Observatory 







TABLE I 






J.D. 


Yo 


Phase from 


Normal 


Vc 


Vo-Vc 


242-243 


km. /sec. 


final T 


place 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


9508.848 


-03.5 


9.44 




+07.8 


-11.3 


9878.802 


-26.0 


1.28 




-27.0 


+ 1.0 


9905.697 


-35.0 


1.17 




—28.7 


- 6.3 


0249.772 


-01.0 


7 . 64 




+06.6 


- 7.6 


1678.882 


-01.9 


5.332 


•1 


+01.7 


- 3.6 


1683.867 


4-03.5 


10.317 


2 


+07.1 


- 3.6 


1684.819 


4-00.8 


11.269 


2 


+04.1 


- 3.3 


1686.861 


-42.0 


13.311 


3 


-32.2 


- 9.8 


1687.853 


-40.5 


0.799 


11 


-34.6 


- 5.9 


1688.848 


-27.5 


1.794 


8 


-19.9 


- 7.6 


1694.831 


+06 7 


7.777 


5 


+06.8 


- 0.1 


1701.822 


-26.1 


1.264 


4 


-27.2 


+ 1.1 


1702.820 


-12.2 


2.262 


6 


-14.8 


+ 2.6 


1703.797 


-03.8 


3.239 


6 


-07.3 


+ 3.5 


1705.812 


+02.3 


5.254 


10 


+01.5 


+ 0.8 


1706.876 


+06.2 


6.318 


10 


+0